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Good Practices On Drug Abuse Prevention Among Youth A UNODC Training Workshop, 7 – 10 May 2007, Ramallah Session 5 Lifeskills education: evidence and good.

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Presentation on theme: "Good Practices On Drug Abuse Prevention Among Youth A UNODC Training Workshop, 7 – 10 May 2007, Ramallah Session 5 Lifeskills education: evidence and good."— Presentation transcript:

1 Good Practices On Drug Abuse Prevention Among Youth A UNODC Training Workshop, 7 – 10 May 2007, Ramallah Session 5 Lifeskills education: evidence and good practices

2 Preventing drug abuse among youth A UNODC Training Workshop Why life skills education? Cochrane collaboration 2005 Cochrane collaboration 2005 A meta-analysis of 32 studies of different school based programmes; A meta-analysis of 32 studies of different school based programmes; Methodology had to be rigorous and include a control group (e.g. Randomised Control Trial). Methodology had to be rigorous and include a control group (e.g. Randomised Control Trial).

3 Preventing drug abuse among youth A UNODC Training Workshop Continued … Results: Results: Programmes based on lifeskills are the most effective in reducing drug use; Programmes based on lifeskills are the most effective in reducing drug use; If implemented properly they will prevent 20% of initiations; If implemented properly they will prevent 20% of initiations; No other kind of prevention activities has been studied and/or has been demonstrated to be effective to the same extent. No other kind of prevention activities has been studied and/or has been demonstrated to be effective to the same extent.

4 Preventing drug abuse among youth A UNODC Training Workshop What makes good substance abuse education? Tobler, N.S. (2000), School- Based Adolescent Drug Prevention Programs Tobler, N.S. (2000), School- Based Adolescent Drug Prevention Programs 1998 Meta-Analysis of 207 programmes Meta-Analysis of 207 programmes.

5 Preventing drug abuse among youth A UNODC Training Workshop What makes good drug abuse education? UNODC (2004), SCHOOLS School- Based Education for Drug Abuse Prevention UNODC (2004), SCHOOLS School- Based Education for Drug Abuse Prevention Review of international literature. Review of international literature. Meeting of youth, practitioners, experts from all over the world. Meeting of youth, practitioners, experts from all over the world.

6 Preventing drug abuse among youth A UNODC Training Workshop Content appropriate to age and culture Appropriate to the age of the youth. Appropriate to the age of the youth. Starting from simple concepts and building and expanding on them. Starting from simple concepts and building and expanding on them. In younger ages, you will include basic health promotion concepts, on which you will build in later ages. Culturally sensitive. Culturally sensitive.

7 Preventing drug abuse among youth A UNODC Training Workshop Example of progression – Knowledge about health & substances 3 to 77 to 1011 to 1314 to 16 What medicines are and what they are for. Second hand smoke can be harmful. Effects of substances on the body and health. Effects of substances on health & the performance of tasks. Short- & long-term effects. Dependence. The law. All household products can be harmful, including medicines. Basic facts, incl. legal status, on substances. School rules and the basic legal facts about substances. How to keep safe, incl. basic road safety. Bacteria and viruses affect health. How to reduce their spread through simple routines. How to keep healthy and what influences health (incl. media). Short- and long-term effects of food choices, lack of exercise, early sexual activity & pregnancy. What is a healthy lifestyle (incl. nutrition & exercise). The impact of media messages on health behaviour of individuals and society.

8 Preventing drug abuse among youth A UNODC Training Workshop Not necessarily only substance abuse Focusing on one or two specific risk/ problematic behaviours, e.g.: Focusing on one or two specific risk/ problematic behaviours, e.g.: Tobacco, alcohol and other drugs; Tobacco, alcohol and other drugs; Healthy nutrition; Healthy nutrition; Sexual & reproductive health/ HIV/AIDS prevention; Sexual & reproductive health/ HIV/AIDS prevention; Violence prevention. Violence prevention.

9 Preventing drug abuse among youth A UNODC Training Workshop Knowledge, attitudes … Effects of substances, especially short terms effects that are important to the target group; Effects of substances, especially short terms effects that are important to the target group; Correction of perception of prevalence among peers. Correction of perception of prevalence among peers.

10 Preventing drug abuse among youth A UNODC Training Workshop … & skills! Resistance skills Resistance skills Addressing both internal (e.g. stress, anxiety) and external (peers, advertising) pressures; Addressing both internal (e.g. stress, anxiety) and external (peers, advertising) pressures; Personal and social skills: Personal and social skills: Communication & interpersonal skills; Communication & interpersonal skills; Goal setting, decision-making & critical thinking skills; Goal setting, decision-making & critical thinking skills; Coping and self-management skills; Coping and self-management skills; Media and advertisement literacy. Media and advertisement literacy.

11 Preventing drug abuse among youth A UNODC Training Workshop Examples of content made specific to substance abuse prevention KnowledgeAttitudesCommunication & interpersonal skills Decision- making & critical thinking skills Coping & self- management skills Learn the short and long term effects of commonly used substances. Respect for one's body and respect for others is more important that looking cool. Observe and practise listening and showing understanding of the reasons a friend might choose to use drugs. Observe and practise suggesting alternatives in an appealing and convincing manner. Observe and practise analysing advertisements directed towards young people to use tobacco or alcohol. Observe and practise analysing what contributes to stress and exercising reducing stress through constructive activities (time management, meditation) Learn how many (young) people are actually using (correct the perception that 'everybody's doing it' Observe and practise resisting a friend's repeated request to smoke tobacco, without losing face or friends. Observe and practise critically gathering information about the consequences of tobacco and alcohol use and weighing the consequences against common reasons young people give for using tobacco and alcohol.

12 Preventing drug abuse among youth A UNODC Training Workshop Interactive methodology An interactive methodology is the most effective. An interactive methodology is the most effective. Tobler (2000): Tobler (2000): Non-interactive programmes showed only a 4% reduction in prevalence rate, while interactive programmes showed a 21% reduction in prevalence rate.

13 Preventing drug abuse among youth A UNODC Training Workshop Duration and intensity A typical programme will be rather intensive: e.g. one session a week for four months. A typical programme will be rather intensive: e.g. one session a week for four months. Because interactive techniques are key, groups cannot be too large (20-25 max). Because interactive techniques are key, groups cannot be too large (20-25 max). Booster sessions are a good idea. Booster sessions are a good idea. A complete programme should start early and accompany children and youth through adolescence. Targeting key transitions (e.g. right before and after the change from middle to high school) is a way to focus. A complete programme should start early and accompany children and youth through adolescence. Targeting key transitions (e.g. right before and after the change from middle to high school) is a way to focus.

14 Preventing drug abuse among youth A UNODC Training Workshop Who should deliver? Teachers and youth will be your first obvious choice, depending on the age/ circumstances. Teachers and youth will be your first obvious choice, depending on the age/ circumstances. Youth workers, religious leaders, sport coaches have also been involved. Youth workers, religious leaders, sport coaches have also been involved. Extensive training, support and monitoring of educators is key. Extensive training, support and monitoring of educators is key.

15 Preventing drug abuse among youth A UNODC Training Workshop Who should be involved? Involving a range of stakeholders is key: Involving a range of stakeholders is key: Effective lifeskills education in school needs: A healthy school (including safe water, basic sanitation, nutrition) A healthy school (including safe water, basic sanitation, nutrition) A health promoting school policy developed with the involvement of the entire school community. A health promoting school policy developed with the involvement of the entire school community. The same principle could be applied to any public setting (e.g. youth clubs, etc.) The same principle could be applied to any public setting (e.g. youth clubs, etc.) Programmes that provide lifeskills education for children and parenting skills education for their parents are more effective than one kind of education on its own.

16 Preventing drug abuse among youth A UNODC Training Workshop School-based policy A clear policy about the use of substances in the school and during school functions: A clear policy about the use of substances in the school and during school functions: Developed in advance; Developed in advance; Developed with the collaboration of everyone (teachers, staff, stundents, parents, law enforcement, health and social services); Developed with the collaboration of everyone (teachers, staff, stundents, parents, law enforcement, health and social services); Addressing the use of both legal and illegal substances by stundents and possibly teachers and staff; Addressing the use of both legal and illegal substances by stundents and possibly teachers and staff; Clear action in case of an incidence of substance use, ALWAYS aimed at supporting, not punishing. Clear action in case of an incidence of substance use, ALWAYS aimed at supporting, not punishing.

17 Preventing drug abuse among youth A UNODC Training Workshop Monitoring How many sessions? How often? Covering what? How many sessions? How often? Covering what? A frequent problem with drug education programmes is fidelity. How many participants? Age? Gender? How many participants? Age? Gender? Did anyone drop out? Why? Did anyone drop out? Why? What was the feedback of participants? What was the feedback of participants? What was the feedback of trainers? What was the feedback of trainers? Regular quality control and support by organising agency. Regular quality control and support by organising agency.

18 Preventing drug abuse among youth A UNODC Training Workshop Evaluation indicators Assess education about what it can do, i.e. educate, not about changing behaviours. Assess education about what it can do, i.e. educate, not about changing behaviours. Assess the change in knowledge, attitudes and skills. Assess the change in knowledge, attitudes and skills. Change in attitudes is one of the most reliable indicators of future change in behaviour. Change in attitudes is one of the most reliable indicators of future change in behaviour.

19 Preventing drug abuse among youth A UNODC Training Workshop Evaluation instruments & methodologies Instruments exist, but they might need to be tested for your particular target group and for this you might need expert advice. Instruments exist, but they might need to be tested for your particular target group and for this you might need expert advice. An alternative is a mixture of qualitative methods (e.g. observation, key informant interviews and focus groups discussions with teachers, parents and youth, visual/drama exercises with youth) to ascertain if and how the attitudes and the skills of youth have changed. An alternative is a mixture of qualitative methods (e.g. observation, key informant interviews and focus groups discussions with teachers, parents and youth, visual/drama exercises with youth) to ascertain if and how the attitudes and the skills of youth have changed.


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