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Drugs, Sport, University Jason Mazanov, PhD MAPS, Senior Lecturer, School of Business AUG 2009, Opening Ceremony.

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Presentation on theme: "Drugs, Sport, University Jason Mazanov, PhD MAPS, Senior Lecturer, School of Business AUG 2009, Opening Ceremony."— Presentation transcript:

1 Drugs, Sport, University Jason Mazanov, PhD MAPS, Senior Lecturer, School of Business AUG 2009, Opening Ceremony

2 An Overview of Drugs in Sport Licit Drugs Supplements Prescription Substances Caffeine Alcohol Use Misuse Abuse Illicit Drugs Cocaine Amphetamines Marijuana Doping Erythropoietin (EPO) Human Growth Hormone (HGH/IGF1) Androgenic Anabolic Steroids (AAS) Beta Agonists Genetic Manipulation

3 A Brief History of Drugs in Sport Ancient Olympics Gladiators Victorian England Sport – The Laboratory of Natural Science The Rise of Pharmacology World War 2 The Decline of Amateurism The Rise of Sport Science Mazanov & McDermott, 2009

4 A Brief History of Drugs and Sport Socialising - the Germanic tradition Deterrence hypothesis – sport protects participants from drugs Winning – the Cold War, amateurism and sport science Sponsorship – tobacco, alcohol and supplements Self-medicating – coping with sport, recovery

5 A Note on the Deterrence Hypothesis... Dunn et al, 2011; Lisha & Sussman 2010 Sport Protects People From Tobacco (excl. Baseball)Range of Illicit Drugs Sport Makes People Vulnerable to Alcohol Abuse Doping

6 A Brief History of Drug Control in Sport 1920s - Debate role of drugs in sport (incl. Hypnosis) 1950s – Coherent anti-drug policies begin to emerge 1967 – Cyclist Tommy Simpson dies; anti-doping born 1968 – First IOC drug tests (alcohol) 1970s/80s – Anti-doping cynically administered by IOC Seoul Olympics Mens 100m Final 1989 – Dubin Commission/Black Inquiry ASDA Tour de France/World Swimming Championships World Anti-Doping Agency – ASADA 2013 – Lance Armstrong/ACC Report Mazanov & McDermott, 2009

7 Anti-Doping: Protecting the Integrity of Sport WADC 2003, 2009, 2015 to protect the integrity of sport (Mazanov & Connor, 2010) Defines doping as contrary to Olympism via Spirit of Sport 8 ADRV – 2 for a drug test, 6 administrative Athlete, coach, trainer, manager, agent, team staff, official, medical, paramedical, parent or any other person

8 Spirit of Sport AggregateMaleFemaleDo Not Follow N Ethics, fair play and honesty4.072 (1)4.975 (1)3.536 (2)3.000 (1) Health1.161 (7)1.240 (5)1.083(7)2.380 (2) Excellence in performance0.439 (8)0.482 (9)0.396 (9)0.354 (10) Character and education0.426 (9)0.515 (8)0.330 (10)0.500 (8) Fun and joy1.177 (6)1.020 (7)1.387(5)1.026 (6) Teamwork1.551 (4)1.438 (4)1.689 (3)0.894 (7) Dedication and commitment1.178 (5)1.166 (6)1.191 (6)1.348 (5) Respect for rules and laws1.807 (3)2.032 (3)1.612 (4)1.563 (4) Respect for self and other participants4.024 (2)3.296 (2)5.431 (1)1.944 (3) Courage0.336 (11)0.342 (10)0.330 (10)0.302 (11) Community and solidarity0.378 (10)0.314 (11)0.445 (8)0.488 (9) Mazanov, Huybers & Connor, 2012

9 Drug Testing Nipple to knee Doping control officer Paruresis (Elbe et al, 2012) Applies to any athlete

10 Athlete Whereabouts Athletes must be available for Out-of-Competition testing 3 months, in advance, nominate a location they will be at for 1 hour per day they will be available for drug testing (incl. Christmas) Being unavailable results in sanction Threats to freedom of movement, autonomy, privacy (Malloy & Zuckus, 2002) Control order usually reserved for paedophiles/terrorists (Waddington, 2010) Subject of case in European Court of Human Rights

11 ASP Sanctions ASP get general idea, no idea how it works (Mazanov et al, 2013) TKD trainer at Canadian National Championships Gave 16 year old banned diuretic by mistake 5 year ban No record of ASP sanction in Australia Sport science in focus

12 Critique of Anti-Doping Drugs inimical to modern sport Doping scandal good for business Unlikely to ever win the war on drugs in sport (Fahey, 2013) No definition of Spirit of Sport (Mazanov et al, 2012) Drug testing inherently flawed (epidemiology unknown) Individually rather than institutionally focused Impugns human rights to protect private institutional interest Intensely complicated system (biochemists; XZTT) Focus on elite sport at expense of everyone else Focus on doping at expense of other drugs Fails to manage the role of drugs in sport (Mazanov, 2013) Need a new approach to manage drugs in sport

13 Drug use in University Sport We know very little about doping in non-elite sport Would love to do the research, need access and funding Substances of threat in university sport: Alcohol Caffeine abuse Contaminated supplements Protein abuse Prescription amphetamines

14 Drug use in University Sport Extension of Huybers & Mazanov (2012) Model fit Elite Athletes (good), University Athletes (bad) University athletes think about doping differently to elite athletes Different drug management required wrt doping Main Differences Injury or Performance has no impact on use More sensitive to contracts Health impacts irrelevant No impact for small fines No impact for other penalties

15 Managing Drug Use in University Sport Three groups: abstain, use, maybe Focus on drug use rather than doping Cycling Australia Review Active rather than passive drug management Health less of an issue in elite sport Folly of punishing A while hoping for B Education around sports ethics – why rather than comply Education around what can be used safely and how

16 Doping in Sport, Doping in Society Performance enhancing substance use a societal phenomenon Ballet dancers, military, emergency services, truck drivers, surgeons, academics Cognitive enhancing drug use in universities Sport a good testing ground before broader regulation


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