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Center for Advanced Transportation Education and Research University of Nevada, Reno Student Paper Ivy Attah AN EVALUATION OF WILDLIFE CROSSINGS FOR MULE.

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Presentation on theme: "Center for Advanced Transportation Education and Research University of Nevada, Reno Student Paper Ivy Attah AN EVALUATION OF WILDLIFE CROSSINGS FOR MULE."— Presentation transcript:

1 Center for Advanced Transportation Education and Research University of Nevada, Reno Student Paper Ivy Attah AN EVALUATION OF WILDLIFE CROSSINGS FOR MULE DEER AND OTHER WILDLIFE IN NEVADA Ivy Attah Zong Z. Tian (PhD) Center for Advanced Transportation Education and Research Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering University of Nevada, Reno 1

2 Center for Advanced Transportation Education and Research University of Nevada, Reno Student Paper Ivy Attah Outline Introduction Introduction Background Background Methods Methods Results Results Conclusions Conclusions

3 Center for Advanced Transportation Education and Research University of Nevada, Reno Student Paper Ivy Attah Introduction Observed high mortalities of mule deer along U.S Highway 93 in Elko County. Observed high mortalities of mule deer along U.S Highway 93 in Elko County. During Spring and Autumn migrations.During Spring and Autumn migrations known deer killed seasonally; estimated total of approximately 300 deer killed per year known deer killed seasonally; estimated total of approximately 300 deer killed per year. This lead to construction of several overpasses and underpasses to mitigate issue. This lead to construction of several overpasses and underpasses to mitigate issue.

4 Center for Advanced Transportation Education and Research University of Nevada, Reno Student Paper Ivy Attah Background Approximately 1.5 million deer-vehicle collisions occur resulting in: Approximately 1.5 million deer-vehicle collisions occur resulting in: Over 29,000 human injuries, 200 human fatalities, 1.3 million deer fatalities, and over 1 billion dollars worth of property damage in the United States. Over 29,000 human injuries, 200 human fatalities, 1.3 million deer fatalities, and over 1 billion dollars worth of property damage in the United States. 200,000 deer killed on U.S. roadways in deer vehicle collisions in ,000 deer killed on U.S. roadways in deer vehicle collisions in An estimate of more than 538,000 deer killed by vehicles in the United States in An estimate of more than 538,000 deer killed by vehicles in the United States in In 2002, NDOT reported 698 collisions between large ungulates and motor vehicles throughout the state. In 2002, NDOT reported 698 collisions between large ungulates and motor vehicles throughout the state.

5 Center for Advanced Transportation Education and Research University of Nevada, Reno Student Paper Ivy Attah Objectives Evaluate the effectiveness of the US Highway 93 wildlife overpass in reducing DVCs by conducting: Evaluate the effectiveness of the US Highway 93 wildlife overpass in reducing DVCs by conducting: A Before-After study on crash reductionsA Before-After study on crash reductions A Benefit-Cost AnalysisA Benefit-Cost Analysis Analyze discrepancies with DVC data and Carcass removal data Analyze discrepancies with DVC data and Carcass removal data

6 Center for Advanced Transportation Education and Research University of Nevada, Reno Student Paper Ivy Attah Deer Collisions by Month on US 93 of Wells, NV FOR

7 Center for Advanced Transportation Education and Research University of Nevada, Reno Student Paper Ivy Attah Methods Overview

8 Center for Advanced Transportation Education and Research University of Nevada, Reno Student Paper Ivy Attah Methods Overview Cont.

9 Center for Advanced Transportation Education and Research University of Nevada, Reno Student Paper Ivy Attah Methods Overview Cont. Benefit-Cost Estimate- Benefit-Cost Estimate- Purpose- To determine the economic justifiability of having wildlife crossings at high deer vehicle locations. Purpose- To determine the economic justifiability of having wildlife crossings at high deer vehicle locations. Quantifies and compares benefits and costs of a project to determine if it is a sound investment. Quantifies and compares benefits and costs of a project to determine if it is a sound investment. Costs- Largely construction oriented in present terms (design, implementation, maintenance and removal efforts)Costs- Largely construction oriented in present terms (design, implementation, maintenance and removal efforts) Benefits- Distributed more uniformly over the life of the project. Benefits- Distributed more uniformly over the life of the project. Includes savings accrued by reducing the number of crashes.Includes savings accrued by reducing the number of crashes. Effectiveness of mitigation measures in reducing collisionsEffectiveness of mitigation measures in reducing collisions

10 Center for Advanced Transportation Education and Research University of Nevada, Reno Student Paper Ivy Attah Case Study Before-After Study Before-After Study Treatment GroupComparison Group Before ( )K=30M =17 After (2011)L= 1N = 2 thus a reduction in the expected number of crashes by ʎ = L rc = N/M = 2/17 = π = rcK = *30 = δ = π- ʎ = 2.528, Year Total Crashes

11 Center for Advanced Transportation Education and Research University of Nevada, Reno Student Paper Ivy Attah Case Study Cont. 11 E-B Method E-B Method SPF NEVADA = Cr*SPF SPF = ×ADT^ 0.53, AMF=0.95

12 Center for Advanced Transportation Education and Research University of Nevada, Reno Student Paper Ivy Attah Case Study Cont. Year Total ADT Accidents μ year(mile-year) (μyear)*AMF Expected accidents/yr Expected Annual Acc for Segment (μyear/μyear) Thus, the expected accidents = ± 2.09 accidents in 10yrs.

13 Center for Advanced Transportation Education and Research University of Nevada, Reno Student Paper Ivy Attah Case Study Cont. Benefit-Cost Analysis ( i = 4%, n = 40 years) Benefit-Cost Analysis ( i = 4%, n = 40 years) CONSTRUCTION COST (CC) Approximate cost of overpass$2,018,000 Backfill and Top Soil$112,085 Fencing and Vegetation$196,150 Maintenance Cost (annual)$3,363 Total Construction Cost$2,329, COST ASSOCIATED WITH DEER-VEHICLE COLLISIONS (DC, IC, FC) Damage Cost (DC) (2011)$7, Utah data adjusted to 2011$1, Value of deer in Nevada (2011)$4, value of hunters travel, food, lodging, equipment, etc.$ Injury Cost (IC) (2011)$91, Fatality Cost (FC) (2011)$3,068, Total Collision Cost$3,174, Total $5,504,299.00

14 Center for Advanced Transportation Education and Research University of Nevada, Reno Student Paper Ivy Attah NPW = {(DC) (PD) + (IC) (PI) + (FC) (PF)} (N) (PWF) – {CC + (MC) (PWF)} NPW = { * ,091.74* ,068,359.10*0.0002} (10.4*3.5*0.90)*19.79– {2,329,598+3,363*19.79) NPW= $5,146,665million B/C ratio = 3.15 Case Study Cont. 14

15 Center for Advanced Transportation Education and Research University of Nevada, Reno Student Paper Ivy Attah Wildlife Crossings US 93 in Wells, Nevada Overpass Underpass

16 Center for Advanced Transportation Education and Research University of Nevada, Reno Student Paper Ivy Attah Practical Results

17 Center for Advanced Transportation Education and Research University of Nevada, Reno Student Paper Ivy Attah Conclusions The Empirical Bayes method provides a more accurate estimate compared with other methods. The Empirical Bayes method provides a more accurate estimate compared with other methods. Combines crash counts with knowledge about the safety of similar entitiesCombines crash counts with knowledge about the safety of similar entities Corrects the regression-to-the-mean biasCorrects the regression-to-the-mean bias A reduction of 17.6% crashes gives overpass some credibility of effectiveness A reduction of 17.6% crashes gives overpass some credibility of effectiveness A B/C ratio of 3.15 proves that wildlife crossings are economically justifiable. A B/C ratio of 3.15 proves that wildlife crossings are economically justifiable.

18 Center for Advanced Transportation Education and Research University of Nevada, Reno Student Paper Ivy Attah Thank You! Slow down for Deer


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