Presentation on theme: "Isolation Precautions *CDC 2007"— Presentation transcript:
1 Isolation Precautions *CDC 2007 Toney ThomasLecturer / Course Coordinator,Assistant Director of NursingInfection Prevention & Control DepartmentRCSI / Beaumont Hospital
2 how isolation precautions evolved A quick recaphow isolation precautions evolvedover time
3 HISTORY OF GUIDELINES FOR ISOLATION PRECAUTIONS IN HOSPITALS 1970Isolation Techniques, 1st edtn.-Introduced seven isolation precaution categories with color-coded cards: Strict, Respiratory, Protective, Enteric, Wound and Skin, Discharge, and Blood- No user decision-making required- Simplicity a strength; over isolation prescribed for some infections1975Isolation Techniques, 2nd edtn.Same conceptual framework as 1st edition1983CDC Guideline for Isolation Precautionsin Hospitals-Provided two systems for isolation: category-specific and disease specific- Protective Isolation eliminated; Blood Precautions expanded to include Body Fluids- Categories included Strict, Contact, Respiratory, AFB, Enteric, Drainage/Secretion, Blood and Body Fluids- Emphasized decision-making by users
4 HISTORY OF GUIDELINES FOR ISOLATION PRECAUTIONS IN HOSPITALS contd-- Universal precautionsDeveloped in response to HIV/AIDS epidemic- Blood and Body Fluid precautions to all patients, regardless of infection status- Did not apply to feaces, nasal secretions, sputum, sweat, tears, urine, or vomitus unless contaminated by visible blood- Added personal protective equipment to protect HCWs from mucous membrane exposures- Handwashing recommended immediately after glove removal- Added specific recommendations for handling needles and other sharp devices;1987Body substance isolation- Emphasized avoiding contact with all moist and potentially infectious body substances except sweat even if blood not present- Shared some features with Universal Precautions- Weak on infections transmitted by large droplets or by contact with dry surfaces- Did not emphasize need for special ventilation to contain airborne infections- Handwashing after glove removal not specified in the absence of visible soiling1996Guideline for Isolation Precautions inHospitalsPrepared by the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee (HICPAC)- Melded major features of Universal Precautions and Body Substance Isolation into Standard Precautions to be used with all patients at all times- Included three transmission-based precaution categories: contact, droplet & airborne- Listed clinical syndromes that should dictate use of empiric isolation until an etiological diagnosis
5 “Standard Precautions include a group of infection prevention practices that apply to all patients, regardless of suspected or confirmed infection status, in any setting in which healthcare is delivered”The application of Standard Precautions during patient care is determined by the nature of the HCW-patient interaction and the extent of anticipated blood, body fluid, or pathogen exposure
6 Standard precautions* CDC 1996 Hand hygienePPE: Gloves, Gowns, Face & Eye protectionPatient placementC&D of patient care equipmentEnvironmental hygieneTextiles & laundrySafe injection practicesThe application of Standard Precautions during patient care is determined by the nature of the HCW-patient interaction and the extent of anticipated blood, body fluid, or pathogen exposure.Education and training on the principles and rationale for recommended practices are critical elements of Standard Precautions becausethey facilitate appropriate decision-making and promote adherence when HCWs are faced with new circumstances.Standard Precautions are also intended to protect patients by ensuring that healthcare personnel do not carry infectious agents to patients on their hands or via equipment used during patient care.
7 Revision of 1996 guidelines, why? Transition of health care deliveryEmergence of new pathogensSuccessful experience & reaffirmation of Standard precautions *1996Environmental controls – Protective environmentOrganisational characteristicsHAI & MDROs – surveillance & controlFrom acute care hospitals to other health care settings as home care, ambulatory, free standing speciality care sites, long term care etc. Need for recommendation that can be applied in all health care settings using common infection control principles, yet can be modified to reflect setting specific needs.2. SARS, CA MRSA C difficile, norovirus3. Suucessful experience of SP lead to a reaffirmation of this approach as the foundation for prevention of infection in health care settings. New additions hygiene/ cough etiquitte & safe injection practices, use of mask when performing high risk procedures involving spinal canal punctures.4. Evidence that environmental controls decrease risk of life threatening fungal infections in stem cell transplant patients lead to an update on components of PE5. Organisational characteristics - nursing staffing levels and composition, establishment of safety culture influence HCW on adherence to IC practices, thus improtant in prevention of transmission of infectious agents6. specific recommendations on surveillance & control of these pathogens. MRSA, VRE, C difficile
8 New additions to Standard precautions Respiratory hygieneSafe injection practicesUse of mask when performing spinal or epidural proceduresInfection control problems that are identified in the course of outbreak investigations often indicate the need for new recommendations or reinforcement of existing infection control recommendations to protect patients. Because such recommendations are considered a standard of care and may not be included in other guidelines, they are added here to Standard Precautions.CDC first recommends Standard precautions in 1996 as foundation of preventing transmission of infectious agents in HC settings.2007. AdditionsRespiratory Hygiene/Cough Etiquette grew out of observations during the SARS outbreaks where failure to implement simple source control measures with patients, visitors, and healthcare personnel with respiratory symptoms may have contributed to SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV) transmission. The recommended practices have a strong evidence base.The continued occurrence of outbreaks of hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses in ambulatory settings indicated a need to re-iterate safe injection practice recommendations as part of Standard Precautions.The addition of a mask for certain spinal injections grew from recent evidence of an associated risk for developing meningitis caused by respiratory flora.PE. Accumulated evidence that environmental controls decrease the risk of life threatening fungal infections in the most severely immunocompromised patients (allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplant patients) led to the update on the components of the Protective Environment (PE).
9 Respiratory Hygiene/Cough Etiquette The elements includeEducation of healthcare staff, patients, & visitorsPosted signs, in language(s) appropriateSource control measures (e.g. covering the mouth/nose with a tissue when coughing & prompt disposal of used tissues, using surgical masks on the coughing person when tolerated and appropriateHand hygiene after contact with respiratory secretions5) Spatial separation, ideally >3 feet,education of healthcare facility staff, patients, and visitors;posted signs, in language(s) appropriate to the population served, with instructions to patients and accompanying family members or friends;3) source control measures (e.g., covering the mouth/nose with a tissue when coughing and prompt disposal of used tissues, using surgical masks on the coughing person when tolerated and appropriate);4) hand hygiene after contact with respiratory secretions; and5) spatial separation, ideally >3 feet, of persons with respiratory infections in common waiting areas when possible. Covering sneezes and coughs and placing masks on coughing patients are proven means of source containment that prevent infected persons from dispersing respiratory secretions into the air.
10 Safe injection practices Large outbreaks of HBV and HCV among patients in the United StatesThe primary breaches1) reinsertion of used needles into a multiple-dose vial or solution container (e.g.saline bag)2) use of a single needle/syringe to administer intravenous medication to multiple patients.The investigation of four large outbreaks ofHBV and HCV among patients in ambulatory care facilities in the United States identified a need to define and reinforce safe injection practicesThe primary breaches in infection control practice that contributed to these outbreaks were1) reinsertion of used needles into a multiple-dose vial or solution container (e.g., saline bag) and2) use of a single needle/syringe to administer intravenous medication to multiple patients.Adherence to basic principles of aseptic technique for the preparation and administration of parenteral medications. These include the use of a sterile, single-use, disposable needle and syringe for each injection given and prevention of contamination of injection equipment and medication.To ensure that all healthcare workers understand and adhere to recommended practices, principles of infection control and aseptic technique need to be reinforced in training programs and incorporated into institutional polices that are monitored for adherence.
11 Spinal canal punctures & Infection prevention Bacterial meningitis following myelogram and other spinal proceduresFace masks are effective in limiting the dispersal of oro-pharyngeal droplets & are recommended for the placement of central venous catheters.HICPAC recommendation 2005 – use of a face mask when placing a catheter or injection to epidural space.Bacterial meningitis following myelogram and other spinal procedures (e.g., lumbar puncture, spinal and epidural anesthesia, intrathecal chemotherapy) has been reported previously. As a result, the question of whether face masks should be worn to prevent droplet spread of oral flora during spinal procedures (e.g., myelogram, lumbar puncture, spinal anesthesia) has been debated. Face masks are effective in limiting the dispersal of oropharyngeal droplets and are recommended for the placement of central venous catheters.In October 2005, the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee (HICPAC) reviewed the evidence and concluded that there is sufficient experience to warrant the additional protection of a face mask for the individual placing a catheter or injecting material into the spinal or epidural space.
12 Transmission based precautions Three categoriesContactDirectIndirectDropletAirborne
13 An important change!Don PPE upon entry into patients room for patients who are in contact / Droplet precautionsNature of interaction with the patient cannot be predicated with certainty & contaminated surfaces are important sources of transmission of pathogens
14 Change is often painful, but we are quick to forget the painonce we taste the fruits of change!