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1 Rochester Institute of Technology Material Handling and Storage.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Rochester Institute of Technology Material Handling and Storage."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Rochester Institute of Technology Material Handling and Storage

2 2 Rochester Institute of Technology This material was produced under grant number 46B4-HT15 from the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, U.S. Department of Labor. It does not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the U.S. Department of Labor, nor does mention of trade names, commercial products, or organizations imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.

3 3 Material Handling and Storage

4 4 Rochester Institute of Technology Objectives Discuss the basics of ergonomics and functions of the spine Discuss the basics of ergonomics and functions of the spine Describe the various types of order picking systems Describe the various types of order picking systems Describe proper lifting techniques Describe proper lifting techniques Identify material handling hazards associated with various warehouse operations Identify material handling hazards associated with various warehouse operations –Transport techniques –Storage –Packaging –Work practices

5 5 Rochester Institute of Technology Basic Functions of the Spine Supports the bodys weight Supports the bodys weight Structure for body Structure for body Flexibility to bend and rotate Flexibility to bend and rotate Maintains natural S curve for maximum strength Maintains natural S curve for maximum strength

6 6 Rochester Institute of Technology Proper Lifting Techniques No tripping or slipping hazards No tripping or slipping hazards Plan rest stops Plan rest stops Easiest route Easiest route Avoid stairs Avoid stairs If it is too heavy - GET HELP! If it is too heavy - GET HELP! Plan the Job

7 7 Rochester Institute of Technology Proper Lifting Techniques (contd) A ddress the item A ddress the item B end at the knee B end at the knee G et a good grip G et a good grip R aise with the legs R aise with the legs

8 8 Rochester Institute of Technology Keep the Load Close Closer to your spine Closer to your spine Less force on back Less force on back 10 pound load at arms length is 100 pounds on the back 10 pound load at arms length is 100 pounds on the back

9 9 Rochester Institute of Technology Lifting Techniques Diagonal lift Diagonal lift Power lift Power lift

10 10 Rochester Institute of Technology Pivot…Dont Twist Pivot your feet Pivot your feet Turn entire body Turn entire body

11 11 Rochester Institute of Technology Materials Handling Hazards in Warehouses Consist of job features which have a potentially harmful effect on the body Consist of job features which have a potentially harmful effect on the body –Work station layout/environment –Improper work methods –Improper tools –Job design problems –Poor housekeeping

12 12 Rochester Institute of Technology Transport Techniques Placing boxes on pallets Placing boxes on pallets Maintenance Maintenance See: ansport_techniques_animation.html ansport_techniques_animation.html

13 13 Rochester Institute of Technology Placing Boxes on Pallets Repeated bending at the waist to place boxes on the lowest level of pallets Repeated bending at the waist to place boxes on the lowest level of pallets Heaviest units are placed on the bottom layer for stability Heaviest units are placed on the bottom layer for stability Requires employees to lift the heaviest loads using their worst body postures Requires employees to lift the heaviest loads using their worst body postures

14 14 Rochester Institute of Technology Solutions Raise height of the bottom level Raise height of the bottom level Provide height-adjustable picking equipment Provide height-adjustable picking equipment Educate employees about the hazards of bending while moving heavy loads Educate employees about the hazards of bending while moving heavy loads Stack empty pallets on the pallet jack to elevate bottom of load Stack empty pallets on the pallet jack to elevate bottom of load Place palletizer on forks of pallet jack to keep product at waist height Place palletizer on forks of pallet jack to keep product at waist height Utilize power equipment Utilize power equipment See: g/transport_techniques_animation2.html g/transport_techniques_animation2.html

15 15 Rochester Institute of Technology Storage Low locations Low locations High locations High locations Double or triple slots Double or triple slots Reaching Reaching Aisle width Aisle width

16 16 Rochester Institute of Technology Low Locations Pallets are stored in pick bins a few inches from the floor Pallets are stored in pick bins a few inches from the floor Low racking requires employees to bend at waist Low racking requires employees to bend at waist Is a significant problem since the heaviest load is in shortest stack Is a significant problem since the heaviest load is in shortest stack Storing pallets in taller slots still requires employees to bend at waist Storing pallets in taller slots still requires employees to bend at waist

17 17 Rochester Institute of Technology Solutions Elevate pallets within slot bin Elevate pallets within slot bin Place empty pallets under load Place empty pallets under load Raise bottom level of racking so loads are at heights where bending is not necessary Raise bottom level of racking so loads are at heights where bending is not necessary Provide a forklift with built- in vacuum hoist Provide a forklift with built- in vacuum hoist

18 18 Rochester Institute of Technology Solutions (contd) Empty pallets stacked to raise product to waist height Raised shelving

19 19 Rochester Institute of Technology Solutions (contd) Vacuum hoist

20 20 Rochester Institute of Technology High Locations Reaching above shoulder to access products on upper shelves Reaching above shoulder to access products on upper shelves Results in stress to back and shoulders Results in stress to back and shoulders Requires awkward hand and wrist postures Requires awkward hand and wrist postures Reaching above shoulder height

21 21 Rochester Institute of Technology Solutions Use elevated rack locations Use elevated rack locations Provide "Pick Sticks" or "Bow Peep" hooks Provide "Pick Sticks" or "Bow Peep" hooks Bow Peep hook

22 22 Rochester Institute of Technology Multi-slot Hazards Maximizes shelving space Maximizes shelving space Increases ergonomic stressors Increases ergonomic stressors Forces workers to bend to access product Forces workers to bend to access product Workers must reach above shoulders to access materials Workers must reach above shoulders to access materials Double slotting Triple slotting requires elevated reaches to access product

23 23 Rochester Institute of Technology Solutions Provide full slotting Provide full slotting Use gravity feed flow rack for slow moving product Use gravity feed flow rack for slow moving product Full slotting Gravity fed flow racks

24 24 Rochester Institute of Technology Reaching Product is often removed from the front of pallets first Product is often removed from the front of pallets first Leaves remaining product in the back of pallets Leaves remaining product in the back of pallets Creates additional stress on the shoulders and back Creates additional stress on the shoulders and back Reaching to the back of the pallet

25 25 Rochester Institute of Technology Solutions Develop product rotation process Develop product rotation process Place pallets on turntables Place pallets on turntables Use roller and channel devices Use roller and channel devices Provide wider slots for heavier products Provide wider slots for heavier products Train stockers to allow sufficient space to move pallet during selection Train stockers to allow sufficient space to move pallet during selection For optimal access, place product on turntable

26 26 Rochester Institute of Technology Aisle Width Insufficient access to faster- moving product Insufficient access to faster- moving product Creates congestion Creates congestion Forces selectors to stop farther from pick slot and carry product longer distances to pallet jack Forces selectors to stop farther from pick slot and carry product longer distances to pallet jack To save trips, selectors may be tempted to carry multiple parcels at the same time To save trips, selectors may be tempted to carry multiple parcels at the same time Congested aisle

27 27 Rochester Institute of Technology Solutions Increase aisle width of aisles where fast- moving product is located Increase aisle width of aisles where fast- moving product is located Will allow pallet jacks to get closer and reduce distance loads must be carried Will allow pallet jacks to get closer and reduce distance loads must be carried Stagger the start times at beginning of day Stagger the start times at beginning of day Results in fewer selectors hitting the same slots at the same time Results in fewer selectors hitting the same slots at the same time

28 28 Rochester Institute of Technology Packaging Heavy containers Heavy containers Inadequate handholds Inadequate handholds Plastic wrapping Plastic wrapping Wooden pallets Wooden pallets Wrapping pallets Wrapping pallets Opening boxes Opening boxes 5-Gallon (40 lbs)

29 29 Rochester Institute of Technology Heavy Containers Boxes are extremely heavy in cold or freezer warehouses Boxes are extremely heavy in cold or freezer warehouses Weigh as much as 100 lbs. Weigh as much as 100 lbs. Manually lifting places stress on employees muscles Manually lifting places stress on employees muscles Repeated lifting can result in back injuries, muscle strains and disc injury Repeated lifting can result in back injuries, muscle strains and disc injury

30 30 Rochester Institute of Technology Solutions Work with suppliers to provide product in smaller, lighter containers Work with suppliers to provide product in smaller, lighter containers Improve access to heaviest items Improve access to heaviest items Provide handhold cutouts or handles on all heavy products Provide handhold cutouts or handles on all heavy products Work with suppliers to ensure container integrity is adequate Work with suppliers to ensure container integrity is adequate Load pallets with lighter product in center and heavier on outer edges Load pallets with lighter product in center and heavier on outer edges Some suppliers are willing to modify weight of packages

31 31 Rochester Institute of Technology Solutions (contd) Heavier packages on the outside

32 32 Rochester Institute of Technology Inadequate Handholds Many packages do not have handles or handle cut-outs Many packages do not have handles or handle cut-outs Makes heavy cases difficult to grasp Makes heavy cases difficult to grasp Forces employees to use awkward posture Forces employees to use awkward posture Boxes without handles are difficult to grasp

33 33 Rochester Institute of Technology Solutions Encourage suppliers to provide product in stable boxes with hand hold cut- outs or handles Encourage suppliers to provide product in stable boxes with hand hold cut- outs or handles Is especially important for product that is extremely heavy Is especially important for product that is extremely heavy Examples of handhold devices

34 34 Rochester Institute of Technology Wooden Pallets Weigh between 40 and 70 pounds Weigh between 40 and 70 pounds Lifted several times during work shift Lifted several times during work shift Repeated lifting causes stress to lower back Repeated lifting causes stress to lower back Splinters from handling wood is also a hazard to worker Splinters from handling wood is also a hazard to worker Workers bend to lift pallets several times during a shift

35 35 Rochester Institute of Technology Solutions Request lighter, plastic pallets Request lighter, plastic pallets Easily nest together to reduce space of stacking Easily nest together to reduce space of stacking Eliminates splinters and uneven surfaces Eliminates splinters and uneven surfaces Provide a pallet dispenser to reduce handling of pallets Provide a pallet dispenser to reduce handling of pallets Pallets weigh 20 to 30 lbs. Pallet dispenser

36 36 Rochester Institute of Technology Training New Employees New employees may not recognize ergonomic hazards or understand effective techniques used to minimize these hazards New employees may not recognize ergonomic hazards or understand effective techniques used to minimize these hazards

37 37 Rochester Institute of Technology Solutions Provide general ergonomics and work-task specific training at time of orientation Provide general ergonomics and work-task specific training at time of orientation Explain risk factors and proper work techniques to minimize hazards Explain risk factors and proper work techniques to minimize hazards Provide video tapes of proper work practice for employee review Provide video tapes of proper work practice for employee review Retrain injured employees regarding ergonomic risks pertinent to their injuries Retrain injured employees regarding ergonomic risks pertinent to their injuries Mentor new employees with experienced workers Mentor new employees with experienced workers Explain the medical management system Explain the medical management system

38 38 Rochester Institute of Technology Summary Discussed the science of ergonomics and functions of the spine Discussed the science of ergonomics and functions of the spine Described the various types of order picking systems Described the various types of order picking systems Described proper lifting techniques Described proper lifting techniques Identified various material handling hazards associated with warehouse operations Identified various material handling hazards associated with warehouse operations –Transport techniques –Storage –Packaging –Work practices


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