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SEARCH AND RESCUE Land/Wilderness. Ben Morse SPECIAL OPERATIONS DIVISION CHIEF SAVANNAH FIRE & EMERGENCY SERVICES GEORGIA SEARCH & RESCUE TEAM COORDINATOR.

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Presentation on theme: "SEARCH AND RESCUE Land/Wilderness. Ben Morse SPECIAL OPERATIONS DIVISION CHIEF SAVANNAH FIRE & EMERGENCY SERVICES GEORGIA SEARCH & RESCUE TEAM COORDINATOR."— Presentation transcript:

1 SEARCH AND RESCUE Land/Wilderness

2 Ben Morse SPECIAL OPERATIONS DIVISION CHIEF SAVANNAH FIRE & EMERGENCY SERVICES GEORGIA SEARCH & RESCUE TEAM COORDINATOR

3 Search and Rescue Land/Wilderness Search and Rescue Land/Wilderness Methodology Methodology –Terminology –Search Techniques Two Types of Searches Two Types of Searches –Land/Wilderness –Urban Searches Geo-referencing Geo-referencing

4 Search and Rescue Terminology Search Areas Search Areas –Assigned by Incident Command –Map Search Grids Search Grids Labeled Labeled Map issued to each Team Map issued to each Team Point Last Seen (PLS) Point Last Seen (PLS) –Point on map where victim was last seen by a witness by a witness Positive ID! Positive ID! Trailhead, hunting camp, office space, work area, etc… Trailhead, hunting camp, office space, work area, etc… –Place to focus search around Age, experience, physical fitness, how long ago sighted Age, experience, physical fitness, how long ago sighted –clues to how large search area will be

5 Search and Rescue Terminology Last K n o wn Position (LKP) Last K n o wn Position (LKP) –During a search clues will turn up –When they are solid enough to be reasonably certain that the search victim left it Since LKP more recent than PLS Since LKP more recent than PLS –New starting point for search –General direction of travel –Approximate speed of travel

6 Search and Rescue Terminology Pr ob ability of Detection (POD) Pr ob ability of Detection (POD) –Likelihood of finding search subject in: Given search area Given search area With technique used With technique used Different search techniques yield different PODs Different search techniques yield different PODs –Coin reported in Sand Box Each search technique has a probability of detection Each search technique has a probability of detection –More thorough: higher POD/longer it takes to search same area –Managing a Search is a balance of POD and Search Time

7 Search and Rescue Land/Wilderness Search Equipment Equipment –Maps –Handheld GPS –Compass –Suitable clothing Weather / Environment Weather / Environment –Communications with aircraft –Food, water, first aid, etc…. –ATVs

8 Search and Rescue Land/Wilderness Search Search Techniques Search Techniques –Bastard Search Look in obvious places/assume victim not lost Look in obvious places/assume victim not lost What the searchers call the person after crawling through woods, etc… then finding him eating popcorn and watching baseball What the searchers call the person after crawling through woods, etc… then finding him eating popcorn and watching baseball –Example: boy goes hunting and doesnt return by dark Searchers called out Searchers called out Boy returns home in wee hours Boy returns home in wee hours In reality, hunting story was fabricated to get out of chores and spend day with Sally In reality, hunting story was fabricated to get out of chores and spend day with Sally

9 Search and Rescue Land/Wilderness Search –When suspected – assign a team to do a hasty search of likely places the person would go Considerations Considerations –Intelligence Latest info of plans of person Latest info of plans of person Where they were going Where they were going Who are the friends Who are the friends Recently made friends Recently made friends –Speed Use radios & vehicles so planners can rule out areas Use radios & vehicles so planners can rule out areas Talk to the couple in the tent next door Talk to the couple in the tent next door Was there an argument earlier in the day Was there an argument earlier in the day Leave a note on the car, etc… Leave a note on the car, etc…

10 Search and Rescue Land/Wilderness Search Containment Search Containment Search –When search team arrives they have a PLS of victim –Determine max area based on PLS How fast person walking How fast person walking How long since last seen How long since last seen Wind up with a circle with PLS at the center Wind up with a circle with PLS at the center –Direction unknown –Make containment the top priority It limits your search area It limits your search area –Anyone can do it Straight roads – two or three searchers Straight roads – two or three searchers Even two sides of area helps Even two sides of area helps Must be vigilant – 100% that no one gets by them Must be vigilant – 100% that no one gets by them Run rehab for those in deeper searches/report in by radio regularly Run rehab for those in deeper searches/report in by radio regularly

11 Search and Rescue Land/Wilderness Search Hasty Search Hasty Search –10 to 12 highly trained searchers dropped in to virgin area Goal: move quickly, look for clues or lost person Goal: move quickly, look for clues or lost person Purpose: Bring a rapid end to the search Purpose: Bring a rapid end to the search Almost slow jog, check areas person may be injured or resting Almost slow jog, check areas person may be injured or resting Not directed – team has free reign Not directed – team has free reign –Slow down for point search; pass open areas very rapidly –Speed requires trained rescuers who know to look for clues Footprints, broken branches Footprints, broken branches POD based on skill of rescuers and search area POD based on skill of rescuers and search area

12 Search and Rescue Land/Wilderness Search Grid Search Grid Search –Typical line of searchers walking through woods Searchers in straight line moving slowly and deliberately Searchers in straight line moving slowly and deliberately Maintain spacing with searchers on sides Maintain spacing with searchers on sides –Do not take the path of least resistance (thorn bush) –Seldom find victim, but typically find clues –Sometimes used to give people something to do in very large searches Spacing – pack of cigarettes Spacing – pack of cigarettes

13 Search and Rescue Land/Wilderness Search Choke Point Search Choke Point Search –Use based on lost persons skills, and the terrain Large river with few bridges Large river with few bridges –Typically not very useful where lost person is trying to evade searchers –Can be handled by less experienced/physically fit teams

14 Search and Rescue Land/Wilderness Search Track Trap Search Track Trap Search –Natural or man-made traps that capture evidence of a lost persons passing Footprints in sand Footprints in sand Clothing caught in thorn bushes Clothing caught in thorn bushes –Where frequent lost persons are reported,(National Parks) SAR teams build track traps out of sand on major trails Track traps are raked smooth, then checked frequently Track traps are raked smooth, then checked frequently Tracks are compared to those of the lost person Tracks are compared to those of the lost person

15 Geo-referencing Do we need to have all Searchers using the same system, Do we need to have all Searchers using the same system, –Air –Ground Teams –Incident Command –Others… Should they all at least understand the playbook? Should they all at least understand the playbook?

16 Geo-referencing Latitude / Longitude Latitude / Longitude United States National Grid United States National Grid Global Area Referencing System Global Area Referencing System

17 Lat/Long Lat / Long Keeping it simple~ for Catastrophic Incident SAR, the commonly described Latitude and Longitudedescribes what a SAR responder will use on a standard chart/map and what is displayed in a GPS receiver. Keeping it simple~ for Catastrophic Incident SAR, the commonly described Latitude and Longitudedescribes what a SAR responder will use on a standard chart/map and what is displayed in a GPS receiver. Lat: North Long:81.1k685 West

18 Lat/Long

19 USNG United States National Grid (USNG): Ground-based grided coordinate system based on Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) System. Ground-based grided coordinate system based on Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) System. Basic unit of measure is the meter; positions reported as distance north from equator and distance from the zone central meridian. Basic unit of measure is the meter; positions reported as distance north from equator and distance from the zone central meridian. Purpose: provide a seamless, standardized ref system for nationwide use during times of crisis. Purpose: provide a seamless, standardized ref system for nationwide use during times of crisis.

20 US National Grid

21 Global Area Reference System (GARS):

22 Georeferencing during a Catastrophic Event NSARC Georeferencing Matrix: Catastrophic Incident SAR Georeference System User USNG Lat/Long GARS DD-MM.mmm (1) Land SAR Responder(2)Primary Secondary N/A Aeronautical SAR Responders(3) Secondary Primary Tertiary Air Space Deconfliction(4) N/A Primary N/A Land SAR Responder/ Primary Secondary N/A Aeronautical SAR Responder Interface (5) Incident Command: Air SAR Coordination Secondary PrimaryN/A Land SAR Coordination Primary Secondary N/A Area organization and Secondary Tertiary Primary accountability (6)

23 Georeferencing during a Catastrophic Event The Footnotes 1. During CIS operations, Lat/Long will be in one standard format: DD-MM.mmm. 2. Land SAR Respondersmustuse USNG; however, a good familiarity with lat/long is necessary to ensure effective interface between Land and Air SAR Responders.

24 Georeferencing during a Catastrophic Event 3. Air SAR Responders will use lat/long. 4. Air space deconfliction: only in Lat/Long. 5. Air SAR Responders working with Land SAR Responders have primary responsibility of coordinating SAR using USNG(Both need to know USNG and Lat/Long.). 6. GARS (Global Area Reference System): used for CIS response leadership situational awareness.

25 Georeferencing during a Catastrophic Event Catastrophic Incident defined: any natural or manmade incident, including terrorism, that results in extraordinary levels of mass causalities, damage, or disruption, severely affecting the population, infrastructure, environment, economy, national morale, and/or government functions any natural or manmade incident, including terrorism, that results in extraordinary levels of mass causalities, damage, or disruption, severely affecting the population, infrastructure, environment, economy, national morale, and/or government functions

26 Lat/Long –USNG -GARS Matrix is for NSARC member agency SAR Responders NSARC wont impose georeferencing standards on volunteer, local, or State SAR Responders; however: Need to be aware of what to expect when a Catastrophic Incident is declared and NSARC member agencies conduct SAR operations.

27 Lat/Long –USNG -GARS Matrix will be implemented when a Catastrophic Incident occurs. (As defined in the NRF)

28 Questions?


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