2Ben Morse. SPECIAL OPERATIONS DIVISION CHIEF Ben Morse SPECIAL OPERATIONS DIVISION CHIEF SAVANNAH FIRE & EMERGENCY SERVICES GEORGIA SEARCH & RESCUE TEAM COORDINATOR
3Search and Rescue Land/Wilderness MethodologyTerminologySearch TechniquesTwo Types of SearchesLand/WildernessUrban SearchesGeo-referencing
4Search and Rescue Terminology Search AreasAssigned by Incident CommandMapSearch GridsLabeledMap issued to each TeamPoint Last Seen (PLS)Point on map where victim was last seenby a witnessPositive ID!Trailhead, hunting camp, office space, work area, etc…Place to focus search aroundAge, experience, physical fitness, how long ago sightedclues to how large search area will be
5Search and Rescue Terminology Last Known Position (LKP)During a search clues will turn upWhen they are solid enough to be reasonably certain that the search victim left itSince LKP more recent than PLSNew starting point for searchGeneral direction of travelApproximate speed of travel
6Search and Rescue Terminology Probability of Detection (POD)Likelihood of finding search subject in:Given search areaWith technique usedDifferent search techniques yield different POD’sCoin reported in Sand BoxEach search technique has a “probability of detection”More thorough: higher POD/longer it takes to search same areaManaging a Search is a balance of POD and Search Time
7Search and Rescue Land/Wilderness Search EquipmentMapsHandheld GPSCompassSuitable clothingWeather / EnvironmentCommunications with aircraftFood, water, first aid, etc….ATV’s
8Search and Rescue Land/Wilderness Search Search TechniquesBastard SearchLook in obvious places/assume victim not lostWhat the searchers call the person after crawling through woods, etc… then finding him eating popcorn and watching baseballExample: boy goes hunting and doesn’t return by darkSearchers called outBoy returns home in wee hoursIn reality, hunting story was fabricated to get out of chores and spend day with Sally
9Search and Rescue Land/Wilderness Search When suspected – assign a team to do a hasty search of likely places the person would goConsiderationsIntelligenceLatest info of plans of personWhere they were goingWho are the friendsRecently made friendsSpeedUse radios & vehicles so planners can rule out areasTalk to the couple in the tent next doorWas there an argument earlier in the dayLeave a note on the car, etc…
10Search and Rescue Land/Wilderness Search Containment SearchWhen search team arrives they have a PLS of victimDetermine max area based on PLSHow fast person walkingHow long since last seenWind up with a circle with PLS at the centerDirection unknownMake containment the top priorityIt limits your search areaAnyone can do itStraight roads – two or three searchersEven two sides of area helpsMust be vigilant – 100% that no one gets by themRun rehab for those in deeper searches/report in by radio regularly
11Search and Rescue Land/Wilderness Search Hasty Search10 to 12 highly trained searchers dropped in to virgin areaGoal: move quickly, look for clues or lost personPurpose: Bring a rapid end to the searchAlmost slow jog, check areas person may be injured or restingNot directed – team has free reignSlow down for point search; pass open areas very rapidlySpeed requires trained rescuers who know to look for cluesFootprints, broken branchesPOD based on skill of rescuers and search areaPOD: good rescuers in high probability areas – good chance for finding conscious person30 – 40% chance a conscious person is not there if Hasty Search Team doesn’t find him, however, there is a 70% chance that an unconscious person is still there.
12Search and Rescue Land/Wilderness Search Grid SearchTypical line of searchers walking through woodsSearchers in straight line moving slowly and deliberatelyMaintain spacing with searchers on sidesDo not take the path of least resistance (thorn bush)Seldom find victim, but typically find cluesSometimes used to give people something to do in very large searchesSpacing – pack of cigarettes
13Search and Rescue Land/Wilderness Search Choke Point SearchUse based on lost persons skills, and the terrainLarge river with few bridgesTypically not very useful where lost person is trying to evade searchersCan be handled by less experienced/physically fit teams
14Search and Rescue Land/Wilderness Search Track Trap SearchNatural or man-made “traps” that capture evidence of a lost persons passingFootprints in sandClothing caught in thorn bushesWhere frequent lost persons are reported,(National Parks) SAR teams build track traps out of sand on major trailsTrack traps are raked smooth, then checked frequentlyTracks are compared to those of the lost person
15Geo-referencing Should they all at least understand the playbook? Do we need to have all Searchers using the same system,AirGround TeamsIncident CommandOthers…Should they all at least understand the playbook?
16Geo-referencing Latitude / Longitude United States National Grid Global Area Referencing System
17Lat/LongLat / LongKeeping it simple~ for Catastrophic Incident SAR, the commonly described “Latitude and Longitude”describes what a SAR responder will use on a standard chart/map and what is displayed in a GPS receiver.Lat: NorthLong: 81.1k685 West
19United States National Grid (USNG): Ground-based grided coordinate system based on Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) System.Basic unit of measure is the meter; positions reported as distance north from equator and distance from the zone central meridian.Purpose: provide a seamless, standardized ref system for nationwide use during times of crisis.
22Georeferencing during a Catastrophic Event NSARC Georeferencing Matrix: Catastrophic Incident SARGeoreference System User USNG Lat/Long GARSDD-MM.mmm (1)Land SAR Responder(2) Primary Secondary N/AAeronautical SAR Responders(3) Secondary Primary TertiaryAir Space Deconfliction(4) N/A Primary N/ALand SAR Responder/ Primary Secondary N/AAeronautical SAR ResponderInterface (5)Incident Command:Air SAR Coordination Secondary Primary N/ALand SAR Coordination Primary Secondary N/AArea organization and Secondary Tertiary Primaryaccountability (6)
23Georeferencing during a Catastrophic Event The FootnotesDuring CIS operations, Lat/Long will be in one standard format: DD-MM.mmm.Land SAR Respondersmustuse USNG; however, a good familiarity with lat/long is necessary to ensure effective interface between Land and Air SAR Responders.
24Georeferencing during a Catastrophic Event Air SAR Responders will use lat/long.Air space deconfliction: only in Lat/Long.Air SAR Responders working with Land SAR Responders have primary responsibility of coordinating SAR using USNG(Both need to know USNG and Lat/Long.).GARS (Global Area Reference System): used for CIS response leadership situational awareness.
25Georeferencing during a Catastrophic Event Catastrophic Incident defined:any natural or manmade incident, including terrorism, that results in extraordinary levels of mass causalities, damage, or disruption, severely affecting the population, infrastructure, environment, economy, national morale, and/or government functions
26Lat/Long –USNG -GARSMatrix is for NSARC member agency SAR Responders NSARC won’t impose georeferencing standards on volunteer, local, or State SAR Responders; however: Need to be aware of what to expect when a Catastrophic Incident is declared and NSARC member agencies conduct SAR operations.
27Lat/Long –USNG -GARSMatrix will be implemented when a Catastrophic Incident occurs.(As defined in the NRF)