Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

© 2010 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Jean Williams He didnt stay relaxed like I told him. If he did, Hed have run in the 9.7s. Trevor.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "© 2010 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Jean Williams He didnt stay relaxed like I told him. If he did, Hed have run in the 9.7s. Trevor."— Presentation transcript:

1 © 2010 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Jean Williams He didnt stay relaxed like I told him. If he did, Hed have run in the 9.7s. Trevor Graham, coach of Justin Gatlin, given after Gatlin won the gold medal in 100 meters at 2004 Olympics Chapter 13 Relaxation and Energizing Techniques for Regulation of Arousal

2 © 2010 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Why Regulate Arousal? Athletes who control arousal levels perform more consistently and at higher levels Poorer performance comes from both under arousal and over arousal Issue is not arousal and anxiety, but athletes skill at coping with it

3 © 2010 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. What Athletes Say? Even though I was really hustling, it was all very effortless. (Garfield and Bennett, 1984) I felt physically very relaxed, but really energizing and pumped up. I experienced virtually no anxiety or fear…

4 © 2010 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. What Coaches Say? Its not a case of getting rid of the butterflies, its a question of getting them to fly in formation. (Jack Donahue, basketball coach)

5 © 2010 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Research Evidence Individuals can control their autonomic functioning (arousal) –Heart rate-Muscle tension –Breathing-Body temperature –Blood pressure-Brain waves Meta-analysis of 25 relaxation studies indicated that the techniques enhanced sport performance Little known about relative effectiveness of different relaxation techniques nor individual differences that influence success at relaxing

6 © 2010 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Keys to Arousal Regulation Know optimal level of arousal for the task (see Ch. 12) Monitor current state to see if it deviates from optimal –Know your typical pattern of under or over activation –See Ch. 10 for how to increase self-awareness Learn techniques to regulate activation level –(athletes often know tense, but clueless as to how to relax) Use appropriate relaxation or energizing technique Often good to integrate physical and cognitive techniques –E.g., decreasing self-doubt and worry lowers arousal (see Ch. 15)

7 © 2010 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Bracing Muscles arranged in pairs – when one tightens due to stress its opposite sets up a counter tension to hold the segment of the body in place Resulting double pull (bracing) can build formidable heights of tension, yet remain unidentified by most people Interferes with performance by preventing appropriate movement coordination Leads to being scared stiff, shooting air balls, blowing a short putt, etc.

8 © 2010 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Differential Relaxation Proper form in any movement involves using just the right amount of tension at any given time in the relevant muscles Called Differential relaxation: –The correct level of tension in appropriate muscles to accomplish the movement objective

9 © 2010 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Relaxation Athletes need to learn how to recognize unwanted tension and to relax or release that tension Relaxation (the absence of tension) comes from no more than stopping unwanted muscle contraction, thereby eliminating the tension sensation Turns off overcharging of nerve pathways to the muscles

10 © 2010 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Complete Relaxation Results in total relaxation (zero-activation level) Practicing helps athletes recognize and release even small levels of muscle tension Other benefits of practicing complete relaxation – onset of sleep and other insomnia problems – headaches and muscle aches –Facilitate recovery from fatigue – tension headaches and muscle aches –Helps learn momentary relaxation skills Never do before practice or competition

11 © 2010 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Momentary Relaxation Goal is releasing just unwanted tension -- not total relaxation More uptight the athlete, the longer the session of momentary relaxation When practice: –Before and during warm-up –During brief lapses when performing –Part of pre-performance routines –Anytime during day when too stressed

12 © 2010 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Relaxation Training Relaxation skills must be practiced on a regular basis just like any sport skill Athletes should become skilled at both complete (total) and momentary relaxation Athletes should practice a variety of techniques for each type of relaxation –Effectiveness of techniques varies between individuals and within the individual –If possible, match the intervention to the precise mode of the anxiety response

13 © 2010 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Two Categories of Relaxation Techniques Muscle-to-mind (afferent) –Breathing exercises –Progressive muscle relaxation (PR) –Massage Mind-to-muscle (efferent) –Mediation –Visualization –Autogenic training –Autogenic training with visualization

14 © 2010 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Two Categories of Relaxation Techniques (Cont.) Either approach is effective Point is to disrupt the stimulus-response pattern of either the efferent nerves leading to the brain or afferent away from the brain. Reducing the firing in either half of the circuit interrupts the stimulation necessary to produce unwanted muscular tension

15 © 2010 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Breathing Breathing properly is relaxing, and facilitates performance by increasing oxygen in the blood Breathing is usually affected in one of two ways when in high-stress situation and too uptight: –Breathe rapidly and shallowly from the upper chest –Hold breath

16 © 2010 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Breathing Exercises Complete breath Sighing with exhalation Rhythmic breathing 1:2 ratio 5-to-1 count Concentration breathing

17 © 2010 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Complete Breath Proper breathing comes from the diaphragm During long, slow, deep inhalation, the diaphragm pulls down causing belly to expand and lungs to fill from bottom up due to vacuum created in lungs Long, slow, complete exhalation -- feels as if air drains out of bottom of the lungs by first emptying the top, then the rib-case, and finally the lower part Exhalation results in all tension leaving the body -- quietest or calmest time after end of exhalation Emphasize this calmness and recreate whenever need to relax

18 © 2010 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Sighing with Exhalation Exhale completely through mouth, making an audible sigh Close mouth and inhale quietly through nose to a count of 4 Hold breath for count of 7, feeling tension building Exhale audibly through mouth to count of 8 as you let go of tension

19 © 2010 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Rhythmic Breathing Inhale to a count of 4 Hold for a count of 4 Exhale to a count of 4 Can alter the rhythm of breathing by changing the count

20 © 2010 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 1:2 Ratio Breathing Inhale to 4-count, exhale to 8-count –Emphasis is on long and total exhalation When ready, change the ratio to 5:10 or 6:12 for deepened relaxation Powerful relaxer if done properly

21 © 2010 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 5-to-1 Count Breathing Mentally count and visualize the number 5 as take a deep, full, slow breath Exhale completely -- being completely still after it Mentally count and visualize the number 4 on the next inhalation. As you exhale, say I am more relaxed now than I was at number 5. Repeat for 3, 2, 1, etc.

22 © 2010 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Concentration Breathing Passively focus total attention on the breathing rhythm With each exhalation think of becoming more relaxed Good exercise to practice when having problems with distracting thoughts

23 © 2010 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Muscle Relaxation Exercises Active PR Differential PR Abbreviated active PR Passive PR Quick body scan Neck and shoulder check Sport muscle check

24 © 2010 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Active Progressive Muscle Relaxation (PR) Jacobson (1930) developed the technique Consists of a series of exercises that involve contracting a specific muscle group, holding the contraction 5-7 seconds, then relaxing seconds Exercise progresses from one muscle group to another Contraction phase teaches awareness and sensitivity to what tension feels like

25 © 2010 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Active PR (cont.) Letting go, or relaxation phase, teaches awareness of what absence of tension feels like and that it can be induced voluntarily by passively releasing the tension (contraction) in a muscle PR helps individuals become aware of where they hold tension in their body Goal is to spot and release tension before it causes performance problems, fatigue, headaches, etc.

26 © 2010 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Posture for PR Practice Sit upright. Hips against the backrest. Arms and legs uncrossed. Feet flat on the floor. Hands rest comfortable on the thighs (palms down). May remove or loosen constrictive clothing (belts, shoes).

27 © 2010 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Differential PR Consists of studying and releasing tension of ever-decreasing intensity First, all-out contraction followed by relaxation, second, half tension and relax, and finally just enough tension to identify and let it go Performed with same sequence of muscle groups as active PR Exercise builds skill at detecting and releasing even small amounts of tension Also enhances differential relaxation, which is typically required in sport

28 © 2010 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Abbreviated Active PR When skilled, can use a shorter procedure to achieve deep muscle relaxation by combining some of the muscle groups Tense each muscle group for 5 to 10 seconds and then relax for seconds

29 © 2010 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Passive PR With some skill at active PR, can relax the muscles without first tensing Many find this passive form of relaxation more effective than active PR Participants merely focus on the muscle(s) and let go of whatever tension is there Progress through same muscle sequence as active or abbreviated PR

30 © 2010 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Quick Body Scan Momentary relaxation technique that is an abbreviated version of passive PR Quickly scan the body from head to toe Stop only at the muscle groups where the tension level is too high Release the tension and continue the scan down the body Do when too tense, including when performing: E.g., before serving, shooting free throws, batting, while running

31 © 2010 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Neck and Shoulder Check Often carry excessive tension in the neck and shoulders when worried or anxious Once skilled in spotting and releasing tension, scan neck and shoulders periodically for signs of tension Releasing excessive tension in these two areas typically spreads relaxation to whole body May also quiet the mind

32 © 2010 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Sport Muscle Check Identical to neck/shoulder check, but substitute appropriate muscle group for the sport skill Can supplement by initially contracting, e.g., –Batter squeezes bat before relaxing –Golfer squeezes club

33 © 2010 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Mind-to-Muscle Relaxation Techniques Focus is on efferent nerve control, or the stimulation from the brain to the muscles Meditation Visualization Autogenic training Autogenic training with visualization

34 © 2010 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Meditation (Relaxation Response) Helps achieve a state of deep relaxation by calming and controlling the mind Recommend using the relaxation response developed by Herbert Benson, MD –Based on transcendental meditation, but removed any religious/cult connotations Four basic components: –Quiet environment –Comfortable position –Mental device (mantra) –Passive attitude

35 © 2010 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Visualizing a Relaxing Scene Royalty-Free/CORBIS

36 © 2010 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Visualizing a Relaxing Scene Image being in a place conducive to relaxation –Lying on a beach feeling the warm sun and sand on your body while listening to the breaking waves and sea gulls and smelling the salt air –A beautiful mountain scene by a gentle, gurgling stream Use whatever image provides a sense of relaxation and calm (no movement)

37 © 2010 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Autogenic Training Takes longer to master, used more in Europe than North America Training consists of a series of exercises designed to produce two physical sensations: warmth and heaviness. Based on self-hypnosis Focus attention (passively) on the sensations one is trying to produce through autosuggestion

38 © 2010 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Autogenic Training Stages Stage 1 – Heaviness Stage 2 – Warmth Stage 3 – Heartbeat Stage 4 – Breathing Stage 5 – Warmth in the solar plexus Stage 6 – Coolness of the forehead

39 © 2010 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Autogenic Training With Visualization Progress through the autogenic stages and then, when very relaxed, visualize the desired performance, thoughts, and feelings

40 © 2010 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Why Relaxation Training Fails Insufficient rapport with athletes or athletes coerced (e.g., coach required) Insufficient practice of relaxation techniques (very common) Failure to frequently self-monitor arousal level and relax when needed Fear of losing control when start to attain deep relaxation –Need to identify the underlying reason for this reaction

41 © 2010 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Why Relaxation Training Fails (cont.) Can relax, but not in high-pressure situation. How treat: practice relaxation in increasingly stressful situations Ironic processing- the effort of trying to relax can produce the ironic effect of intensifying anxiety and tension. How treat: –Provide detailed relaxation instructions vs. general comment relax –Provide less motivational instructions, downplay the importance –If still fail, emphasize the fun and excitement (vs. threat) of competition

42 © 2010 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. When Need to Increase Activation and Energy Poor performance also comes from under arousal Must learn to recognize signs and symptoms of low energy and activation Use activation techniques during practice and competition when fatigued, need burst of energy, or not psyched-up Techniques develop skills to speed up the physiological systems so ready for action

43 © 2010 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Skills and Strategies for Increasing Activation and Energy Breathing Using energizing imagery Formulating energizing verbal cues Combining energizing cues, images, and breathing Transferring energy Storing excess energy for later use Using the environment Listening to music Improving pacing Using distraction

44 © 2010 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Energizing Breathing Breathing control works as effectively in producing energy as in reducing tension First focus on a regular, relaxed breathing rhythm Next, consciously increase your breathing rate and imagine with each inhalation that you are generating more energy and activation Think energy in (inhalation), fatigue out (exhalation)

45 © 2010 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Energizing Imagery Imagine you are a machine capable of generating energy at will (e.g., train). –Animal images –Machine images –Forces of nature Establish a plan for using these images ahead of time and practice and prepare to use them on a regular basis Lapses in action are good times to use them as well as when fatigued or low motivation

46 © 2010 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Energizing Verbal Cues Use when not enough time to prepare imagery techniques to generate energy Think of word cues that quickly associate energy buildup, e.g.: –Explode, charge, psych-up, go, etc. Select cues appropriate to you and tasks that you perform during competition May want to combine with energizing images

47 © 2010 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Combining Energizing Cues, Images, and Breathing Combines a verbal phrase with imagery and a certain breathing pattern The breathing pattern is one of exhaling on the first part of the phrase and inhaling on the italicized part depicting energy –I am vigorous and alert. During pauses between phrases visualize some image that depicts the energy statement

48 © 2010 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Transferring Energy Convert energy from other sources into a positive and useful force for athletic performance For example, aggression, anger, frustration or some other emotion that tends to interfere with performance can be converted into energy to accomplish performance goals

49 © 2010 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Storing Excess Energy for Later Use Storing excess energy that is frequently generated just prior to competition accomplishes two things: –It provides a means to transfer that energy somewhere else –It provides a well of energy from which to draw upon at some later point (fatigued or discouraged)

50 © 2010 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Using the Environment Draw energy from the spectators –Can provide the home team with an advantage Can even draw energy from your opponent, particularly when it appears that the opponent has momentum going for them

51 © 2010 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Listening to Music Music is a good relaxation and energy provider, depending on the music selected Note: If practice or competitive environment is saturated with loud music it may detract from the optimal level of activation for some athletes

52 © 2010 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Improving Pacing In some sports, under activation stems from fatigue Inappropriate pacing can contribute to fatigue Pacing is also improved when unnecessary sources of energy drain are eliminated: –Release unwanted muscle tension –Control emotions (e.g., anger) –Decrease anxiety or worry over own performance or that of teammates

53 © 2010 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Focus attention away from the state of fatigue being experienced Focus on what is happening and about to happen within the performance setting Think about what doing rather than about how feeling Using Distraction


Download ppt "© 2010 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Jean Williams He didnt stay relaxed like I told him. If he did, Hed have run in the 9.7s. Trevor."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google