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Overview Goals of foreign language learning Current teaching practices

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Presentation on theme: "Overview Goals of foreign language learning Current teaching practices"— Presentation transcript:

1 Developing Learners’ Communicative Competence Through Task-Based Instruction

2 Overview Goals of foreign language learning Current teaching practices
“Exercise” vs. “Task” What is task? Why?--Task-Based Instruction—TBI How to design and use TBI? Question-answer

3 Language is … used as a vehicle for communication

4 Communication is … Lee (2000) Long (1996) Expression Interpretation
Negotiation of meaning Long (1996) Genuine human interaction Input  feedback  output

5 Language Competence … Fluency Accuracy Pragmatics How well?
How accurate? Pragmatics How appropriate?

6 Real-Life Situation … A sunny afternoon on the street in Granada, Spain … María: Hmm … ¿Me puedo ,,, puedes decir donde ir a banco? Desconocido: Bueno, está muy cerca de aquí. Pase por el semáforo y doble a la derecha en la primera calle. El banco está al lado del restaurante “Pollo Loco” María: Hmm … ¿semáforo? [confused] Desconocido: [point it out the light] luces María: Ah …vvvvoy a banco para dinero no restaurante, sí? Desconocido: [took the pen out and started to draw the picture] Mire … María: Sí, sí, sí, gracias! [smiling] Tú eres muy amable.

7 “Poor Mary” Pragmatics? Accuracy? Fluency? Expression donde ir a banco
¿Tú or Ud.? Accuracy? Interpretation Hmm…Ah… Hmm… Negotiation of meaning Fluency?

8 “Mary in Class” María, ¡No hables más! Oye, ¿Me escuchas?

9 Blank, Blank, Blank … Fill in each blank with the correct form of the verb. Yo _________ (caminar) por el parque y sus amigos ________(practicar) frisbi en la playa. Nosotros _________(escribir) composiciones y Luis __________(leer) el texto de español.

10 Matching Column A ¿Cómo es el profesor? ¿Cuándo es la clase?
¿Quién siempre saca buenas notas? ¿Cuántos estudiantes hay? ¿Dónde es la clase? Column B Veintitrés En Horton Hall 303 Miguel DeRosa Muy serio y perfeccionista E. A la una de la tarde

11 Pattern Practice Modelo Juan: ¿Vas a la escuela?
María: No, no voy a la escuela. ¿Vas a la biblioteca? ¿Va tu amigo a la playa? ¿Van tus amigos a la plaza? ¿Vamos al parque?

12 Dialogue Perform the following memorized dialogue.
María: ¡Hola! ¿Cómo estás? Juan: Muy bien. ¿Y tú? María: Regular. ¿Tienes clase ahora? Juan: No. ¿Tomamos café juntos? María: Sí. Me gusta “Green Mountain” Juan: A mí también.

13 Communicative Drill Your partner is asking what you did last week. Be sure to answer in complete sentences. Buy Christmas gifts Study for a exam See Halloween decorations Attend a birthday party

14 No More … Exercises Exercises Exercises

15 Let’s Discuss … Why are these “exercises”?
What teaching method is used? What is the main focus? Is it sufficient to “practice” the language? Why?

16 Exercises … Focus on “Form” No “creativity” Lack of “authenticity”
Exhausting and boring ¡Estoy agotado! ¡Qué aburrido!

17 Limitations … Teacher = “drill” leader
Student = “learner” but not “user” Focus = “form” Practice = perfect Audiolingual Method (ALM) Output = learned patterns

18 Changes … Evolution NOT Revolution
From ALM to Communicative Language Teaching—CLT From exercises to tasks

19 Differences … Ellis (2002) Exercise Task Form-focused language use
Language “learner” Intentional Task Meaning-focused language use Language “user” Incidental

20 More Changes … From “form” to From Communication = question + answer
“meaning” + “form” From Communication = question + answer to Communication = expression, interpretation and negotiation of meaning (Lee, 2000)

21 Tasks

22 Task ... A task is an activity “where the
target language is used by the learner for a communicative purpose (goal) in order to achieve an outcome.” Jane Willis

23 Example #1: Fill in forms
Listen to the conversation and write the missing information of each student. Name: Anna Age: 35 Country: Birth Date: Married: Single: Occupation: Hobbies: Name: Andrew Age: Country: Birth Date: Married: Single: Occupation: Hobbies: Name: John Age: Country: Birth Date: Married: Single: Occupation: Hobbies: Jazz

24 Example #1: (continued)
Now compare your answers with your partner. Name: Anna Age: 35 Country: Birth Date: Married: Single: Occupation: Hobbies: Name: Andrew Age: Country: Birth Date: Married: Single: Occupation: Hobbies: Name: John Age: Country: Birth Date: Married: Single: Occupation: Hobbies: Jazz

25 Example #2: Fill in a chart
Listen to the automated ticketing service for ‘What’s on around town this weekend’. Make a list of movies, and concerts and how much they cost. Movies Concerts $$$ ________________

26 Example #2 (continued) First decide three activities you would like to do and then work with your partner to make up the schedule for the activities. Activity 1 What? Where? How much? What time? Activity 3 What? Where? How much? What time? Activity 2 What? Where? How much? What time?

27 Example #3: Role-play You are in a clothing store and have $150 to spend. Card B: You are clerk --Offer to help --Tell him/her what is on sale --Suggestions: a bottle of perfume for mom, a pair of pants for brother, watch for boyfriend --Go to the customer Service Card A: You are customer --You are looking for gifts for three people --Your mom, brother and boyfriend --Ask for suggestions --Ask for prices --Ask him/her to wrap the gifts --Thanks him/her

28 Example #4: Decision-making
You are on a ship that is sinking. You have to swim to a nearby island. You have a waterproof container, but can only carry 20 kilos of items in it. Decide which of the following items you will take.

29 Example #4 (continued) Axe (8 kilos)
Waterproof sheets of fabric (3 kilos each.) Notebook computer (3.5 kilos) Rope (6 kilos). Fire lighting kits (500 grams each) Portable CD player and CDs (4 kilos.) Short-wave radio (12 kilos) Medical kit (2 kilos.) Bottles of water (1.5 kilos each) Packets of sugar, flour, rice, powdered milk, coffee, tea. (Each packet weighs 500 grams) Cans of food (500 grams each) Box of novels and magazines (3 kilos) Source: Nunan D. (2000)

30 Example #4 (continued) Now work with three other students and choose the most important three items that you absolutely need to take with you. Item #1 Item #2 Item #3

31 Example #5: Jigsaw “Esteban’s routine”
Student A: drawings—1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15 Student B: drawings—2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14 Generate the story orally with your partner Write an essay together on a blank sheet of paper Time: 30 minutes Textbook: ¿Sabías qué? (2002) Esteban se levanta y se lava ….

32 Let’s Discuss … Task? Why? What are the common features? Other types?

33 Task ... Focus on both “meaning” and “form”
“Meaning”—information, idea “Form”—grammar, vocabulary ¡Qué divertido! ¡Qué música!

34 Task-Based Instruction

35 TBI … promotes communication, interaction and negotiation
fosters active participation and scaffolding allows extended discourse

36 TBI … requires linguistic and cognitive skills
focuses on both accuracy and fluency engages in real-time language processing

37 Task-based Activities
One Step More … From Question-Answer To Task-based Activities

38 Question-Answer Discussion
--What did you do last weekend? Teacher: Did you go to the library? (select a student) John: No, I went to see a movie Teacher: What movie did you see? John: “Shall we dance?” Teacher: Who else went to see a movie? Mary: No, I watched TV and ate pop corn. Teacher: What program did you watch? Mary: “The Sopranos”

39 Task-Based Activity What did you do last weekend?

40 Step 1 Activity Dance at a party Running five miles
Playing video games Playing a sport Reading a book Watching TV Writing a letter Making dinner Sedentary Active __________________ Source: Lee (2000)

41 Step 2: Five More Activities
Activity ______________ Sedentary Active _______________

42 Step 3: Interview … --Did you go fishing last week?
--No, I read a book “How to become a millionaire?”

43 Step 4: Compare … Your partners responses to the categorizations you made in Steps 1 and 2.

44 Step 5: Conclusion … Use the scale to rate your partner’s week.
very sedentary as sedentary very active as active

45 Task-Based Activity “The Most Interesting Person”

46 Steps … Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4
List 10 words that associate with “interesting” Step 2 Describe the person in U.S./in Spain/in France, etc. Step 3 Compare your answers with your partner Step 4 “Who is the most interesting person? And why?”

47 Criteria … Identifying a desired outcome
Describe the person Breaking down the topic into subtopics 3-4 steps from easy to difficult Creating concrete tasks From words to sentences Building in linguistic support Vocabulary: adjectives Grammar: to be/like/…

48 Types Listing Ordering and sorting Comparing similarities/differences
Sequencing/ranking Categorizing/classifying Comparing similarities/differences Problem solving Decision making Information gap Sharing experiences Describing/narrating

49 Participatory Structure
Individual Intra-personal (private speech) Social Interpersonal Teacher-students Student-teacher/other students Student-student (group or pair-work)

50 Final Thoughts “Tasks” instead of “exercises”
ACTFL Proficiency Guidelines Incorporation of four skills plus culture “Tasks” instead of “exercises” Authentic materials/pictures Feedback

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