Presentation on theme: "Task-Based Instruction Developing Learners Communicative Competence Through Task-Based Instruction."— Presentation transcript:
Task-Based Instruction Developing Learners Communicative Competence Through Task-Based Instruction
Overview Goals of foreign language learning Current teaching practices Exercise vs. Task What is task? TBI Why?--Task-Based InstructionTBI TBI How to design and use TBI? Question-answer
Language is … communication used as a vehicle for communication
Communication is … Lee (2000) Expression Interpretation Negotiation of meaning Long (1996) Genuine human interaction Input feedback output
Language Competence … Fluency well How well? Accuracy accurate How accurate? Pragmatics appropriate How appropriate?
Real-Life Situation … A sunny afternoon on the street in Granada, Spain … María: Hmm … ¿Me puedo,,, puedes decir donde ir a banco? Desconocido: Bueno, está muy cerca de aquí. Pase por el semáforo y doble a la derecha en la primera calle. El banco está al lado del restaurante Pollo Loco María: Hmm … ¿semáforo? [confused] Desconocido: [point it out the light] luces María: Ah …vvvvoy a banco para dinero no restaurante, sí? Desconocido: [took the pen out and started to draw the picture] Mire … María: Sí, sí, sí, gracias! [smiling] Tú eres muy amable.
Poor Mary ¿Tú or Ud.? Pragmatics? donde ir a banco Accuracy? Hmm…Ah… Hmm… Fluency? Expression Interpretation Negotiation of meaning
Mary in Class María, ¡No hables más! Oye, ¿Me escuchas?
Blank, Blank, Blank … Fill in each blank with the correct form of the verb. Yo _________ (caminar) por el parque y sus amigos ________(practicar) frisbi en la playa. Nosotros _________(escribir) composiciones y Luis __________(leer) el texto de español.
Matching Column A 1.¿Cómo es el profesor? 2.¿Cuándo es la clase? 3.¿Quién siempre saca buenas notas? 4.¿Cuántos estudiantes hay? 5.¿Dónde es la clase? Column B A.Veintitrés B.En Horton Hall 303 C.Miguel DeRosa D.Muy serio y perfeccionista E. A la una de la tarde
Pattern Practice Modelo Juan: ¿Vas a la escuela? María: No, no voy a la escuela. 1.¿Vas a la biblioteca? 2.¿Va tu amigo a la playa? 3.¿Van tus amigos a la plaza? 4.¿Vamos al parque?
Dialogue Perform the following memorized dialogue. María: ¡Hola! ¿Cómo estás? Juan: Muy bien. ¿Y tú? María: Regular. ¿Tienes clase ahora? Juan: No. ¿Tomamos café juntos? María: Sí. Me gusta Green Mountain Juan: A mí también.
Communicative Drill Your partner is asking what you did last week. Be sure to answer in complete sentences. 1.Buy Christmas gifts 2.Study for a exam 3.See Halloween decorations 4.Attend a birthday party
Exercises Exercises No More … Exercises
Lets Discuss … exercises Why are these exercises? What teaching method is used? What is the main focus? practice Is it sufficient to practice the language? Why?
Exercises … Focus on Form No creativity Lack of authenticity Exhausting and boring ¡Estoy agotado! ¡Qué aburrido!
Limitations … drill Teacher = drill leader Student = learner but not user Focus = form Practice = perfect Audiolingual Method (ALM) Output = learned patterns
Changes … NOT Evolution NOT Revolution CLT From ALM to Communicative Language TeachingCLT exercisestasks From exercises to tasks
Differences … Ellis (2002) Exercise Form-focused language use Language learner Intentional Task Task Meaning-focused language use Language user Incidental
More Changes … From form to meaningform meaning + form From Communication = question + answer to Communication = expression, interpretation and negotiation of meaning (Lee, 2000)
Task... task A task is an activity where the target language is used by the learner for a communicative purpose (goal) in order to achieve an outcome. Jane Willis
Example #1: Fill in forms Listen to Listen to the conversation and write the missing information of each student. Name: Anna Age: 35 Country: Birth Date: Married: Single: Occupation: Hobbies: Name: Andrew Age: Country: Birth Date: Married: Single: Occupation: Hobbies: Name: John Age: Country: Birth Date: Married: Single: Occupation: Hobbies: Jazz
Example #1: (continued) Now compare your answers with your partner. Name: Anna Age: 35 Country: Birth Date: Married: Single: Occupation: Hobbies: Name: Andrew Age: Country: Birth Date: Married: Single: Occupation: Hobbies: Name: John Age: Country: Birth Date: Married: Single: Occupation: Hobbies: Jazz
Example #2: Fill in a chart Listen to Listen to the automated ticketing service for Whats on around town this weekend. Make a list of movies, and concerts and how much they cost. Movies Concerts $$$________________
Example #2 (continued) First decide three activities you would like to do and then work with your partner to make up the schedule for the activities. Activity 1 What? Where? How much? What time? Activity 2 What? Where? How much? What time? Activity 3 What? Where? How much? What time?
Example #3: Role-play You are in a clothing store and have $150 to spend. Card B: You are clerk --Offer to help --Tell him/her what is on sale --Suggestions: a bottle of perfume for mom, a pair of pants for brother, watch for boyfriend --Go to the customer Service Card A: You are customer --You are looking for gifts for three people --Your mom, brother and boyfriend --Ask for suggestions --Ask for prices --Ask him/her to wrap the gifts --Thanks him/her
Example #4: Decision-making You are on a ship that is sinking. You have to swim to a nearby island. You have a waterproof container, but can only carry 20 kilos of items in it. Decide which of the following items you will take.
Example #4 (continued) Axe (8 kilos) Waterproof sheets of fabric (3 kilos each.) Notebook computer (3.5 kilos) Rope (6 kilos). Fire lighting kits (500 grams each) Portable CD player and CDs (4 kilos.) Short-wave radio (12 kilos) Medical kit (2 kilos.) Bottles of water (1.5 kilos each) Packets of sugar, flour, rice, powdered milk, coffee, tea. (Each packet weighs 500 grams) Cans of food (500 grams each) Box of novels and magazines (3 kilos) Source: Nunan D. (2000)
Example #4 (continued) three Now work with three other students and choose the most important three items that you absolutely need to take with you. Item #1 Item #2 Item #3
Example #5: Jigsaw Estebans routine Student A: drawings1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15 Student B: drawings2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14 Generate the story orally with your partner Write an essay together on a blank sheet of paper Time: 30 minutes Textbook: ¿Sabías qué? (2002) Esteban se levanta y se lava ….
Lets Discuss … Task? Why? What are the common features? Other types?
Task... meaningform Focus on both meaning and form Meaninginformation, idea Formgrammar, vocabulary ¡Qué divertido! ¡Qué música!
TBI … communication interactionnegotiation promotes communication, interaction and negotiation active scaffolding fosters active participation and scaffolding extended allows extended discourse
TBI … linguisticcognitive requires linguistic and cognitive skills accuracy fluency focuses on both accuracy and fluency real-time engages in real-time language processing
One Step More … From Question-Answer To Task-based Activities
Question-Answer Discussion --What did you do last weekend? Teacher: Did you go to the library? (select a student) John: No, I went to see a movie Teacher: What movie did you see? John: Shall we dance? Teacher: Who else went to see a movie? (select a student) Mary: No, I watched TV and ate pop corn. Teacher: What program did you watch? Mary: The Sopranos
What did you do last weekend? Task-Based Activity
Step 1 Activity Dance at a party Running five miles Playing video games Playing a sport Reading a book Watching TV Writing a letter Making dinner Sedentary Active __________________ Source: Lee (2000)
Step 2: Five More Activities Activity ______________ Sedentary Active _______________
Step 3: Interview … --Did you go fishing last week? --No, I read a book How to become a millionaire?
Step 4: Compare … Your partners responses to the categorizations you made in Steps 1 and 2.
Step 5: Conclusion … Use the scale to rate your partners week. very sedentaryas sedentary very active as active
Task-Based Activity The Most Interesting Person
Steps … Step 1 List 10 words that associate with interesting Step 2 Describe the person in U.S./in Spain/in France, etc. Step 3 Compare your answers with your partner Step 4 Who is the most interesting person? And why?
Criteria … Identifying a desired outcome Describe the person Breaking down the topic into subtopics 3-4 steps from easy to difficult Creating concrete tasks From words to sentences Building in linguistic support Vocabulary: adjectives Grammar: to be/like/…
Types Listing Ordering and sorting Sequencing/ranking Categorizing/classifying Comparing similarities/differences Problem solving Decision making Information gap Sharing experiences Describing/narrating
Participatory Structure Individual Intra-personal (private speech) Social Interpersonal Teacher-students Student-teacher/other students Student-student (group or pair-work)
ACTFL Proficiency Guidelines Incorporation of four skills plus culture Tasks instead of exercises Final Thoughts Authentic materials /pictures Feedback