Presentation on theme: "Water Resources Engineering (Intro)"— Presentation transcript:
1 Water Resources Engineering (Intro) ByDr.S.S.RaoMobile No ,
2 Water Resources Engineering (SBST-Syllabus) Hydrological cycle and its componentsClimatePrecipitation, Interception, evaporation, transpiration, infiltration, Subsurface water and runoffSurface water HydrologyBasic concepts in surface water hydrologyDetailed analysis of precipitation, evapotranspirationStream flow measurementsRunoff, Hydrographs, Floods, Flood routingErosion and reservoir sedimentationGroundwater HydrologyGroundwater basicsAquifer parametersPorosity, Specific yield, Storage Coefficient, Coefficient of Permeability, Transmissivity, Specific Capacity and their practical significanceDarcy’s lawDerivation of aquifer parameters, Pumping test analysisQuality of water and sea water intrusionNumerical Techniques in groundwater hydrologyGroundwater management
3 Applications of water resources Engineering Traditional ApplicationsIrrigation and Scheduling and Types of IrrigationDrinking waterPower GenerationWater qualitySalinityPollution of water in relation to useSalinity ingression in coastal aquifersModern ApplicationsGeographical information system (GIS)Statistical & Computer applications in water resourcesSpecial ApplicationsRain water harvestingWatershed ManagementArtificial recharge techniquesManagementPlanning of water resources & Basin ManagementReservoir planningLinear and Dynamic programming in water planning
4 References Engineering Hydrology by K.Subramaniya Hydrology by HM RagunathWater resources engineering Franzine, LindseyEngineering Hydrology by R.S.VarshneyGroundwater by HM RagunathGroundwater Hydrology by ToddGroundwater Resources Evaluation by WaltonManuals of standards and criteria of planning water resources projects- by economic commissions for Asia and far east, Bangkok
6 Water Scarcity in the World 2000 million people live under water stress by 2050(UNEP)2 out of every 3 persons would live under water stress by 2025By 2025, 1.8 billion people will live in countries or regions with absolute water scarcityPollution, climate, desertification, water scarcity are the major issues in the next century.Wars would be fought for waterAlready happening in our own country
16 Water contamination Leaky underground storage tanks Poorly constructed landfills and septic systemsImproperly abandoned mines and wellsThe overuse of fertilizers, pesticides, and road saltsRunoff from livestock confinement areasCareless industrial and manufacturing organizations
17 Sea water intrusionThe process by which over-pumping from an aquifer creates a flow imbalance within an area, which results in salt water encroaching into and contaminating a freshwater supply.
21 Ground water depletion and other issues Groundwater depletion has emerged as one of the most formidable consequences of agricultural development in the West Indian state of Gujarat over the last five decadesThe water levels in Mehsana are decreasing at an alarming rate of about 0.5 m in 1981 to 1.5 in 2000 to 3 m per year in 2015 and would further decrease to about 37 m in the next 15 years
25 Ground water Management SustainabilityDemand side managementSupply side managementGroundwater management in the river basin context:
26 SustainabilityCategorization of ground water development Based on Development in IndiaCategorySafe up to 70 %Semi Critical %Critical >90 %Over Exploited >100 %
27 Demand-side management: The second step is to put in place an effective system for regulating withdrawals to sustainable levels; such system may include:Registration of users through a permit or license system;Creating appropriate laws and regulatory mechanisms;A system of pricing that aligns the incentives for groundwater use with the goal of sustainability;Promoting conjunctive use;Encouraging water saving devices
28 Supply-side management The third aspect of managing groundwater is augmenting groundwater recharge through:[a] mass-based rainwater harvesting and groundwater recharge programs and activities;[b] maximizing surface water use for recharge;[c] improving incentives for water conservation and artificial recharge
29 Groundwater management in the river basin context: Groundwater interventions often tend to be too ‘local’ in their approach. like surface water, the groundwater resource too needs to be planned and managed for maximum basin-level efficiency.