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Prepared April 2013 by Tom Glanville and Shawn Shouse, ISU Extension Agricultural Engineers Emergency Water Storage for Livestock and Crop Production.

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Presentation on theme: "Prepared April 2013 by Tom Glanville and Shawn Shouse, ISU Extension Agricultural Engineers Emergency Water Storage for Livestock and Crop Production."— Presentation transcript:

1 Prepared April 2013 by Tom Glanville and Shawn Shouse, ISU Extension Agricultural Engineers Emergency Water Storage for Livestock and Crop Production

2 Drought in Iowa – Improving ~44% of Iowa remains in severe to extreme drought (4/9/2013) 2 March 5, 2013April 9, 2013 Even with normal rainfall, wells in some areas may not fully recover in 2013

3 Streamflow in Iowa - Improving Streamflow and topsoil moisture respond quickly to precipitation 3 March 6, 2013April 3, 2013

4 Shallow groundwater & wells in Iowa Respond much more slowly to rainfall than topsoil & streams Groundwater levels improving in NE Iowa …. remain low in NW Iowa According to IDNR, some NW Iowa water systems are starting 2013 growing season with lower groundwater reserves than in March 6, 2013 April 3, 2013

5 Drought Impacts on Wells Many farms & Rural Water Systems rely on shallow groundwater Shallow aquifers rely on normal precipitation to recharge them During drought… groundwater declines...wells may not meet daily water demands 5 Drought-affected water table Normal well output Normal water table Reduced well output

6 Drought Impacts on Water Supply –Daily peak water demands increase (hot weather) –System capacity decreases (low groundwater levels) –Demand exceeds capacity….causing periods of inadequate system pressure & flow 6 Flow Rate (gallons per minute) Water system capacity Water demand Midnight 6am Noon 6pm Midnight

7 Stretching Drought Affected Water Systems Improve overall water use efficiency (conserve water) Reduce peak system demands….some Regional Rural Water systems now asking: –Livestock producers to install on-farm water storage to even out demands on the system –Crop producers to fill crop sprayers from private wells if possible Example: If 8 daily 500 gallon sprayer fills are anticipated Pumping/storing 7.5 gallons/minute during 9 hour off-peak period (9 PM - 6 AM) could supply 4050 gallons for sprayer fills the following day 7

8 On-farm Water Storage Improves ability of drought-stressed wells and rural water connections to meet daily water needs –Stores water at night when well or rural water capacity exceeds farm demands –Provides supplemental flow when peak demands exceed well or rural water capacity 8

9 On-farm Water Storage to Meet Peak Demands 9 Midnight 6am Noon 6pm Midnight Water system capacity Water demand Water in tank Flow Rate ( gallons per minute )

10 Emergency Water Storage Requirements High capacity –1,000s of gallons needed for large poultry/livestock operations Obtained/constructed/installed quickly –In response to sudden water shortage Low cost –Probably used only during drought or other emergencies 10

11 Options for Emergency Water Storage Permanent Semi-permanent (non-portable) Temporary/portable 11

12 Permanent Water Storage Stand-alone underground concrete tank; or Tank basement built beneath office of livestock facility (Note: Iowa DNR does not allow common wall between potable water and manure storage tanks) Long lifetime Expensive for short-term (drought) use –May be a good long-term investment by livestock operations using low-yield wells (typical in Southern Iowa) 12

13 Underground concrete water storage 2400-head Southern Iowa swine finishing operation 13 14,000 gallon underground tank w ½ height shelter house for controls Costs: ~ $20,000 for tank & shelter and ~ $10,000 pumps, wiring, controllers, plumbing

14 Semi-permanent Water Storage Shallow tank constructed with bin rings, or small earthen pond Seal with waterproof liner Constructed relatively quickly (1-2 weeks) Offer large relatively low initial cost Not portable Weathering (sunlight/freezing) limits liner life Open top –Expect airborne contamination…water OK for livestock, not for humans –Some water lost to evaporation 14

15 Semi-permanent Storage Examples Vinyl pond liners ~ $0.60 to $0.85 per square foot (12 to 36 mil thickness) Underliner (geotextile) ~ $0.35 per square foot Bin sheets ~ $12 per linear foot of circumference (for foot dia.) Excavation ~ $2.50 per cubic yard 15,000 gallons: ~$3,500 above ground, $2,750 excavated Above ground: $ $0.15/gallon; Excavated: $ $0.11/gallon 15 15,000 gal capacity 36 ft dia X 2 ft deep 15,000 gal capacity 32 ft X 32 ft (surface) X 3 ft deep 2:1 wall side slope

16 Portable/Collapsible Onion Tanks Self-supporting open-topped Limited max capacity ,000 gal depending on brand More expensive than semi-permanent options, but portable 16

17 Portable/Collapsible Onion Tanks Covers available, but not sealed –Expect airborne contamination…water OK for livestock, NOT humans –Some water loss due to evaporation Risk of spillage reported….especially if not positioned on flat site Useful life? Significantly impacted by how carefully it is stored 17

18 Portable/Collapsible Pillow Tanks Totally sealed, no evaporation or airborne contaminants Stable, no water loss caused by tipping or bumping Portable…can be installed indoors to reduce solar heat gain…..livestock prefer cool water Useful life –Longer if installed indoors or under roof –Impacted by storage Example dimensions –10,000 gallons ft x 21 ft x 3 ft –20,000 gallons – 33 ft x 25 ft x 3.5 ft 18

19 Example Costs for Portable & Semi-permanent Tanks 19 Note significant difference in prices among vendors of pillow/onion tanks. Shop around to find best price Search Web using search terms such as: pillow tank, onion tank, blivets, water bladder, emergency water storage, potable water bladder

20 Background and Caveats Mention of specific brands/prices is for educational purposes only and does not imply product endorsement by Iowa State University Some vendors report 2-3 week delivery times …. contact suppliers for details Onion/pillow prices as of March 2013 …. via informal phone/ survey Note price difference among collapsible tank brands…..shop around for best price Bin ring & lined pond costs estimated based on estimated component and excavation prices mentioned in slide # 11 Costs estimates do not include pumps, controllers, or extension of piping and electrical service lines Safety First ! Seek assistance from qualified electrical & plumbing contractors to help insure safe installation and physical protection of appropriately sized electrical circuits and plumbing lines. 20

21 Estimating Costs Regardless of type of emergency storage, all require additional: –Pump & control system –Piping & electrical power extensions –Prices will vary with site conditions & available equipment 21 From well, rural water, or tanker Emergency storage To water distribution system pump/pressure controller Grounded & physically protected power circuit pump

22 How Much Emergency Storage? Depends on how it will be used For livestock…suggest minimum of 2-3 days of water –Provides cushion of time to react to unanticipated problems Well/pump failure Sudden excessive demand on regional rural water system Delays in water hauling services Delays obtaining emergency storage components 22

23 Approximate Daily Water Use by Beef Cattle (gallons per 100 head per day) 23 Weight70 degrees F90 degrees F 400 lb lb lb lb Lactating cows Mature bulls Source: Water Requirements for Beef Cattle, University of Nebraska Extension Publication G2060, March NOTE: If available, operation-specific water meter data typically provide a better estimate than tabulated values

24 Approximate Daily Water Use by Dairy Cattle (gallons per head per day) 24 Typegallons/day Milking cow30-50 Dry cow12-30 Source: Private Water Systems Handbook (5 th edition), Midwest Plan Service, 2009 NOTE: If available, operation-specific water meter data typically provide a better estimate than tabulated values

25 Approximate Daily Water Use by Swine (gallons per 100 pig spaces per day) 25 Production PhaseFeed/water typeNormalDry, arid climate Nurserydry/nipple Wean-finishdry feed/nipple136 Wean-finishdry feed/cup148 Wean-finishwet/dry102 Wean-finishwet/dry & cup137 Grow-finishdry feed/nipple Grow-finishdry feed / cup115 Grow-finishwet/dry125 Grow-finishwet/dry & cup144 Gestation - Farrowingwet/dry trough – dry feed /nipple Gilt developmentwet/dry trough143 Source: Special Edition REPORT: WATER WISE - Make Every Drop Count on Your Farm, National Pork Board, April april2012.pdf

26 Approximate Daily Water Use by Poultry (gallons per 1000 birds per day) 26 Age/type70 degrees F 90 degrees F 6-wk broilers wk broilers5681 Adult white leghorn layers 4657 Source: Dr. Hongwei Xin, Director -- Egg Industry Center NOTE: If available, operation-specific water meter data typically provide a better estimate than tabulated values

27 Final Thoughts Emergency storage can help a drought-impaired water source to meet peak daily water needs All emergency storage alternatives require time to construct/install –Even flexible tanks may have 2-3 week delivery –Begin planning & component acquisition NOW before summer temperatures and water supply stresses reach problem levels 27


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