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A Conversation about California Water Management: Past, Present and Future John A. Dracup Professor of the Graduate School Department of Civil and Environmental.

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Presentation on theme: "A Conversation about California Water Management: Past, Present and Future John A. Dracup Professor of the Graduate School Department of Civil and Environmental."— Presentation transcript:

1 A Conversation about California Water Management: Past, Present and Future John A. Dracup Professor of the Graduate School Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering University of California, Berkeley Science Cafe Cafe Royale San Francisco, California Tuesday, August 21, 2007

2 Outline The PastThe Past The PresentThe Present The FutureThe Future A SummaryA Summary

3 Outline The past: How Californias major water projects developed over time.The past: How Californias major water projects developed over time.

4 The evolution of Californias Major Water Projects Source: DWR web page 1. Los Angeles Aqueduct

5 Los Angeles Aqueduct- Mono Lake and Owens Valley Municipal Supply for the city of Los AngelesMunicipal Supply for the city of Los Angeles Two Aqueducts (1913 and 1970)Two Aqueducts (1913 and 1970) Total capacity: 775 ft 3 /sTotal capacity: 775 ft 3 /s Length: 223 and 137 milesLength: 223 and 137 miles Combination of channels, conduits,Combination of channels, conduits, pipelines and tunnels pipelines and tunnels Jawbone Siphon - Owens Valley Aqueduct

6 Source: DWR web page 1. Los Angeles Aqueduct 2. Federal Central Valley Project The evolution of Californias Major Water Projects

7 Central Valley Project (CVP) Multi-purpose Project:Multi-purpose Project: –Irrigation –Municipal, and Industrial Water –Recreation and Fish and Wildlife –Hydroelectric Power –Flood Control –Water Quality Integrated Federal scheme of reservoirs, dams, canals, power plants, etc.Integrated Federal scheme of reservoirs, dams, canals, power plants, etc. Started in 1937Started in 1937 Shasta Dam

8 Source: DWR web page 1. Los Angeles Aqueduct 3. Colorado River Aqueduct 2. Federal Central Valley Project The evolution of Californias Major Water Projects

9 Colorado River Aqueduct Colorado River Basin Area: 242,900 sq mi (629,100 km²) Grand Canyon

10 Colorado River Aqueduct Completed in 1941Completed in 1941 Municipal & Industrial use for MWD service areas (other cities than LA in So. Cal.)Municipal & Industrial use for MWD service areas (other cities than LA in So. Cal.) Length: 240 miles (386 km)Length: 240 miles (386 km) Capacity: 1.3 MAF/yearCapacity: 1.3 MAF/year Campaign to raise funds

11 Source: DWR web page 1. Los Angeles Aqueduct 3. Colorado River Aqueduct 4. State Water Project 2. Federal Central Valley Project The evolution of Californias Major Water Projects

12 State Water Project (SWP) The SWP is the nation's largest state-built water and power development and conveyance systemThe SWP is the nation's largest state-built water and power development and conveyance system Operated by the California DWROperated by the California DWR Supplies water for 23 million Californians and 755,000 acres of irrigated farmlandSupplies water for 23 million Californians and 755,000 acres of irrigated farmland

13 Source: DWR web page 1. Los Angeles Aqueduct 3. Colorado River Aqueduct 4. State Water Project 2. Federal Central Valley Project 5. SF & EB Supply Projects The evolution of Californias Major Water Projects

14 San Francisco Supply Provides water to 2.4 million people in San Francisco, Santa Clara, Alameda and San Mateo countiesProvides water to 2.4 million people in San Francisco, Santa Clara, Alameda and San Mateo counties Completed in 1934Completed in 1934 Hetch Hetchy Reservoir

15 San Francisco Supply Tuolomne River

16 East Bay Municipal Utility District (EBMUD) Network of reservoirs, aqueducts, treatment plants, and distribution facilitiesNetwork of reservoirs, aqueducts, treatment plants, and distribution facilities Extends from its principal water source, the Mokelumne River Basin in the Sierra Nevada range, 90 miles to the East of the Bay AreaExtends from its principal water source, the Mokelumne River Basin in the Sierra Nevada range, 90 miles to the East of the Bay Area Main Water Treatment Facility & Cogeneration Plant

17 Outline The PastThe Past The PresentThe Present The FutureThe Future A SummaryA Summary

18 Sources and Supply (in hm 3 /yr and percentage) Source: California Water Plan, 1998

19 Demand and Uses Urban: 15.4%Urban: 15.4% Agriculture: 50.1%Agriculture: 50.1% Environmental: 31.1%Environmental: 31.1% Other 2.8%Other 2.8%

20 Robust Matrix: Meeting the Needs Source: California Water Plan (2005 Update)

21 California Water Supply/Demand Imbalance 20 million Californians have the right to vote to move the water from North to South 70% of water supplies 75% of water demand

22 California Water Plan (2005 Update) Over the past 50 years, we have been able to meet our water demands primarily through an extensive network of water storage and conveyance facilities, groundwater development, and, more recently, by improving water use efficiency

23 Groundwater Management Groundwater Basins Map Current System

24 Groundwater Management Status of Groundwater Management Current System

25 Sustainable Groundwater Management Sustainable yield conceptSustainable yield concept Reduce and eliminate overdraftReduce and eliminate overdraft Monitoring quantity (well and basin metering) and quality (protect aquifers from contamination)Monitoring quantity (well and basin metering) and quality (protect aquifers from contamination) Explore new treatment technologies for remediationExplore new treatment technologies for remediation

26 Conjunctive Use Current System Operation of a groundwater basin in coordination with a surface water system to increase total water supply availability, improving the overall reliability of supplies Operation of a groundwater basin in coordination with a surface water system to increase total water supply availability, improving the overall reliability of supplies - Recharge in years of above-average precipitation - Groundwater extraction in years of below-average precipitation when surface water supplies are below normal

27 Pioneering Water Use Efficiency: Water pricing in California Urban prices: City of Los Angeles, $3.30 per 1000 gallons =Urban prices: City of Los Angeles, $3.30 per 1000 gallons = 0.91¢/m 3 Agricultural prices: MWD of Southern California, $241 per acre-foot =Agricultural prices: MWD of Southern California, $241 per acre-foot = 0.21¢/m ¢/m 3

28 Pioneering Water Efficiency: Urban use in City of LA 1970 to present: 35% increase in population – 7% increase in water use1970 to present: 35% increase in population – 7% increase in water use Rebates for low water use clothes washers & toiletsRebates for low water use clothes washers & toilets 1.5 million bathroom retrofit kits distributed1.5 million bathroom retrofit kits distributed Teacher water conservation workshopsTeacher water conservation workshops Xeriscape water saving landscapesXeriscape water saving landscapes

29 Outline The Past & PresentThe Past & Present The FutureThe Future A SummaryA Summary

30 Outline The Future:The Future: –Challenges –Integrated Water Management –Water conservation –Drought-Proofing

31 Challenges are more complex Population increasesPopulation increases Demand patterns shiftDemand patterns shift Environmental needs are better understoodEnvironmental needs are better understood Climate change effects become more evidentClimate change effects become more evident It is not the strongest of the species that survives, nor the most intelligent that survives. It is the one that is the most adaptable to change. Charles Darwin ( )

32 Integrated Water Management in Action Water conservationWater conservation –Retrofitting: low flow showers & toilets –Public education –Water use efficiency –Leak reduction –Water recycling Drought-proofing & drought preparednessDrought-proofing & drought preparedness Off-stream storageOff-stream storage Urban & Agricultural water pricingUrban & Agricultural water pricing Metering of urban households & irrigation wellsMetering of urban households & irrigation wells Source: California Water Plan (Update 2005) DWR web page:

33 in Southern California Water Recycling Water Factory 21:Water Factory 21: Water Recycling Facility Secondary recycled water is injected into the coastal aquifer, replenishing the aquifer and creating a barrier for seawater intrusion Water Factory 21

34 RDI limits vegetative growth and enhances water use efficiency for crop production RDI limits vegetative growth and enhances water use efficiency for crop production – Uses no more water than is available on a recurring basis from rainfall over a catchment – Great potential to contribute to an increasingly water- efficient horticulture – Validated on both fruit crops and wine grapes (quality improvement) – Pioneered in Australia Sustainable Irrigation Regulated Deficit Irrigation (RDI)

35 Off-line Storage Diamond Valley Reservoir (MWD)

36 Water Conservation 60% of new water sources California Water Plan (2005 Update), DWR

37 Water Conservation EBMUD Program Clothes washer, toilet and landscape rebatesClothes washer, toilet and landscape rebates Water usage studies and surveysWater usage studies and surveys Leak repairsLeak repairs Recycled water projectsRecycled water projects Public education, workshops and marketingPublic education, workshops and marketing East Bay Municipal Utility District (EBMUD) Fiscal Year 2005 Annual Report

38 Water Conservation EBMUD Program: Decoupling Demand

39 Outline The PresentThe Present The FutureThe Future ConclusionsConclusions

40 Conclusions California water system is highly dependent on large scale water transfers/reservoirs and conjunctive useCalifornia water system is highly dependent on large scale water transfers/reservoirs and conjunctive use Under future climate conditions, flexible systems allow management adjustments or midcourse corrections without causing major economic and social disruptionsUnder future climate conditions, flexible systems allow management adjustments or midcourse corrections without causing major economic and social disruptions

41 Conclusions Aggressive water conservation and recycling methods are effective in reducing water demandsAggressive water conservation and recycling methods are effective in reducing water demands Water conservation incorporates flexibility and adaptability into our systemWater conservation incorporates flexibility and adaptability into our system

42 Conclusions Even though CA has been promoting aggressive water conservation programs, a great part of the additional future water will come from this sourceEven though CA has been promoting aggressive water conservation programs, a great part of the additional future water will come from this source

43 THANK YOU QUESTIONS?

44 Dealing with Droughts

45 California: Last Major Drought Most severe drought on recordMost severe drought on record At peak, 155 CA reservoirs at ½ capacityAt peak, 155 CA reservoirs at ½ capacity Marina at Folsom Lake (near Sacramento), Oct. 1992

46 Drought-Proofing Long-Term Drought Preparedness Planning -Multi-year operations strategies for the large-scale water schemes (transfers/reservoir systems) -Local assistance actions (funding, monitoring) Response Plans for Dry Periods & Drought Events -State water actions and local assistance actions for Water year one and Early water year two

47 Integrated Water Management Generics Source: California Water Plan (2005 Update )


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