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Protecting Sources of Drinking Water Chuck Kanetsky, EPA Region 3.

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Presentation on theme: "Protecting Sources of Drinking Water Chuck Kanetsky, EPA Region 3."— Presentation transcript:

1 Protecting Sources of Drinking Water Chuck Kanetsky, EPA Region 3

2 Goal: Improve Source Water Quality Minimize risk to public health through risk reduction in source water areas Develop prevention & protection strategies, achieve substantial implementation of strategies for individual CWS

3 RISK PROTECTION BARRIERS RISK PREVENTION RISK MANAGEMENT RISK MONITORING/ COMPLIANCE INDIVIDUAL ACTION

4 EPAs Water Quality Laws Clean Water Act (CWA) 1972 –Water Quality Standards –Discharge Permits –Waste Water Treatment –Wetlands –Nonpoint Source Pollution –Assessment of water –Assessment of impaired waters Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) 1974 –Standard Setting for Drinking Water –Public Water Supply Supervision –Underground Injection Control –Sole Source Aquifer Program –Wellhead Protection Program –Source Water Assessment Program

5 Source Water Assessment Programs Required through SDWA Section 1453, 1996 Amendments Comprehensive assessment / prioritization of potential threats for every Public Water Supply System (PWS) All States developed programs for EPA approval Required extensive public involvement in program design Wellhead Protection Programs cornerstone of SWP Programs Funded through Drinking Water State Revolving Fund Diversity from State to State/system type by system type Challenges –No requirement for protection –Resources –Numbers of systems change

6 SWAP Basics State assessment program plans were due in early 1999 EPA approval within 6 months of submittal States assess sources for all public water systems by 2003 21,000 public water systems in EPA - Region 3, servicing > 25 million people

7 Source Water Assessment Dollars Delaware$674,604 District of Columbia$405,778 Maryland $1,764,090 Pennsylvania $5,327,070 Virginia $2,944,240 West Virginia$1,255,880

8 Key SWA Elements Delineation Contaminant Source Inventories Susceptibility Analyses Public participation and public access to assessment results

9 SWAP – Delineation Immediate area of impact –Well 5 year time of travel 1 mile radius –Surface water Watershed boundaries Intake

10 SWAP – Contamination Source Inventory Permit Compliance System Toxic Release Inventory Underground Storage Tanks RCRA Superfund Land Use Information

11 SWAP – Susceptibility Analysis Analysis of risk –Hydrogeology/hydrology –Understanding of contaminants –Effectiveness of existing protection programs

12 SWAP – Public Participation Public access to assessment results Educate public on potential problems Protection activities

13 Source Water Assessments Availability Target completion September 2003 Region 3 States have completed assessments for about 99.5% of 21,0000 Public Water Systems

14 Use Assessments for Surface & Ground Water Source Protection Source water protection strategies to address actual & potential contaminant sources Target substantial implementation of protection strategies for 50% of CWS and 62% population by 2011

15 R3 SWAP Findings (GW) DE, DC, MD, PA, VA, WV Most Prevalent Sources: Ground Water –Commercial/Industrial, Residential Housing, Agriculture –Highest rankings from R3 states: Residential septic systems, UST Most Threatening Sources: Ground Water –Commercial/Industrial, Residential Housing, Agriculture –Highest rankings from R3 states: UST, septic systems, crop production

16 R3 SWAP Findings (SW) DE, DC, MD, PA, VA, WV Most Prevalent Sources: Surface Water –Commercial/Industrial, Agriculture, Wastewater, Transportation –Highest rankings from R3 states: General agriculture, grazing, overall transportation Most Threatening Sources: Surface Water –Agriculture, Commercial/Industrial, Wastewater –Highest rankings from R3 states: General agriculture, Residential

17 Strategic Actions Complete & improve assessments Use assessments as basis for SW & GW protection plans Integrate actions: –Federal, State, local –CWA & SDWA Collaboration among Federal agencies/programs

18 Water Safe to Drink Measure #: Strategic Target SP-4National Office Lead: OGWDW 2011 Target: 62% Target measure; FY 08 State Grant Template measure. SP-4a is a PART measure. Note: Minimized risk is achieved by the substantial implementation, as determined by the state, of actions in a source water protection strategy. The universe is the most recent SDWIS inventory of community water systems. * FY 06 national commitment total adjusted to reflect weighted regional commitments. ** 2006 Adjusted is adjustment of the FY 06 commitment to reflect FY 05 results. National Program Manager Comments: 2011 Target: 50% (SP-4a) Community water systems: (SP-4b) Population: Measure Description: Percent of community water systems and percent of the population served by community water systems where risk to public health is minimized by source water protection.

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20 Region 3 State Definition for Substantial Implementation Delaware Strategies substantially implemented – These strategies refer to enforceable protection measures or standards adopted at the local or state level that require protection of water quality or quantity in a source water areas ( wellhead and watershed). (Examples would be local ordinances with SWP regulations, County wide ordinances with SWP regulations, UST Secondary containment policy). Maryland Strategy developed and initially implemented means that a local planning team has been established agreed upon a strategy and implemented a portion of the strategy. Substantially implemented means that the most significant risks were or are being addressed by implementing a strategy. For example if a community purchased the recharge area for a well or spring source for protection then the strategy is substantially implemented, even if it was accomplished many years ago. Pennsylvania Establishment of an approved local Source Water Protection Plan or the undertaking of relevant and sustainable actions/efforts that address priority risks as identified in the source water assessment. Virginia Waterworks has developed a watershed or wellhead protection plan. Plan does not have to be approved or certified by state but should include all elements of source water strategy such as: a. management team or advisory group that meets on a regular basis, b. identified potential contaminate source(s) [results of SWAPs], c. recommended action(s), and contingency planning [may be already stipulated in VA Waterworks Regulations] West Virginia Any community public water supply system or a group of systems that has a protection plan in place and is addressing at least three of the top protection measures identified in its state supplied source water protection plan and/or locally defined protective measures approved by the state is considered substantial implemented. For systems serving 3,000 or fewer people, substantial implementation will be determined on a system by system basis.

21 Integrate Federal, State & Local Actions Region 3 pilot projects – Schuylkill Action Network : PADEP, Philadelphia Water Department, EPA – Potomac Partnership : DW utilities, MDE, VDH,VADEQ, DCDOH, ICPRB, WVDHHR, PADEP, EPA –Source Water/UST Collaboration

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23 SAN Structure Reflects Priorities Acid Mine Drainage Agriculture Storm Water Pathogen/ Compliance Executive Steering Committee (PADEP, Phila. Water Dept, EPA, DRBC) Planning Committee Data Team Monitoring Strategy Funding Coordination Universities/Science Education/ Outreach Watershed Land Protection Collaborative

24 Potomac Partnership Mission Cooperative and Voluntary Partnership Improve Source Water Protection Multi-barrier Approach Safe Guard Public Health

25 Potomac Partnership Workgroups Strategy Ag/Pathogens DBP Early Warning Emerging Contaminants Urban Funding

26 Wellhead Protection 4 biennial cumulative reports from 91 – 99 WHP program used by states as foundation for SWP program WHP biennial data provides benchmark for progress on WHP and SWP Funded through CWA 106 and SDWA SRF Integral to groundwater protection in watersheds

27 Protecting Public Health: Leaking USTs - a major threat to groundwater supplies MOU with WCMD and EAID. Underground Storage Tank Efforts: Prioritize inspections Clean up priority tanks

28 Resources & Funding Drinking Water State Revolving Fund: grants for SWP staff, wellhead protection projects; loans for surface water protection projects Clean Water State Revolving Fund: loans for point & nonpoint source projects, land acquisition CWA grants: Sect. 106, 104(b)(3), 319, 604(b) Farm Bill

29 Drinking Water State Revolving Fund The SDWA, as amended in 1996, established the DWSRF to make funds available to drinking water systems to finance infrastructure improvements. Funds are also provided to small, disadvantaged communities and to programs implementing pollution prevention as a tool for ensuring safe drinking water. Nationally about $800 Million (20% State Match)

30 Drinking Water State Revolving Fund Grants for SWP staff, wellhead protection projects; loans for surface water protection projects through set-asides 15 % - Land acquisition, Capacity Development, Wellhead Protection 10% – Administer or provide technical assistance through SWP programs 2% Set-a-side – Technical Support For Small Systems

31 Springdale, PA - S tormwater, UST Storm event caused a salt storage pile to leach into the ground and into drinking water supply. Due to leaking UST, benzene contaminated ground water. Trichloroethylene (TCE) from another source also contaminated GW well. Springdale needed to improve management of land use.

32 Springdale, PA continued The Water Department set-up the Springdale Borough WHP Committee, with guidance from PRWA, and Allegheny County Health Department, to make recommendations to town Council and Planning Division of Allegheny County. With assistance from PA DEP SWP grant, the Committee developed a WHP plan, approved by PA DEP in 2003. Established a student education program with brochures and newsletters for residents

33 Zoning and Ordinances, Town of Townsend, DE Townsend is in southwestern NCC, in Middletown-Odessa-Townsend (M-O-T) Planning Region. Recently M-O-T has had accelerated growth and development. Townsend increased area through recent annexations, from original size of 111 acres to 587 acres today. Result is primary land use inside the town boundaries is Vacant Developable

34 Zoning and Ordinances, Town of Townsend, DE continued In 2002 the Town adopted a source water protection land use ordinance. Comprehensive environmental ordinance protects all wetlands, recognizes critical natural resource areas, promotes reforestation and preserves buffers Requires new building in water resource protection areas to discharge all roof runoff into underground recharge systems and limits the surface area that can be covered by asphalt, cement or other impermeable surfaces.

35 Parkersburg, WV Prepared a Wellhead Protection Plan assisted by the Great Lakes Rural Community Assistance Program Participated in the Source Water Assessment Plan Partnered with the USGS in developing a generic ground water model for water systems which use radial collector wells Abandoned three city wells by safely and properly closing them

36 Contact Information Kanetsky.charles@epa.gov 215-814-2735


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