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Clean Energy Project Analysis Course © Minister of Natural Resources Canada 2001 – Photo Credit: NRCan Solar Water Heating Project Analysis Glazed Flat Plate Collectors, Ontario, Canada
© Minister of Natural Resources Canada 2001 – Objectives Review basics of Solar Water Heating (SWH) systemsReview basics of Solar Water Heating (SWH) systems Illustrate key considerations for SWH project analysisIllustrate key considerations for SWH project analysis Introduce RETScreen ® SWH Project ModelIntroduce RETScreen ® SWH Project Model
© Minister of Natural Resources Canada 2001 – Domestic Hot WaterDomestic Hot Water Process HeatProcess Heat Swimming Pool HeatingSwimming Pool Heating …but also… Increased hot water storage Extended swimming season (pool heating) What do SWH systems provide? Photo Credit: Vadim Belotserkovsky Conference Centre, Bethel, Lesotho Housing Development, Kungsbacka, Sweden Photo Credit: Alpo Winberg/ Solar Energy Association of Sweden
© Minister of Natural Resources Canada 2001 – Components of SWH Systems Photo Credit: NRCan
© Minister of Natural Resources Canada 2001 – Unglazed Solar Collectors Low costLow cost Low temperatureLow temperature RuggedRugged LightweightLightweight Seasonal pool heatingSeasonal pool heating Low pressureLow pressure Poor performance in cold or windy weatherPoor performance in cold or windy weather Photo Credit: NRCan
© Minister of Natural Resources Canada 2001 – Glazed Flat Plate Solar Collectors Moderate costModerate cost Higher temperature operationHigher temperature operation Can operate at mains water pressureCan operate at mains water pressure Heavier and more fragileHeavier and more fragile Photo Credit: NRCan
© Minister of Natural Resources Canada 2001 – Evacuated Tube Collectors Higher costHigher cost No convection lossesNo convection losses High temperatureHigh temperature Cold climatesCold climates FragileFragile Installation can be more complicatedInstallation can be more complicated Snow is less of a problemSnow is less of a problem Photo Credit: NRCan Photo Credit: Nautilus Tube Developed and Manufactured in China
© Minister of Natural Resources Canada 2001 – Solar Water Heating in Various Climates For a domestic solar water heating system with 6 m 2 of glazed collector, a demand of 300 L/day of hot water at 60ºC and 300 L of storage, the solar fraction is:For a domestic solar water heating system with 6 m 2 of glazed collector, a demand of 300 L/day of hot water at 60ºC and 300 L of storage, the solar fraction is: 21% in Tromsø, Norway (70ºN) 40% in Yellowknife, Canada (62ºN) 32% in Warsaw, Poland (52ºN) 51% in Harbin, China (46ºN) 67% in Sacramento, USA (39ºN) 39% in Tokyo, Japan (36ºN) 78% in Marrakech, Morocco (32ºN) 75% in Beer-Sheva, Israel (31ºN) 81% in Matam, Senegal (16ºN) 59% in Puerto Limón, Costa Rica (10ºN) 59% in Jakarta, Indonesia (6ºS) 86% in Huancayo, Peru (12ºS) 69% in Harare, Zimbabwe (18ºS) 65% in Sydney, Australia (34ºS) 39% in Punta Arenas, Chile (53ºS)
© Minister of Natural Resources Canada 2001 – Examples of SWH System Costs and Benefits Glazed year-round system (w/storage) La Paz, Bolivia 2.2 GJ/m 2 $400/m 2 Evacuated tube year-round system (w/storage) Copenhagen, Denmark 1.8 GJ/m 2 $1,000/m 2 $0.15/m 3 $0.50/m 3 $0.05/kWh $0.15/kWh Unglazed summer-only swimming pool Montreal, Canada 1.5 GJ/m 2 $150/m 2
© Minister of Natural Resources Canada 2001 – Solar Water Heating Project Considerations Factors for successful projects:Factors for successful projects: Large demand for hot water to reduce importance of fixed costs High energy costs (e.g. natural gas not available) No reliable conventional energy supply Strong environmental interest by building owner/operator Daytime hot water loads require less storageDaytime hot water loads require less storage Lower cost, seasonal systems can be financially preferable to higher-cost year-round systemsLower cost, seasonal systems can be financially preferable to higher-cost year-round systems Maintenance similar to any plumbing system, but operator must be committed to timely maintenance and repairsMaintenance similar to any plumbing system, but operator must be committed to timely maintenance and repairs
© Minister of Natural Resources Canada 2001 – Examples: Australia, Botswana and Sweden Domestic Hot Water Systems On-grid, need a committed homeownerOn-grid, need a committed homeowner Can have long payback when energy prices are low Systems provide 20 to 80% of hot water Off-grid or where the energy supply is unreliableOff-grid or where the energy supply is unreliable Photo Credit: Marie Andrén, Solar Energy Association of Sweden Photo Credit: Vadim Belotserkovsky Photo Credit: The Australian Greenhouse Office Thermosiphon System, Australia House for Medical Staff in Rural Area, Botswana Homes, Malmö, Sweden
© Minister of Natural Resources Canada 2001 – Examples: USA and Canada Swimming Pool Systems Low-cost unglazed collectorsLow-cost unglazed collectors Summer pools in cold climates Extend the season in warm climates For summer use on a year-round pool in cold climates Can have 1 to 5-year paybacks Glazed collectors for heat year-roundGlazed collectors for heat year-round Filtration system serves as pumpFiltration system serves as pump Photo Credit: NRCan Photo Credit: Aquatherm Industries/ NREL Pix Pool system, Canada Community Pool System, Ontario, Canada
© Minister of Natural Resources Canada 2001 – Examples: Greece and Canada Commercial/Industrial Hot Water Systems Hotels/motels, apartments and office buildingsHotels/motels, apartments and office buildings Health centres & hospitalsHealth centres & hospitals Car washes, laundromats, restaurantsCar washes, laundromats, restaurants Sport facilities, schools, shower facilitiesSport facilities, schools, shower facilities Aquaculture, other small industryAquaculture, other small industry Photo Credit: NRCan Photo Credit: Regional Energy Agency of Crete/ISES Hotel, Agio Nikolaos, Crete Aquaculture Operation, British Columbia, Canada
© Minister of Natural Resources Canada 2001 – RETScreen ® Solar Water Heating Project Model World-wide analysis of energy production, life-cycle costs and greenhouse gas emissions reductionsWorld-wide analysis of energy production, life-cycle costs and greenhouse gas emissions reductions Glazed, unglazed, and evacuated tube Indoor and outdoor swimming pools (w/ or w/o cover) Service hot water systems (w/ and w/o storage) Only 12 points of data for RETScreen vs. 8,760 for hourly simulation modelsOnly 12 points of data for RETScreen ® vs. 8,760 for hourly simulation models Currently not covered:Currently not covered: Changes in service hot water daily loads Stand-alone service hot water Systems w/o storage having high solar fractions Sun tracking, concentrator & integrated solar collectors
© Minister of Natural Resources Canada 2001 – See e-Textbook Clean Energy Project Analysis: RETScreen ® Engineering and Cases Solar Water Heating Project Analysis Chapter RETScreen ® SWH Energy Calculation
© Minister of Natural Resources Canada 2001 – Example Validation of the RETScreen ® SWH Project Model RETScreen ® compared to: WATSUN for domestic hot water system in Toronto, Canada:WATSUN for domestic hot water system in Toronto, Canada: ENERPOOL for 48-m 2 summer pool in Montreal, CanadaENERPOOL for 48-m 2 summer pool in Montreal, Canada Energy required to within 2% Monitored data from a 1,200 m 2 summer pool in Möhringen, GermanyMonitored data from a 1,200 m 2 summer pool in Möhringen, Germany Energy required to within 3% and solar energy production to within 14% RETScreen vs. monitored data from 10 domestic hot water systems in Guelph, Canada RETScreenWATSUNDiff. Incident radiation (GJ) % Load (GJ) % Energy delivered (GJ) % Pump run time (h)1,8741,8004.1%
© Minister of Natural Resources Canada 2001 – Conclusions Unglazed, glazed and evacuated tube collectors provide hot water for many uses in any climateUnglazed, glazed and evacuated tube collectors provide hot water for many uses in any climate Significant hot water demand, high energy costs, and strong commitment on part of owner/operator are important factors in successSignificant hot water demand, high energy costs, and strong commitment on part of owner/operator are important factors in success RETScreen ® calculates:RETScreen ® calculates: Service hot water load and swimming pool load Performance of solar swimming pool and service hot water systems with or without storage RETScreen ® is an annual analysis with monthly resource calculation that can achieve accuracy comparable to hourly simulation modelsRETScreen ® is an annual analysis with monthly resource calculation that can achieve accuracy comparable to hourly simulation models RETScreen ® can provide significant preliminary feasibility study cost savingsRETScreen ® can provide significant preliminary feasibility study cost savings
© Minister of Natural Resources Canada 2001 – Questions? Solar Water Heating Project Analysis Module RETScreen ® International Clean Energy Project Analysis Course For further information please visit the RETScreen Website at
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