Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Online Counseling Resource YCMOU ELearning Drive… School of Architecture, Science and Technology Yashwantrao Chavan Maharashtra Open University, Nashik.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Online Counseling Resource YCMOU ELearning Drive… School of Architecture, Science and Technology Yashwantrao Chavan Maharashtra Open University, Nashik."— Presentation transcript:

1 Online Counseling Resource YCMOU ELearning Drive… School of Architecture, Science and Technology Yashwantrao Chavan Maharashtra Open University, Nashik – , India

2 SEP-S08071-CP1-05 Introduction Programmes and Courses SEP –S CP1-UN1

3 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… Credits Academic Inputs by Sonali Alkari Faculty YCMOU Nagpur Centre, Faculty LAD college P.G. D of Biotechnology Research officer Ankur Seeds Pvt Ltd

4 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2008, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.4 How to Use This Resource Counselor at each study center should use this presentation to deliver lecture of minutes during Face-To-Face counseling. Discussion about students difficulties or tutorial with assignments should follow the lecture for about minutes. Handouts (with 6 slides on each A4 size page) of this presentation should be provided to each student. Each student should discuss on the discussion forum all the terms which could not be understood. This will improve his writing skills and enhance knowledge level about topics, which shall be immensely useful for end exam. Appear several times, for all the Self-Tests, available for this course. Student can use handouts for last minutes preparation just before end exam.

5 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2008, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.5 Learning Objectives After studying this module, you should be able to: Describe computer viruses Describe software Cracking Describe software hacking Discuss computer security

6 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… Computer Security-1 Computer security is a branch of technology known as information security as applied to computers. "Security" is a concept that is unique to each situation. Security is extraneous to the function of a computer application, rather than ancillary to it, thus security necessarily imposes restrictions on the application's behavior. The objective of computer security varies and can include protection of information from theft or corruption, or the preservation of availability, as defined in the security policy. © 2008, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.6

7 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… Computer Security-2 This makes computer security particularly challenging because it is hard enough just to make computer programs do everything they are designed to do correctly. Furthermore, negative requirements are deceptively complicated to satisfy and require exhaustive testing to verify, which is impractical for most computer programs. Computer security provides a technical strategy to convert negative requirements to positive enforceable rules. For this reason, computer security is often more technical and mathematical than some computer science fields. © 2008, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.7

8 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… Computer Security-3 Typical approaches to improving computer security (in approximate order of strength) can include the following: Physically limit access to computers to only those who will not compromise security. Hardware mechanisms that impose rules on computer programs, thus avoiding depending on computer programs for computer security. Operating system mechanisms that impose rules on programs to avoid trusting computer programs. Programming strategies to make computer programs dependable and resist subversion. © 2008, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.8

9 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… Security Architecture-1 Security Architecture can be defined as the design artifacts that describe how the security controls (security countermeasures) are positioned, and how they relate to the overall information technology architecture. These controls serve the purpose to maintain the system's quality attributes, among them confidentiality, integrity, availability, accountability and assurance. In simpler words, a security architecture is the plan that shows where security measures need to be placed. If the plan describes a specific solution then, prior to building such a plan, one would make a risk analysis. © 2008, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.9

10 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… Security Architecture-2 If the plan describes a generic high level design (reference architecture) then the plan should be based on a threat analysis. Computer security imposes requirements on computers that are different from most system requirements because they often take the form of constraints on what computers are not supposed to do. Computer security is critical in almost any technology- driven industry which operates on computer systems. The issues of computer based systems and addressing their countless vulnerabilities are an integral part of maintaining an operational industry. © 2008, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.10

11 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… Software Cracking-1 Software cracking is the process of bypassing the registration and payment options on a software product to remove copy protection safeguards or to turn a demo version of software into a fully functional version without paying for it. Cracking software generally requires loading the executable into a hexadecimal code editor and directly modifying it. The executable is then run in place of the original. Software cracking is considered illegal and cracked software is often called pirated software. © 2008, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.11

12 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… Software Cracking-2 Cracked software generally has had the executable modified and can cause undesirable behavior. The most common software crack is the modification of an application's binary to cause or prevent a specific key branch in the program's execution. This is accomplished by reverse engineering the compiled program code using a debugger until the software cracker reaches the subroutine that contains the primary method of protecting the software (or by disassembling an executable file with a program such as IDA). © 2008, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.12

13 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… Software Cracking-3 Software cracking is the modification of software to remove protection methods: copy prevention, trial/demo version, serial number, hardware key, date checks, CD check or software annoyances like nag screens and adware. The distribution and use of cracked copies is illegal in almost every developed country. There have been many lawsuits over cracking software, but most have been to do with the distribution of the duplicated product rather than the process of defeating the protection, due to the difficulty of constructing legally sound proof of individual guilt in the latter instance. © 2008, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.13

14 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… Software Cracking-4 In the United States, the passing of the Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) legislation made software cracking, as well as the distribution of information which enables software cracking, illegal. However, the law has hardly been tested in the U.S. judiciary in cases of reverse engineering for personal use only. The European Union passed the European Union Copyright Directive in May 2001, making software copyright infringement illegal in member states once national legislation has been enacted pursuant to the directive. © 2008, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.14

15 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… Software Cracking-5 The most common software crack is the modification of an application's binary to cause or prevent a specific key branch in the program's execution. The binary is then modified using the debugger or a hex editor in a manner that replaces a prior branching opcode with its complement or a NOP opcode so the key branch will either always execute a specific subroutine or skip over it. This is accomplished by reverse engineering the compiled program code using a debugger such as SoftICE, OllyDbg, GDB, or MacsBug until the software cracker reaches the subroutine that contains the primary method of protecting the software. © 2008, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.15

16 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… Software Cracking-6 Almost all common software cracks are a variation of this type. Proprietary software developers are constantly developing techniques such as code obfuscation, encryption, and self-modifying code to make this modification increasingly difficult. Due to the potential legal repercussions, many individuals who release cracks to the public for commercially available software choose to remain anonymous. This can often create confusion as the available documentation is often sparse. It is beyond the ability of most to determine the exact operations the crack will execute. © 2008, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.16

17 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… Software Cracking-7 A specific example of this technique is a crack that removes the expiration period from a time- limited trial of an application. These cracks are usually programs that patch the program executable and sometimes the.dll or.so linked to the application. Similar cracks are available for software that requires a hardware dongle. A company can also break the copy preventions of programs that they have legally purchased but that are licensed to particular hardware, so that there is no risk of downtime due to hardware failure. © 2008, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.17

18 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… Software Cracking-8 Password cracking is the process of recovering passwords from datd that has been stored in or transmitted by a computer system. A common approach is to repeatedly try guesses for the password. The purpose of password cracking might be to help a user recover a forgotten password (though installing an entirely new password is less of a security risk, but involves system administration privileges), to gain unauthorized access to a system, or as a preventive measure by system administrators to check for easily crackable passwords. © 2008, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.18

19 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… Software Cracking-9 A good example of this technique is a crack that removes the expiration period from a time-limited trial of an application. These cracks are usually programs that patch the program executable and sometimes the.dll or so linked to the application. Similar cracks are available for software that requires a hardware dongle. A company can also break the copy preventions of programs that they have legally purchased but that are licensed to particular hardware, so that there is no risk of downtime due to hardware failure (and, of course, no need to restrict oneself to running the software on bought hardware only). © 2008, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.19

20 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… Computer Hacking-1 Computer Hacking is the practice of modifying computer hardware and software to accomplish a goal outside of the creators original purpose. People who engage in computer hacking activities are often called hackers. Since the word hack has long been used to describe someone who is incompetent at his/her profession, some hackers claim this term is offensive and fails to give appropriate recognition to their skills. Computer hacking is most common among teenagers and young adults, although there are many older hackers as well. © 2008, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.20

21 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… Computer Hacking-2 Computer hacking subculture is often referred to as the network hacker subculture or simply the computer underground. According to its adherents, cultural values center around the idea of creative and extraordinary computer usage. Computer hacking can also lead to other constructive technological developments, since many of the skills developed from hacking apply to more mainstream pursuits. © 2008, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.21

22 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… Hacker-1 Many hackers are true technology buffs who enjoy learning more about how computers work and consider computer hacking an art form. They often enjoy programming and have expert-level skills in one particular program. For these individuals, computer hacking is a real life application of their problem-solving skills. In a security context, a hacker is someone involved in computer security/insecurity, specializing in the discovery of exploits in systems (for exploitation or prevention), or in obtaining or preventing unauthorized access to systems through skills, tactics and detailed knowledge.securityinsecurity © 2008, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.22

23 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… Hacker–2 In common usage, hacker is generic term for a computer criminal, often with a specific specialty in computer intrusion. While other definitions peculiar to the computer enthusiast community exist, they are rarely used in mainstream context. In the most common general form of this usage, "hacker" refers to a black-hat hacker (a malicious or criminal hacker). There are also ethical hackers (more commonly referred to as white hats), and those more ethically ambiguous (grey hats). © 2008, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.23

24 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… Hacking Software-1

25 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… Hacking Software-2

26 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… 26 Computer Viruses-1 A computer virus is a computer program that can copy itself and infect a computer without permission or knowledge of the user. The term "virus" is also commonly used, albeit erroneously, to refer to many different types of malware and adware programs. The original virus may modify the copies, or the copies may modify themselves, as occurs in a metamorphic virus. A virus can only spread from one computer to another when its host is taken to the uninfected computer, for instance by a user sending it over a network or the Internet, or by carrying it on a removable medium such as a floppy disk, CD, or USB drive. © 2008, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.

27 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.27 Computer Viruses-2 Viruses can spread to other computers by infecting files on a network file system or a file system that is accessed by another computer. Viruses are sometimes confused with computer worms and Trojan horses. A worm can spread itself to other computers without needing to be transferred as part of a host, and a Trojan horse is a file that appears harmless. Worms and Trojans may cause harm to either a computer system's hosted data, functional performance, or networking throughput, when executed. That is why it is so hard for people to find viruses and other malware themselves and why they have to use spyware programs and registry processors.

28 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2008, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.28 Computer Viruses-3 Most personal computers are now connected to the Internet and to local area networks, facilitating the spread of malicious code. Today's viruses may also take advantage of network services such as the World Wide Web, , Instant Messaging and file sharing systems to spread, blurring the line between viruses and worms. Furthermore, some sources use an alternative terminology in which a virus is any form of self- replicating malware. Some malware is programmed to damage the computer by damaging programs, deleting files, or reformatting the hard disk.

29 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… Symptoms of a Computer Virus The following are some primary indicators that a computer may be infected: The computer runs slower than usual. The computer stops responding, or it locks up frequently. The computer crashes, and then it restarts every few minutes. The computer restarts on its own. Additionally, the computer does not run as usual. Disks or disk drives are inaccessible. There is a double extension on an attachment that you recently opened, such as a.jpg,.vbs,.gif, or.exe. extension. An antivirus program is disabled for no reason. Additionally, the antivirus program cannot be restarted. © 2008, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.29

30 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… How to Remove a Computer Virus-1 Even for an expert, removing a computer virus can be a difficult task without the help of computer virus removal tools. Some computer viruses and other unwanted software, such as spyware, even reinstall themselves after the viruses have been detected and removed. Fortunately, by updating the computer and by using antivirus tools, you can help permanently remove unwanted software. © 2008, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.30

31 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… How to Remove a Computer Virus-2 To remove a computer virus, follow these steps: Install the latest updates from Microsoft Update on the computer. Update the antivirus software on the computer. Then, perform a thorough scan of the computer by using the antivirus software. Download, install, and then run the Microsoft Malicious Software Removal Tool to remove existing viruses on the computer. To download the Malicious Software Removal Tool, visit the following Microsoft Web site: default.mspx default.mspx © 2008, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.31

32 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… How to protect your Computer against Viruses To protect your computer against viruses, follow these steps: On the computer, turn on the firewall. Keep the computer operating system up-to-date. Use updated antivirus software on the computer. Use updated antispyware software on the computer. t.mspx(http://www.microsoft.com/protect/compute r/default.mspx) t.mspx © 2008, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.32

33 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… What You Learn… Computer security is a branch of technology known as information security as applied to computers. Software cracking is the process of bypassing the registration and payment options on a software product to remove copy protection safeguards or to turn a demo version of software into a fully functional version without paying for it. Computer Hacking is the practice of modifying computer hardware and software to accomplish a goal outside of the creators original purpose. A computer virus is a computer program that can copy itself and infect a computer without permission or knowledge of the user. © 2008, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.33

34 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… Critical Thinking Questions oWrite a short note on computer security ? oDescribe computer hacking. oDescribe software cracking. oWrite a note on computer viruses, their symptoms and prevention. © 2008, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.34

35 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… Hints For Critical Thinking Question oComputer security is a branch of technology known as information security as applied to computers. oMeaning, scope and application hacking oMeaning, scope and application cracking oDefinition, effect, symptoms and prevention of viruses © 2008, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.35

36 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… Study Tips:1 Book1 Title: Security Warrior Author: Cyrus Peikari, Anton Chuvakin Publisher: O'Reilly Media, Inc. Book2 Title: Fundamentals of computers Author: V. Rajaraman Publisher: Prentice~Hall of India 36© 2008, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.

37 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… Study Tips:2 Book3 Title: Fundamental of computers Hardware Author: M.S.Bhatia Publishers: Khanna book publishing Book4 Title: Bioinformatics Author: C.V. Murthy. Publishers: Himalaya PublishingHouse, India 37© 2008, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.

38 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… Study Tips Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia Wikipedia the free encyclopedia 38© 2008, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.

39 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… End of the Presentation Thank You 39© 2008, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.


Download ppt "Online Counseling Resource YCMOU ELearning Drive… School of Architecture, Science and Technology Yashwantrao Chavan Maharashtra Open University, Nashik."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google