Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

1 Quality and Consumer acceptability Prof. I.E.Psomas Laboratory of Food Hygiene School of Veterinary Medicine Aristotle University of Thessaloniki GREECE.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "1 Quality and Consumer acceptability Prof. I.E.Psomas Laboratory of Food Hygiene School of Veterinary Medicine Aristotle University of Thessaloniki GREECE."— Presentation transcript:

1

2 1 Quality and Consumer acceptability Prof. I.E.Psomas Laboratory of Food Hygiene School of Veterinary Medicine Aristotle University of Thessaloniki GREECE Prof. I.E.Psomas Laboratory of Food Hygiene School of Veterinary Medicine Aristotle University of Thessaloniki GREECE

3 2 Chemical contaminants in crop production Pesticides Pesticides Naturally occurring toxicants (mycotoxins, higher plant toxicants) Naturally occurring toxicants (mycotoxins, higher plant toxicants) Nitrate Nitrate Metals Metals Pesticides Pesticides Naturally occurring toxicants (mycotoxins, higher plant toxicants) Naturally occurring toxicants (mycotoxins, higher plant toxicants) Nitrate Nitrate Metals Metals

4 3 Routes by which pesticides reach the food chain Treatment of crops Treatment of crops Veterinary use Veterinary use In food manufacture and retailing In food manufacture and retailing In the general environment In the general environment In the home In the home Treatment of crops Treatment of crops Veterinary use Veterinary use In food manufacture and retailing In food manufacture and retailing In the general environment In the general environment In the home In the home

5 4 EC Legislation governing pesticide MRLs in products of plant origin (Council Directive 2000/24/EC) Council Directive 76/895/EEC Council Directive 76/895/EEC Council Directive 86/362/EEC Council Directive 86/362/EEC Council Directive 86/363/EEC Council Directive 86/363/EEC Council Directive 90/642/EEC Council Directive 90/642/EEC Council Directive 76/895/EEC Council Directive 76/895/EEC Council Directive 86/362/EEC Council Directive 86/362/EEC Council Directive 86/363/EEC Council Directive 86/363/EEC Council Directive 90/642/EEC Council Directive 90/642/EEC

6 5 Farming Food manufacture Food retailing Food preparation in the home Control of pesticides according to the Farm to Table Approach Types of control: 1. Control the availability and/or use of pesticides 2. Limit contamination from the general environment 3. Halt the supply of contaminated food 4. Limit the concentrations of pesticides allowed in food 5. Advise consumers on how to avoid pesticide contamination of food in the home (1,2,3,4) (1,2,5)

7 6 Consumption estimation (how much of the food is eaten?) Occurrence assessment (what foods contain pesticides, at what levels?) Hazard evaluation (how dangerous is the pesticide?) Intake estimation (what is the high intake of consumers?) Risk estimation (how does the risk intake compare to acceptable level?) General scheme for pesticide risk assessment

8 7 Major mycotoxins in feed/foodstuffs Aflatoxins Aflatoxins Ochratoxins Ochratoxins Fumonisins Fumonisins Trichothecenes Trichothecenes Zearalenone Zearalenone

9 8 Phases of a food safety management programme for mycotoxins 1. Setting of regulatory limits 2. Establishment of a monitoring programme 3. Control through good agricultural practices 4. Control through processing 5. Decontamination through specific treatments 6. Consumer/Producer education 1. Setting of regulatory limits 2. Establishment of a monitoring programme 3. Control through good agricultural practices 4. Control through processing 5. Decontamination through specific treatments 6. Consumer/Producer education

10 9 Pre-harvest control Management of insect infestation (Integrated Pest Management control programmes) Management of insect infestation (Integrated Pest Management control programmes) Management of crop residues and crop rotation Management of crop residues and crop rotation Irrigation and soil condition Irrigation and soil condition Development of resistant plant varieties Development of resistant plant varieties Management of insect infestation (Integrated Pest Management control programmes) Management of insect infestation (Integrated Pest Management control programmes) Management of crop residues and crop rotation Management of crop residues and crop rotation Irrigation and soil condition Irrigation and soil condition Development of resistant plant varieties Development of resistant plant varieties

11 10 Post-harvest control and Decontamination Physical methods of decontamination Physical methods of decontamination Biological Decontamination Biological Decontamination Chemical Inactivation Chemical Inactivation Physical methods of decontamination Physical methods of decontamination Biological Decontamination Biological Decontamination Chemical Inactivation Chemical Inactivation

12 11 Physical methods of decontamination Cleaning Cleaning Segregation and sorting Segregation and sorting Thermal degradation Thermal degradation Microwave treatment Microwave treatment Solar degradation Solar degradation Extrusion cooking (promising) Extrusion cooking (promising) Cleaning Cleaning Segregation and sorting Segregation and sorting Thermal degradation Thermal degradation Microwave treatment Microwave treatment Solar degradation Solar degradation Extrusion cooking (promising) Extrusion cooking (promising)

13 12 Microbiological Decontamination Ethanol fermentation Ethanol fermentation Probiotic mixtures (Lactobacillus, Propionibacterium) Probiotic mixtures (Lactobacillus, Propionibacterium) Ethanol fermentation Ethanol fermentation Probiotic mixtures (Lactobacillus, Propionibacterium) Probiotic mixtures (Lactobacillus, Propionibacterium)

14 13 Chemical Inactivation Nixtamalization/alkaline hydrolysis Nixtamalization/alkaline hydrolysis Bisulfite Bisulfite Ammoniation Ammoniation Hydrogen peroxide/sodium bicarbonate Hydrogen peroxide/sodium bicarbonate Ozonation Ozonation Activated charcoal Activated charcoal Nixtamalization/alkaline hydrolysis Nixtamalization/alkaline hydrolysis Bisulfite Bisulfite Ammoniation Ammoniation Hydrogen peroxide/sodium bicarbonate Hydrogen peroxide/sodium bicarbonate Ozonation Ozonation Activated charcoal Activated charcoal

15 14 Ranges in 1987 and 1996 of maximum tolerated levels (ng/g) for some aflatoxins and countries that have regulations for these B1 in foodstuffs B1 in foodstuffs B1+B2+G1+G2 in foodstuffs B1+B2+G1+G2 in foodstuffs B1 in feedstuffs B1 in feedstuffs B1+B2+G1+G2 in feedstuffs B1+B2+G1+G2 in feedstuffs B1 in foodstuffs B1 in foodstuffs B1+B2+G1+G2 in foodstuffs B1+B2+G1+G2 in foodstuffs B1 in feedstuffs B1 in feedstuffs B1+B2+G1+G2 in feedstuffs B1+B2+G1+G2 in feedstuffs 0-50 (1987)-(29)* 0-30 (1996)-(33)* 0-50 (1987)-(30)* 0-50 (1996)-(48)* (1987)-(16)* (1996)-(19)* (8)* (21)* 0-50 (1987)-(29)* 0-30 (1996)-(33)* 0-50 (1987)-(30)* 0-50 (1996)-(48)* (1987)-(16)* (1996)-(19)* (8)* (21)* *countries with legislation for mycotoxins

16 15 Types of higher plant toxicants Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (several plant species) Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (several plant species) Psoralens (celery, legumes, citrus fruits) Psoralens (celery, legumes, citrus fruits) Bracken carcinogen (bracken) Bracken carcinogen (bracken) Glycoalkaloids (potatoes, tomatoes) Glycoalkaloids (potatoes, tomatoes) Glycosinolates (Brassicas,vegetables, rapeseed) Glycosinolates (Brassicas,vegetables, rapeseed) Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (several plant species) Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (several plant species) Psoralens (celery, legumes, citrus fruits) Psoralens (celery, legumes, citrus fruits) Bracken carcinogen (bracken) Bracken carcinogen (bracken) Glycoalkaloids (potatoes, tomatoes) Glycoalkaloids (potatoes, tomatoes) Glycosinolates (Brassicas,vegetables, rapeseed) Glycosinolates (Brassicas,vegetables, rapeseed)

17 16 Factors that influence the levels of nitrate in crops The season in which the crops are grown The season in which the crops are grown Increased irrigation may decrease nitrate concentrations in crops Increased irrigation may decrease nitrate concentrations in crops Storage of vegetables has unpredictable effects Storage of vegetables has unpredictable effects Cooking may reduce levels of nitrite in vegetables Cooking may reduce levels of nitrite in vegetables Lengthening the period between nitrogen fertiliser usage and crops harvesting may decrease nitrate levels in crops Lengthening the period between nitrogen fertiliser usage and crops harvesting may decrease nitrate levels in crops The effects of organic farming on nitrate levels are not established The effects of organic farming on nitrate levels are not established The season in which the crops are grown The season in which the crops are grown Increased irrigation may decrease nitrate concentrations in crops Increased irrigation may decrease nitrate concentrations in crops Storage of vegetables has unpredictable effects Storage of vegetables has unpredictable effects Cooking may reduce levels of nitrite in vegetables Cooking may reduce levels of nitrite in vegetables Lengthening the period between nitrogen fertiliser usage and crops harvesting may decrease nitrate levels in crops Lengthening the period between nitrogen fertiliser usage and crops harvesting may decrease nitrate levels in crops The effects of organic farming on nitrate levels are not established The effects of organic farming on nitrate levels are not established

18 17 Heavy metals in plants Lead Lead Cadmium Cadmium Mercury Mercury Arsenic Arsenic Aluminium Aluminium Lead Lead Cadmium Cadmium Mercury Mercury Arsenic Arsenic Aluminium Aluminium

19 18 ReferencesReferences Official Journal of the European Communities, Commission Directive 2000/24/EC of April 2000 (L 107/28, ) Official Journal of the European Communities, Commission Directive 2000/24/EC of April 2000 (L 107/28, ) European Commission, Opinion of the Scientific Committee on Plants regarding variable pesticide residues in fruit and vegetables (Opinion expressed by SCP on 14 July 1998) European Commission, Opinion of the Scientific Committee on Plants regarding variable pesticide residues in fruit and vegetables (Opinion expressed by SCP on 14 July 1998) Third Joint FAO/WHO/UNEP International Conference on mycotoxins (Tunis, Tunisia, 3-6 March 1999) Third Joint FAO/WHO/UNEP International Conference on mycotoxins (Tunis, Tunisia, 3-6 March 1999) Safety of Chemicals in Food (chemical contaminants) Ed. David Watson, Ellis Horwood series in Food Science and Technology (1993) Safety of Chemicals in Food (chemical contaminants) Ed. David Watson, Ellis Horwood series in Food Science and Technology (1993) Official Journal of the European Communities, Commission Directive 2000/24/EC of April 2000 (L 107/28, ) Official Journal of the European Communities, Commission Directive 2000/24/EC of April 2000 (L 107/28, ) European Commission, Opinion of the Scientific Committee on Plants regarding variable pesticide residues in fruit and vegetables (Opinion expressed by SCP on 14 July 1998) European Commission, Opinion of the Scientific Committee on Plants regarding variable pesticide residues in fruit and vegetables (Opinion expressed by SCP on 14 July 1998) Third Joint FAO/WHO/UNEP International Conference on mycotoxins (Tunis, Tunisia, 3-6 March 1999) Third Joint FAO/WHO/UNEP International Conference on mycotoxins (Tunis, Tunisia, 3-6 March 1999) Safety of Chemicals in Food (chemical contaminants) Ed. David Watson, Ellis Horwood series in Food Science and Technology (1993) Safety of Chemicals in Food (chemical contaminants) Ed. David Watson, Ellis Horwood series in Food Science and Technology (1993)


Download ppt "1 Quality and Consumer acceptability Prof. I.E.Psomas Laboratory of Food Hygiene School of Veterinary Medicine Aristotle University of Thessaloniki GREECE."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google