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CIEG 301: Structural Analysis INTRODUCTION Types of Structures Loads.

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Presentation on theme: "CIEG 301: Structural Analysis INTRODUCTION Types of Structures Loads."— Presentation transcript:

1 CIEG 301: Structural Analysis INTRODUCTION Types of Structures Loads

2 Corresponding Reading Chapter 1 of textbook Chapter 1 of textbook

3 What Do Structural Engineers Do? Analyze and design new structures Analyze and design new structures Investigate the capacity and serviceability of existing structures Investigate the capacity and serviceability of existing structures Develop retrofit methods for existing structures with inadequate capacity Develop retrofit methods for existing structures with inadequate capacity Forensic investigations Forensic investigations Research and development Research and development

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5 Building Types Majority of buildings are 2 – 20 stories Majority of buildings are 2 – 20 stories Taller office buildings Taller office buildings Sports arenas Sports arenas Low seismic / high seismic Low seismic / high seismic

6 Bridge Types Highway Highway Railroad Railroad Shipping Shipping Commuter Commuter Pedestrian Pedestrian

7 Design Objectives Strength Strength Constructability Constructability Serviceability Serviceability Maintainability Maintainability Economy Economy Aesthetics Aesthetics

8 Design Process Initial planning Initial planning Determination of design alternatives Determination of design alternatives Preliminary design of alternatives Preliminary design of alternatives Evaluation of alternatives Evaluation of alternatives Design, analysis, and redesign of selected alternative Design, analysis, and redesign of selected alternative Construction Construction

9 Structure Types Frames Frames Trusses Trusses Slab-on-stringer Slab-on-stringer Cables Cables Arches Arches Surface structures Surface structures Complex structures Complex structures

10 Member Types Each of these structures is comprised of hundreds or thousands of members Each of these structures is comprised of hundreds or thousands of members Some common member types Some common member types Beams / Girders / stringers - flexural members – load applied perpendicular to length, moment and shear are primary forces Beams / Girders / stringers - flexural members – load applied perpendicular to length, moment and shear are primary forces Columns – compression members – load applied parallel to length at member ends, axial force dominates Columns – compression members – load applied parallel to length at member ends, axial force dominates Beam-columns Beam-columns Tension members Tension members Compression members Compression members Tie rods – tension force only Tie rods – tension force only Arches Arches Common connection types Common connection types Pinned Pinned Fixed Fixed

11 Support Types Roller Roller Pin Pin Fixed Fixed

12 How do we design structures? Conceptual Consideration: Conceptual Consideration: Determine forces (and deflections) Determine forces (and deflections) Our focus for the semester Our focus for the semester Determine capacity (and deflection limits) Determine capacity (and deflection limits) Focus in Structural Design next semester Focus in Structural Design next semester Require capacity is greater than forces Require capacity is greater than forces Legal Considerations Legal Considerations For most structures, owner specifies code For most structures, owner specifies code e.g., AISC, PCI, AASHTO, AREMA e.g., AISC, PCI, AASHTO, AREMA

13 Loads Forces in a structure are a result of loads Forces in a structure are a result of loads What types of loads do we need to consider in a civil engineering structure: What types of loads do we need to consider in a civil engineering structure: Dead load: Dead load: Live load: building occupants, truck traffic Live load: building occupants, truck traffic Environmental loads: Environmental loads: Snow load Snow load Rain load Rain load Wind load Wind load Seismic load Seismic load Bridge specific Bridge specific Temperature loads (expansion and contraction of restrained members) Temperature loads (expansion and contraction of restrained members) Impact Impact Breaking force Breaking force Collisions (water and land traffic) Collisions (water and land traffic) Water loads Water loads Ice Ice

14 Dead Loads Dead Loads Self-weight of: Self-weight of: Structural components (e.g., beams, slabs) Structural components (e.g., beams, slabs) Non-structural components (e.g., decorative façade, plywood subfloor, ceiling tiles, asphalt wearing surface) Non-structural components (e.g., decorative façade, plywood subfloor, ceiling tiles, asphalt wearing surface) Useful Tables in textbook: Useful Tables in textbook: Table 1-2: Densities of Typical Materials Table 1-2: Densities of Typical Materials Table 1-3: Dead Loads of Typical Materials Table 1-3: Dead Loads of Typical Materials

15 Load Transfer and Load Distribution Consider a typical building framing plan Consider a typical building framing plan Work from top down Work from top down Determine tributary widths and tributary areas as appropriate Determine tributary widths and tributary areas as appropriate


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