Presentation on theme: "Regulatory Information"— Presentation transcript:
1 Asbestos Awareness Training City of Phoenix - Human Resources Safety Section
2 Regulatory Information Federal RegulationsOSHA - Employee SafetyGeneral Industry (29 CFR )Shipyards (29 CFR )Construction Industry (29 CFR )EPATCSA/AHERAAsbestos Containing Materials in SchoolsASHARA (1990)NESHAPS (40 CFR 61, Subpart M)DOTTransportation
3 What is Asbestos? Naturally occurring mineral What is Asbestos?Naturally occurring mineralFound throughout the worldIt is mined much the same way as other mineralsResistant to heat and corrosive chemicalsWhitish fibrous material which can release fibers that range in texture from coarse to silky.
4 Where is Asbestos Produced? RussiaCanadaSouth AfricaLimited in the USA
5 Who Uses Asbestos Now? European and Asian Countries United States No current banBan on visible emissionsPhased out for the most partRegulatory implications limit use
6 Asbestos Bans 1973 – Spraying of ACM 1975 – Pipe coverings 1977 – Patching compounds & artificial fireplace logs1978 – Sprayed-on asbestos decorations1979 – Asbestos-containing hairdryersHome construction use was banned in three stages over 7 years beginning in 1990
7 Types of Asbestos Minerals are divided into two groups Serpentine – layered structureAmphibole – chain-like structure
8 Types of Asbestos Serpentine Group (one type): Chrysotile – White Asbestos (most common)Amphibole Group (five types):Amosite – Brown AsbestosCrocidolite – Blue AsbestosRare Types:AnthophylliteTremoliteActinolite
9 Properties of Asbestos Fire ResistantHigh Tensile StrengthGood Thermal QualitiesElectrical InsulatorAcoustical Properties
10 Asbestos Fibrous Structure Very Small – may be up to 700 times smaller than a human hairInvisibleLong/FibrousSharpVery Light – may stay suspended in air for up to several daysPolarized Light Microscopy (PLM)Phase Contrast Microscopy (PCM)Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM)
11 Uses of Asbestos Used in hundreds of products Referred to as asbestos-containing material (ACM)Fire resistantCommon Uses:Sprayed-on FireproofingMixed with Concrete/Vermiculite/Binder ProductsAcoustical InsulatorAsphalt, Floor Tile, Joint Compounds, AdhesivesThermal Insulator
12 Common Uses of Asbestos Over 3,000 productsPipe InsulationBoiler Breeching/Boiler LaggingBoiler Doors/GasketsFire ProofingAcousticalCeiling TileBrake Pads & Linings
13 Common Uses of Asbestos Floor TileMastics/Adhesives/GluesRoofingElectrical InsulationPutties, caulks, and cementsJoint CompoundSiding (transite)Hairdryers (banned in 1979)Cigarette filters (Kent)
14 Friable vs. Non-Friable ACM (Greater than 1%):FriableCrumbled/Reduced to Powder by hand pressureSanded, GroundedAbility to become airborneNon-FriableHard, rock-likeFibers bound to matrix
15 Categories of ACBM or Presumed Asbestos Containing Materials (PACM) Surfacing MaterialSprayed-on or troweled-on
16 Categories of ACBM/PACM Thermal System Insulation (TSI)Inhibit heat transfer
17 TSIIncludes mudded pipe elbows and joints and various types of pipe wraps
18 Categories of ACBM/PACM MiscellaneousAny other material usually non-friable
19 Health Effects Associated with Asbestos Exposure Extensively studied for many yearsInhalation of fibers may lead to increased risk of diseaseDifficult to destroy asbestos fibersThe body cannot break them down or remove them once they are lodged in the lung or body tissuesThey remain in place where they can cause diseaseThe amount of time between exposure to asbestos and the first signs of disease can be as much as 40 years.
20 Health Effects Associated with Asbestos Exposure Majority of people who died were workers frequently exposed to high concentrations of asbestos fibers with no protection
21 The Respiratory System Parts of the AirwayAlveoliDiaphragm
23 Health EffectsThree primary diseases associated with asbestos exposure:AsbestosisLung CancerMesotheliomaOther Diseases
24 Asbestosis A serious, chronic, non-cancerous respiratory disease Asbestos fibers aggravate lung tissues, which causes them to scarSymptoms include shortness of breath and a dry crackling sound in the lungs when inhalingIn advanced stages, may cause cardiac failureNo effective treatment
25 Lung CancerCauses the largest number of deaths related to asbestos exposureCommon symptoms are coughing and a change in breathing, shortness of breath, persistent chest pains, hoarseness, and anemiaGreater risk for smokers
26 Mesothelioma Rare form of cancer About 200 cases diagnosed a year in the U.S.Occurs in the thin membrane lining of the lungs, chest, and abdomen
27 Other DiseasesEvidence suggests that cancers in the esophagus, larynx, oral cavity, stomach, colon and kidney may be caused by ingesting asbestosCancer of pancreas, pleural plaques, pleural thickening, pleural effusion
28 Determining Factors The amount and duration of exposure Whether or not you smokeAge
29 Amount & Duration of Exposure The more you are exposed, the greater chance that more fibers will enter your body and the more likely you are to develop asbestos related problemsWhile there is no “safe level” of asbestos exposure, people who are exposed more frequently over a long period of time are more at risk
30 Whether or Not You Smoke If you smoke and have been exposed to asbestos, you are far more likely to develop cancer than someone who does not smoke and who has not been exposed to asbestosIf you work with asbestos or have been exposed to it, the first thing you should do to reduce your chances of developing cancer is to stop smoking
31 Synergistic Relationship between Asbestos & Smoking Asbestos workers who smoke are about 90 times more likely to develop lung cancer than people who neither smoke nor have been exposed to asbestos
32 AgeCases of mesothelioma have occurred in the children of asbestos workers whose only exposures were from the dust brought home on the clothing of family members who worked with asbestosThe younger people are when they inhale asbestos, the more likely they are to develop mesothelioma
33 Steve McQueen – Hollywood Actor Film StarGreat EscapeThe Sand PebblesBullittThomas Crown AffairWorked in Shipyard IndustryAuto Racer and MechanicDied in November 1980Was diagnosed with a form of lung cancer, mesothelioma, which is related to asbestos exposure Steve McQueen wore an asbestos-insulated racers suit in his race cars, and possibly was exposed to the harmful insulation material during his stint in the Marines.
34 Asbestos Regulations OSHA – 29 CFR EPA – AHERA (Inspections) General Industry ( )Shipyards ( )Construction Industry ( )EPA – AHERA (Inspections)EPA – NESHAPS (Waste Disposal)DOT - Transportation
35 OSHA – Worker Protection OSHA has four classes of asbestos work:Class I – Involves removal of TSI and Surfacing ACM/PACMClass II – Removal of all ACM other than TSI and Surfacing MaterialClass III – Repair and Maintenance operations that results in the disturbance of any ACMClass IV – Maintenance and Custodial activities resulting in the cleanup of ACM and PACM debris
36 OSHA – Worker Protection Class I & II – Large Scale Asbestos Abatement:40 Hours of Training RequiredNo City of Phoenix Employees performing abatementAsbestos Abatement for COP performed by ContractorsClass III - Maintenance and Repair Activities:16 Hours of Training RequiredIncludes Respiratory ProtectionTraining Provided by Outside ConsultantClass IV – Housekeeping Activities:Responsible for Cleaning PACM Dust2 Hours of Awareness Training Required
37 Potential Locations of ACM To determine whether an asbestos inspection has been conducted for your building:Review the asbestos inspection reports that identifies the location of ACM prior to start of projectIn the event no report is available, contact your supervisor to determine whether samples have been collected
38 Potential Locations of ACM Only EPA-AHERA Certified Building Inspectors are allowed to collect samples of PACM.Please contact the Human Resources Department – Safety Section or Public Works – Environmental Services (PWES) in the event bulk samples of suspect materials are needed for testing.
39 ACM Found in Buildings Surfacing Materials Sprayed-on: Troweled-on: Popcorn ceilingsFireproofingTroweled-on:Ceiling textureWall texture
40 ACM Found in Buildings Thermal System Insulation: Hot/Cold Water SupplyChilled Water SupplySteam Supply & ReturnRoof DrainsChemical/Waste Transport Pipelines
41 ACM Found in Buildings Types of TSI: Corrugated cardboard type wrap White chalky pipe wrapFibrous glass insulation covering pipe wrapCementious mud around pipe fittingsHard canvas wrapped insulationBlock InsulationBatt Insulation on Boilers/BreechingBatt Insulation on inside ductsRope around pipe sleeves in ceilings/floors
45 Work Practices and Procedures For Class IV Workers:Ask Supervisor whether the area has been tested for asbestos if suspect materials are present.Identify PACM that will be impacted by your repair/maintenance activity.Copy and complete Notification Form for PACM and provide copy to supervisor.Contact HR Safety or PWES for asbestos sampling.
46 Work Practices and Procedures If you are assigned to clean up PACM dust in an area (Class IV work) do the following:Use Vacuum Equipped with HEPA FiltersUse Wet Methods for during clean-up, where feasiblePACM Dust should be disposed in Leak-Tight Containers (sealed 6-mil poly bags; container with lid, drums, etc.)
47 Work Practices and Procedures The following Work Practices are PROHIBITED:Use of Compressed Air to Remove ACM or PACM DustDry Sweeping, Shoveling or other Dry Cleanup of PACM Dust and DebrisSanding/Grinding/Cutting of Floor Tile and/or Wall Texture containing ACM
48 How to Avoid Asbestos Exposure Be aware of the locations where it is likely to be foundIf you are not sure if it is asbestos, assume that it is until it is verified otherwiseDo not disturb asbestosReport damaged asbestos immediately to your supervisor
49 How to Avoid Asbestos Exposure NEVER: Drill HammerCut SawBreak DamageMove DisturbAny asbestos-containing materials or suspected materials
50 Housekeeping Never sand or dry buff asbestos containing floor tiles Low abrasion pads should be used at speeds below 300 rpmDo not remove broken or damaged floor tiles or ceiling tiles which may contain asbestosReport all damaged asbestos immediately
51 What are the Solutions?EncapsulationEnclosureRemoval
52 EncapsulationSealing or encapsulating involves coating materials so that the asbestos is sealed in.Only effective for undamaged asbestos-containing substances.
53 EnclosureIf materials are soft or crumbly or otherwise damaged, sealing is not appropriate.Enclosing involves placing something over or around the material that contains asbestos to prevent release of fibers.
54 RemovalAn expensive and hazardous process that should be a last resortRemoval may be required when remodeling, making major structural changes or if the asbestos material is damaged and can not be otherwise repairedRemoval can only be done by licensed individuals who have received special trainingImproper removal may increase the health risks to those exposed
55 What approach should be taken? Asbestos material in buildings should be appropriately managedWorkers who may disturb ACM should be properly trained and protected
56 EPA’s Five Major FactsFACT ONE: Although asbestos is hazardous, human risk of asbestos disease depends upon exposureFACT TWO: Prevailing asbestos levels in buildings – the levels you and I face as building occupants – seems to be very low, based upon available data. Accordingly, the health risk we face as building occupants also appears to be very low
57 EPA’s Five Major FactsFACT THREE: Removal is often not a building owner’s best course of action to reduce asbestos exposure. In fact, an improper removal can create a dangerous situation where none previously existedFACT FOUR: EPA only requires asbestos removal in order to prevent significant public exposure to asbestos, such as during building renovation or demolition
58 EPA’s Five Major FactsFACT FIVE: EPA does recommend in-place management whenever asbestos is discovered. Instead of removal, a conscientious in-place management program will usually control fiber releases, particularly when the materials are not significantly damaged and are not likely to be disturbed
59 Summary Know where asbestos materials are located in your facility. Do not disturb ACM or PACM.If you notice damage, report it ASAP.Protect yourself and other building occupants.Notify contractors of the presence of asbestos.