Presentation on theme: "Asbestos Awareness Training City of Phoenix - Human Resources Safety Section."— Presentation transcript:
Asbestos Awareness Training City of Phoenix - Human Resources Safety Section
Regulatory Information Federal Regulations OSHA - Employee Safety General Industry (29 CFR ) Shipyards (29 CFR ) Construction Industry (29 CFR ) EPA TCSA/AHERA Asbestos Containing Materials in Schools ASHARA (1990) NESHAPS (40 CFR 61, Subpart M) DOT Transportation
What is Asbestos? Naturally occurring mineral Found throughout the world It is mined much the same way as other minerals Resistant to heat and corrosive chemicals Whitish fibrous material which can release fibers that range in texture from coarse to silky.
Where is Asbestos Produced? Russia Canada South Africa Limited in the USA
Who Uses Asbestos Now? European and Asian Countries United States No current ban Ban on visible emissions Phased out for the most part Regulatory implications limit use
Asbestos Bans 1973 – Spraying of ACM 1975 – Pipe coverings 1977 – Patching compounds & artificial fireplace logs 1978 – Sprayed-on asbestos decorations 1979 – Asbestos-containing hairdryers Home construction use was banned in three stages over 7 years beginning in 1990
Types of Asbestos Minerals are divided into two groups Serpentine – layered structure Amphibole – chain-like structure
Types of Asbestos Serpentine Group (one type): Chrysotile – White Asbestos (most common) Amphibole Group (five types): Amosite – Brown Asbestos Crocidolite – Blue Asbestos Rare Types: Anthophyllite Tremolite Actinolite
Properties of Asbestos Fire Resistant High Tensile Strength Good Thermal Qualities Electrical Insulator Acoustical Properties
Asbestos Fibrous Structure Very Small – may be up to 700 times smaller than a human hair Invisible Long/Fibrous Sharp Very Light – may stay suspended in air for up to several days Polarized Light Microscopy (PLM) Phase Contrast Microscopy (PCM) Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM)
Uses of Asbestos Used in hundreds of products Referred to as asbestos-containing material (ACM) Fire resistant Common Uses: Sprayed-on Fireproofing Mixed with Concrete/Vermiculite/Binder Products Acoustical Insulator Asphalt, Floor Tile, Joint Compounds, Adhesives Thermal Insulator
Common Uses of Asbestos Over 3,000 products Pipe Insulation Boiler Breeching/Boiler Lagging Boiler Doors/Gaskets Fire Proofing Acoustical Ceiling Tile Brake Pads & Linings
Common Uses of Asbestos Floor Tile Mastics/Adhesives/Glues Roofing Electrical Insulation Putties, caulks, and cements Joint Compound Siding (transite) Hairdryers (banned in 1979) Cigarette filters (Kent)
Friable vs. Non-Friable ACM (Greater than 1%): Friable Crumbled/Reduced to Powder by hand pressure Sanded, Grounded Ability to become airborne Non-Friable Hard, rock-like Fibers bound to matrix
Categories of ACBM or Presumed Asbestos Containing Materials (PACM) Surfacing Material Sprayed-on or troweled-on
Categories of ACBM/PACM Thermal System Insulation (TSI) Inhibit heat transfer
TSI Includes mudded pipe elbows and joints and various types of pipe wraps
Categories of ACBM/PACM Miscellaneous Any other material usually non-friable
Health Effects Associated with Asbestos Exposure Extensively studied for many years Inhalation of fibers may lead to increased risk of disease Difficult to destroy asbestos fibers The body cannot break them down or remove them once they are lodged in the lung or body tissues They remain in place where they can cause disease The amount of time between exposure to asbestos and the first signs of disease can be as much as 40 years.
Health Effects Associated with Asbestos Exposure Majority of people who died were workers frequently exposed to high concentrations of asbestos fibers with no protection
The Respiratory System Parts of the Airway Alveoli Diaphragm
Parts of the Airway Alveoli Sacs Waste Gases
Health Effects Three primary diseases associated with asbestos exposure: Asbestosis Lung Cancer Mesothelioma Other Diseases
Asbestosis A serious, chronic, non-cancerous respiratory disease Asbestos fibers aggravate lung tissues, which causes them to scar Symptoms include shortness of breath and a dry crackling sound in the lungs when inhaling In advanced stages, may cause cardiac failure No effective treatment
Lung Cancer Causes the largest number of deaths related to asbestos exposure Common symptoms are coughing and a change in breathing, shortness of breath, persistent chest pains, hoarseness, and anemia Greater risk for smokers
Mesothelioma Rare form of cancer About 200 cases diagnosed a year in the U.S. Occurs in the thin membrane lining of the lungs, chest, and abdomen
Other Diseases Evidence suggests that cancers in the esophagus, larynx, oral cavity, stomach, colon and kidney may be caused by ingesting asbestos Cancer of pancreas, pleural plaques, pleural thickening, pleural effusion
Determining Factors The amount and duration of exposure Whether or not you smoke Age
Amount & Duration of Exposure The more you are exposed, the greater chance that more fibers will enter your body and the more likely you are to develop asbestos related problems While there is no safe level of asbestos exposure, people who are exposed more frequently over a long period of time are more at risk
Whether or Not You Smoke If you smoke and have been exposed to asbestos, you are far more likely to develop cancer than someone who does not smoke and who has not been exposed to asbestos If you work with asbestos or have been exposed to it, the first thing you should do to reduce your chances of developing cancer is to stop smoking
Synergistic Relationship between Asbestos & Smoking Asbestos workers who smoke are about 90 times more likely to develop lung cancer than people who neither smoke nor have been exposed to asbestos
Age Cases of mesothelioma have occurred in the children of asbestos workers whose only exposures were from the dust brought home on the clothing of family members who worked with asbestos The younger people are when they inhale asbestos, the more likely they are to develop mesothelioma
Steve McQueen – Hollywood Actor Film Star Great Escape The Sand Pebbles Bullitt Thomas Crown Affair Worked in Shipyard Industry Auto Racer and Mechanic Died in November 1980 Was diagnosed with a form of lung cancer, mesothelioma, which is related to asbestos exposure. Steve McQueen wore an asbestos-insulated racers suit in his race cars, and possibly was exposed to the harmful insulation material during his stint in the Marines.
Asbestos Regulations OSHA – 29 CFR General Industry ( ) Shipyards ( ) Construction Industry ( ) EPA – AHERA (Inspections) EPA – NESHAPS (Waste Disposal) DOT - Transportation
OSHA – Worker Protection OSHA has four classes of asbestos work: Class I – Involves removal of TSI and Surfacing ACM/PACM Class II – Removal of all ACM other than TSI and Surfacing Material Class III – Repair and Maintenance operations that results in the disturbance of any ACM Class IV – Maintenance and Custodial activities resulting in the cleanup of ACM and PACM debris
OSHA – Worker Protection Class I & II – Large Scale Asbestos Abatement: 40 Hours of Training Required No City of Phoenix Employees performing abatement Asbestos Abatement for COP performed by Contractors Class III - Maintenance and Repair Activities: 16 Hours of Training Required Includes Respiratory Protection Training Provided by Outside Consultant Class IV – Housekeeping Activities: Responsible for Cleaning PACM Dust 2 Hours of Awareness Training Required
Potential Locations of ACM To determine whether an asbestos inspection has been conducted for your building: Review the asbestos inspection reports that identifies the location of ACM prior to start of project In the event no report is available, contact your supervisor to determine whether samples have been collected
Potential Locations of ACM Only EPA-AHERA Certified Building Inspectors are allowed to collect samples of PACM. Please contact the Human Resources Department – Safety Section or Public Works – Environmental Services (PWES) in the event bulk samples of suspect materials are needed for testing.
ACM Found in Buildings Surfacing Materials Sprayed-on: Popcorn ceilings Fireproofing Troweled-on: Ceiling texture Wall texture
ACM Found in Buildings Thermal System Insulation: Hot/Cold Water Supply Chilled Water Supply Steam Supply & Return Roof Drains Chemical/Waste Transport Pipelines
ACM Found in Buildings Types of TSI: Corrugated cardboard type wrap White chalky pipe wrap Fibrous glass insulation covering pipe wrap Cementious mud around pipe fittings Hard canvas wrapped insulation Block Insulation Batt Insulation on Boilers/Breeching Batt Insulation on inside ducts Rope around pipe sleeves in ceilings/floors
Work Practices and Procedures For Class IV Workers: Ask Supervisor whether the area has been tested for asbestos if suspect materials are present. Identify PACM that will be impacted by your repair/maintenance activity. Copy and complete Notification Form for PACM and provide copy to supervisor. Contact HR Safety or PWES for asbestos sampling.
Work Practices and Procedures If you are assigned to clean up PACM dust in an area (Class IV work) do the following: Use Vacuum Equipped with HEPA Filters Use Wet Methods for during clean-up, where feasible PACM Dust should be disposed in Leak- Tight Containers (sealed 6-mil poly bags; container with lid, drums, etc.)
Work Practices and Procedures The following Work Practices are PROHIBITED: Use of Compressed Air to Remove ACM or PACM Dust Dry Sweeping, Shoveling or other Dry Cleanup of PACM Dust and Debris Sanding/Grinding/Cutting of Floor Tile and/or Wall Texture containing ACM
How to Avoid Asbestos Exposure Be aware of the locations where it is likely to be found If you are not sure if it is asbestos, assume that it is until it is verified otherwise Do not disturb asbestos Report damaged asbestos immediately to your supervisor
How to Avoid Asbestos Exposure NEVER:DrillHammer CutSaw BreakDamage Move Disturb Any asbestos-containing materials or suspected materials
Housekeeping Never sand or dry buff asbestos containing floor tiles Low abrasion pads should be used at speeds below 300 rpm Do not remove broken or damaged floor tiles or ceiling tiles which may contain asbestos Report all damaged asbestos immediately
What are the Solutions? Encapsulation Enclosure Removal
Encapsulation Sealing or encapsulating involves coating materials so that the asbestos is sealed in. Only effective for undamaged asbestos- containing substances.
Enclosure If materials are soft or crumbly or otherwise damaged, sealing is not appropriate. Enclosing involves placing something over or around the material that contains asbestos to prevent release of fibers.
Removal An expensive and hazardous process that should be a last resort Removal may be required when remodeling, making major structural changes or if the asbestos material is damaged and can not be otherwise repaired Removal can only be done by licensed individuals who have received special training Improper removal may increase the health risks to those exposed
What approach should be taken? Asbestos material in buildings should be appropriately managed Workers who may disturb ACM should be properly trained and protected
EPAs Five Major Facts FACT ONE: Although asbestos is hazardous, human risk of asbestos disease depends upon exposure FACT TWO: Prevailing asbestos levels in buildings – the levels you and I face as building occupants – seems to be very low, based upon available data. Accordingly, the health risk we face as building occupants also appears to be very low
EPAs Five Major Facts FACT THREE: Removal is often not a building owners best course of action to reduce asbestos exposure. In fact, an improper removal can create a dangerous situation where none previously existed FACT FOUR: EPA only requires asbestos removal in order to prevent significant public exposure to asbestos, such as during building renovation or demolition
EPAs Five Major Facts FACT FIVE: EPA does recommend in- place management whenever asbestos is discovered. Instead of removal, a conscientious in-place management program will usually control fiber releases, particularly when the materials are not significantly damaged and are not likely to be disturbed
Summary Know where asbestos materials are located in your facility. Do not disturb ACM or PACM. If you notice damage, report it ASAP. Protect yourself and other building occupants. Notify contractors of the presence of asbestos.