Presentation on theme: "Transforming Data into Information"— Presentation transcript:
1Transforming Data into Information How Computers Represent DataHow Computers Process DataFactors Affecting Processing Speed
2The Difference between Data and Information Data is unprocessed raw facts about a particular entity.Information is processed form of data. Data is used as input in the computer.Information is the output of the computer.Data is not meaningful. Information is meaningful.Data is normally huge in its volume.Information is normally short in its volume.Data is the asset of organizations and is not available to people for sale.Information is normally available to people for sale.Data is difficult or even impossible to reproduce. For examples, if Government lose the data of census, if will be almost impossible to reproduce it.Information is easier to reproduce if lost. For example, if the list of illiterate citizens is lost, it can be reproduced easily because the data is still stored.
3Information is used frequently. Data is an independent entity. Data is used rarely.Information is used frequently.Data is an independent entity.Information depends on data.Data is not used in decision-making.Information is very important for decision-making.Processing can be applied on data.Processing can not be applied on information.
4How Computers Represent Data Computer represents data in bits and bytes.Computer understand only 0 and 1.BitSmallest unit to represent data. (0,1)NibbleCollection of 4 bits is called a nibble.ByteCollection of 8 bits is called a byte.
6DecimalBinaryOctalBinary OctalHexa DecimalHexa to Binary0000000100100012010001030110011410001005101010161100110711101118100091001A1010B1011C1100D1101E1110F1111
7Text Codes EBCDIC. Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code. 8 bit code.Represents 256 symbols.used in IBM mainframe and midrange systems, but it is rarely encountered in personal computers.
8ASCII.ASCII (pronounced AS-key) stands for the American Standard Code for Information Interchange.Most commonly used in computers of all types.ASCII codes. ASCII is an eight-bit codeSpecifics characters for values from 0 to 127.
9Extended ASCII. Extended ASCII is an eight-bit code Specifies the characters for values from 128 to 255.The first 40 symbols represent pronunciation and special punctuation.The remaining symbols are graphic symbols.
10UnicodeThe Unicode Worldwide Character Standard provides up to four bytes—32 bits—to represent each letter; number, or symbol. With four bytes.Represent more than 4 billion different characters or symbols.One major advantage that Unicode has over other text code systems is its compatibility with ASCII codcs.The first 256 codes in Unicode are identical to the 256 codes used by the ASCII and Extended ASCII systems.
11How Computers Process Data Two components handle processing in a computerCentral processing unit, or CPUMemory.
12Central Processing Unit (CPU) It is also called Central Processing Unit.It is the brain of computer.It is also called processor.It is the most important component of the computer.Computer can not work without CPU.It is located on the mother board.It carries out most of the work of a computer.There are two parts of CPU.Arithmetic and logical Unit (ALU)Control Unit (CU)
13ARITHMETIC AND LOGIC UNIT (ALU):- ALU is the part of CPU.In ALU data processing is takes place.All arithmetic and logical operations perform in this unit.It has two parts.Arithmetic UnitLogical Unit
14Arithmetic UnitArithmetic unit perform basic arithmetic unit such as addition, subtraction, multiplication and division.It is consist of Arithmetic Circuits.Arithmetic Circuit:-Parallel adder is the basic component of the AU.It is made up of no. of full adder circuits.Adder:-It is device use to perform addition of two numbers.It part of ALU.Some ALU contain multiple adders.Subtractor:-To subtract adder is modified.It takes 2’s complement of number and add in the original ti subtract a number.
15Logical Unit (LU)It performs logical operation. It is used to compare two values / data.Such as less than, greater than, less than equal, greater than equal, equal, not equal.Logical Circuit:-They are used to compare values.Logical circuit consist of AND, OR NOT gates.It is easy to employ logic circuit with these operations. AND:-It is a circuit which give output 1 if and only if all inputs are 1.It gives output 0 if any of input is 0. OR:-It is a circuit which gives output 1 if even a single input is 1. It gives output 0 is all inputs are 0. NOT:-It is a circuit which converts 0 into 1, and 1 into 0.
16CONTROL UNIT It is an important component of CPU. It is like the supervisor of the computer.It does not process data himself.But it controls all activities of computer system.Important functions performed by CU are as follow:It fetches instruction from main memory.It interrupts (decode) the instruction to find what operation is to be performed.It controls the execution of instruction.
17MEMORY UNITIt is a component in computer to store data and instruction.CPU has its own memory to store data and instruction at the time of execution.This is called memory unit (MU) or CPU Registers.It is the fastest storage area in the computer.They are available in different sizes like 8, 16, 32 and 64 bits.
18Machine CyclesEach time the CPU executes an instruction, it takes a series of steps.The completed series of steps is called a machine cycle.A machine cycle itself can be broken down into two smaller cyclesInstruction cycleFetching and decodingExecution cycle.Executing and storing
19Factors Affecting Processing Speed Main MemoryRAMMore RAM also can make the computer run faster.RegistersThe size of the registers, which is sometimes called the word size.The bigger the word size, the more quickly the computer can process a set of data.
20Computer Internal Clock A clock cycle is a single tick, or the time it takes to turn a transistor off and back on again.A processor can execute an instruction in a given number of clock cycles.As the system's clock speed increases, so does the number of instructions it can carry out each second.
21The BusA bus is a electrical path between the components of a computer.