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Transforming Data into Information

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Presentation on theme: "Transforming Data into Information"— Presentation transcript:

1 Transforming Data into Information
How Computers Represent Data How Computers Process Data Factors Affecting Processing Speed

2 The Difference between Data and Information
Data is unprocessed raw facts about a particular entity. Information is processed form of data.  Data is used as input in the computer. Information is the output of the computer. Data is not meaningful.  Information is meaningful. Data is normally huge in its volume. Information is normally short in its volume. Data is the asset of organizations and is not available to people for sale. Information is normally available to people for sale. Data is difficult or even impossible to reproduce. For examples, if Government lose the data of census, if will be almost impossible to reproduce it. Information is easier to reproduce if lost. For example, if the list of illiterate citizens is lost, it can be reproduced easily because the data is still stored. 

3 Information is used frequently. Data is an independent entity.
Data is used rarely. Information is used frequently. Data is an independent entity. Information depends on data. Data is not used in decision-making. Information is very important for decision-making. Processing can be applied on data. Processing can not be applied on information.

4 How Computers Represent Data
Computer represents data in bits and bytes. Computer understand only 0 and 1. Bit Smallest unit to represent data. (0,1) Nibble Collection of 4 bits is called a nibble. Byte Collection of 8 bits is called a byte.

5 Number System Decimal Binary Octal Hexa decimal

6 Decimal Binary Octal Binary Octal Hexa Decimal Hexa to Binary 000 0000 1 001 0001 2 010 0010 3 011 0011 4 100 0100 5 101 0101 6 110 0110 7 111 0111 8 1000 9 1001 A 1010 B 1011 C 1100 D 1101 E 1110 F 1111

7 Text Codes EBCDIC. Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code.
8 bit code. Represents 256 symbols. used in IBM mainframe and midrange systems, but it is rarely encountered in personal computers.

8 ASCII. ASCII (pronounced AS-key) stands for the American Standard Code for Information Interchange. Most commonly used in computers of all types. ASCII codes. ASCII is an eight-bit code Specifics characters for values from 0 to 127.

9 Extended ASCII. Extended ASCII is an eight-bit code
Specifies the characters for values from 128 to 255. The first 40 symbols represent pronunciation and special punctuation. The remaining symbols are graphic symbols.

10 Unicode The Unicode Worldwide Character Standard provides up to four bytes—32 bits—to represent each letter; number, or symbol. With four bytes. Represent more than 4 billion different characters or symbols. One major advantage that Unicode has over other text code systems is its compatibility with ASCII codcs. The first 256 codes in Unicode are identical to the 256 codes used by the ASCII and Extended ASCII systems.

11 How Computers Process Data
Two components handle processing in a computer Central processing unit, or CPU Memory.

12 Central Processing Unit (CPU)
It is also called Central Processing Unit. It is the brain of computer. It is also called processor. It is the most important component of the computer. Computer can not work without CPU. It is located on the mother board. It carries out most of the work of a computer. There are two parts of CPU. Arithmetic and logical Unit (ALU) Control Unit (CU)

ALU is the part of CPU. In ALU data processing is takes place. All arithmetic and logical operations perform in this unit. It has two parts. Arithmetic Unit Logical Unit

14 Arithmetic Unit Arithmetic unit perform basic arithmetic unit such as addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. It is consist of Arithmetic Circuits. Arithmetic Circuit:- Parallel adder is the basic component of the AU. It is made up of no. of full adder circuits. Adder:- It is device use to perform addition of two numbers. It part of ALU. Some ALU contain multiple adders. Subtractor:- To subtract adder is modified. It takes 2’s complement of number and add in the original ti subtract a number.

15 Logical Unit (LU) It performs logical operation. It is used to compare two values / data. Such as less than, greater than, less than equal, greater than equal, equal, not equal. Logical Circuit:- They are used to compare values. Logical circuit consist of AND, OR NOT gates. It is easy to employ logic circuit with these operations.  AND:- It is a circuit which give output 1 if and only if all inputs are 1.It gives output 0 if any of input is 0.  OR:- It is a circuit which gives output 1 if even a single input is 1. It gives output 0 is all inputs are 0.  NOT:- It is a circuit which converts 0 into 1, and 1 into 0.

16 CONTROL UNIT It is an important component of CPU.
It is like the supervisor of the computer. It does not process data himself. But it controls all activities of computer system. Important functions performed by CU are as follow: It fetches instruction from main memory. It interrupts (decode) the instruction to find what operation is to be performed. It controls the execution of instruction.

17 MEMORY UNIT It is a component in computer to store data and instruction. CPU has its own memory to store data and instruction at the time of execution. This is called memory unit (MU) or CPU Registers. It is the fastest storage area in the computer. They are available in different sizes like 8, 16, 32 and 64 bits.

18 Machine Cycles Each time the CPU executes an instruction, it takes a series of steps. The completed series of steps is called a machine cycle. A machine cycle itself can be broken down into two smaller cycles Instruction cycle Fetching and decoding Execution cycle. Executing and storing

19 Factors Affecting Processing Speed
Main Memory RAM More RAM also can make the computer run faster. Registers The size of the registers, which is sometimes called the word size. The bigger the word size, the more quickly the computer can process a set of data.

20 Computer Internal Clock
A clock cycle is a single tick, or the time it takes to turn a transistor off and back on again. A processor can execute an instruction in a given number of clock cycles. As the system's clock speed increases, so does the number of instructions it can carry out each second.

21 The Bus A bus is a electrical path between the components of a computer.


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