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Introduction to Computers Section 4A
home Decimal Number System Called base 10 because 10 symbols are available
home Binary Number System Computers function in base 2, or the binary number system, where there are only two values
home Bit A combination of binary digit The smallest possible unit of data a computer can recognize or use
home Byte A group of eight bits
home Text Codes EBCDIC ASCII Unicode
home CPU The CPU is the computers brain that manipulates data
home CPUs Two Basic Parts Control unit Arithmetic logic unit
home Control Unit Manages all the computers resources
home Arithmetic Logic Unit Performs the CPUs arithmetic and logical operations
home Machine Cycle The completed series of steps the CPU takes to execute an instruction
home Machine Cycles Two Cycles Instruction cycle Execution cycle
home Instruction Cycle Fetching Decoding
home Execution Cycle Executing Storing
home Millions of Instructions Per Second (MIPS) The CPU performance measurement
home Pipelining Also called pipeline processing The control unit begins a new machine cycle before the current cycle is completed
home Memory Allows the CPU to store and retrieve data quickly
home Two Kinds of Memory Read-only memory (ROM): nonvolatile Random-access memory (RAM): volatile
home ROM ROM always holds the same data, for example the computers start-up instructions
home RAM RAMs job is to hold programs and data while they are in use RAM can change instantly
home Other Kinds of RAM Dynamic RAM (DRAM) DRAM Variations Static RAM (SRAM)
home Factors Affecting Processing Speed Registers Memory and computing power System clock The bus The databus The address bus Cache memory
home Bus Types Industry standard architecture (ISA) bus Local bus Peripheral component interconnect (PCI) bus Accelerated Graphics Port (AGP) bus Universal Serial Bus (USB) IEEE 1394 (FireWire)
home Data Transfer Rate The amount of data buses can transfer in a second Measured in megabits per second (Mbps) or megabytes per second (MBps)
home Cache memory Speeds processing by storing frequently used data or instructions in its high- speed memory
Section 4A Transforming Data Into Information
home Review Questions What is the difference between a bit and a byte? What are the CPUs two basic parts? What is a machine cycle? What is the difference between ROM and RAM?
Copyright © 2006 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill Technology Education Copyright © 2006 by The McGraw-Hill Companies,
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