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ANALYZING AND ASSESSING THE RELEVANCE OF LAST-MILE-LINKS FOR RAILWAY TRIPS Dipl.-Ing. Dr. techn. Harald FREY Research Center of Transport Planning and.

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Presentation on theme: "ANALYZING AND ASSESSING THE RELEVANCE OF LAST-MILE-LINKS FOR RAILWAY TRIPS Dipl.-Ing. Dr. techn. Harald FREY Research Center of Transport Planning and."— Presentation transcript:

1 ANALYZING AND ASSESSING THE RELEVANCE OF LAST-MILE-LINKS FOR RAILWAY TRIPS Dipl.-Ing. Dr. techn. Harald FREY Research Center of Transport Planning and Traffic Engineering Institute of Transportation Vienna University of Technology

2 Part of the project Last mile link The goal of the LML project (last mile link) is the development of a special mobility service to close the link on a travel with public means of transportation between the final station and the destination. The second goal is to serve a service for local mobility at the travel destination. 70% of all car travelers say the reduced mobility at the final destination without an own car is an essential decision criteria not to take public means of transportation for a holiday trip. The LML project will develop a general mobility system including a business concept, the advancement of electronic systems for reservation and positioning (e.g. for mobile phones) and a vehicle concept. The developed system will be analyzed regarding to the cost effectiveness and customers satisfaction.

3 Coverage last mile biggest obstacle in the mobility chain structural conditions of this part of the route affect mode choice of whole journey. Further restrictions especially for tourists (& business travellers) arise concerning luggage transport and the lack of knowledge of timetables and surroundings What boundary conditions of the mobility system can contribute to reduce such barriers? conclusions for the reorganization of mobility in tourist regions in order to raise the share of rail tourists. Method: Subjective criteria for the mode choice of rail passengers were queried, and the marginal conditions of three selected tourist regions were compared with the mobility behaviour at arrival, stay and departure. The Last-mile

4 Decision – relevant: road and rail infrastructure (attractiveness) – interaction variety and convenience of public transport services (including processing of reservation, payment, etc. for the various elements of the travel chain) mobility-related information and link with information on objectives / attractions type of pooling of transport services with other tourism services Source: Planersocietät (2003) Mobility chain

5 Completley different conditions for PT and PMT Car vs. public transport Car, Private motorized traffic Public transport

6 Analyzing the changes in tourist mobility behaviour Only with a serious view on the changes in the (structural) boundary conditions (its causes) strengthening of rail is possible. There are no so-called "mobility needs". This reflects a lack of satisfaction of other needs (eg rest and recreation, sports, etc....) Changes in the means of transportation for holidays in Germany between the years 1954 and 1989.

7 The construction of car infrastructure in the last 60 years has changed the traffic behaviour enormously [1] [2] [3]. Especially for non day-to-day trips like holiday trips or free time trips on the weekend public transport lost a lot of share compared to other modes [4]. The infrastructure for car traffic damaged the environment of sensitive areas and generated a lot of negative effects paid by the society [2]. The infrastructure of railways was (is) weakened by cutting of branch lines (still done in Austria) which affects the accessibility of several regions. The processes of urban sprawl due to the increasing speed in motorised transport reduced the chances of public transport, particularly the railway system, even further [3]. Changes in the boundary conditions

8 Information as a command variable in transportation Affects mode choice as a function of the attractors Soft facts: for example green tourism, etc,... Hard facts: structural conditions (car-free tourism destinations, pedestrian area, etc.) vs. Car availability Relevance of Information Source: Planersocietät (2003) PT-arrival PMT-arrival Same day day before over the week during month half year earlier Even if guests are made aware when booking through intensive information on the (good) public transport accessibility of their destination it can be assumed that a non-existent public transport use experience exclude the possibility of usage PT. (Source: Planersocietät, 2003) Only in combination and clear prioritization a modal shift to public transport is possible (reduce capacity for motorized traffic and simultaneously "warning" from congestions, etc.)

9 Examples for an area wide last-mile linkage with public transport On site visitors without a car should have concrete benefits, for example, Rail and bus stops located closer to the target (bus stops closer to the destination than car parking spaces) Car free areas etc

10 % of Austrian citizens used the railway for their holiday trips within Austria, compared to 5.8% for foreign country trips in Less than 10% used the railway for overall tourist trips [5]. The mode choice is influenced by: local/regional mobility services (hiking and ski-buses, valley bus concepts, etc.) and accompanying measures (car-free townships, collecting parking area) mobility infrastructure linkage (Railway station, connection to busses, pick-up services, etc.) information (e.g. about local mobility services) frequency of changing means of transport luggage transport supply information about real costs of travelling measurements for sensitization Situation

11 Mobility behaviour Need to change Transportation of luggage Large distance from station to destination Causes for behaviour (car-user)

12 Means of transportation – specific groups Survey of mobility behaviour of alpinists and hikers in the Austrian alps (2005/2006) In Switzerland, 45% of the mountain climbers use public transport, almost three times higher than in Austria (Muharet al., 2008). Means of transportations for arrivalMeans of transportations used in the region Car 85% Car 59%

13 Different typologies regarding different mobility offers and traffic calming measurements (Source: Schindler 1999) 1. Eco-Conscious · 23,4% · prefers arrival by PT · sets not so much value on PT on site 2. price-sensitive PT suppporter · 35,1% · locally PT offers are very important ·wants pick up/last-mile service · very price-sensitive 3. car-freaks · 16,1% · arrival by car · no on site PT use 4. price-sensitive · 25,4% · especially no cost increase · -> free of costs PT Between the groups no differences in age and profession, children, net income were found. public transport supporters are rather long-term guests and that both public transport supporters and the price-sensitives can be inspired to switch. [Source: Schindler,1999] Milieu studies

14 Car-free mobility (Germany) About one-quarter of households living without cars in large cities with over 500,000 inhabitants, 30-40% one in three households is car-free these are rather young and older people, rather Singles high satisfaction with the car-free (75-90%) Deficits seen in the leisure traffic one third of car-free households voluntarily disclaimed (higher income and education) Source: Schlaffer 2002 Milieu studies If the quality of the last-mile linkage is improved the public transport system in the region can be encouraged. 78% of the respondents could imagine to use public transport to reach their destination.

15 CriteriaWerfenwengAtterseeWachau Soft-mobility as an issue in the regional tourism ++++ Tourism intensity++++ Amount of same-day visitors-+++ Arrival by car++ + Arrival rail/bus+++- Subjective criteria for the mode choice of rail passengers between Vienna, Salzburg and Bischofshofen (Salzburg region) were queried and the conditions of three selected tourist regions were compared with the mobility behaviour at arrival, stay and departure. The survey was done in two regions (Attersee and Wachau) and in Werfenweng, a soft-tourist-mobility best practice township. Survey

16 choice of transportation Questions on criteria the people based their decision on (about the mode of transport to/from the destination) differentiation between primary means of transport (for the longest part of the trip) and the last mile to the destination. respondents were asked to evaluate the transport connection based on subjective criteria (school grade system) and to give information about the (subjective) accessibility for certain means of transportation. Relevant questions regarding the improvement of mobility at the location of the vacation or business trip were asked. respondents should rank predefined criteria in the order of importance. Survey

17 The possibilities of local mobility (besides the transport of luggage) were the main reason why people have chosen their car and did not travel with public transport.

18 For those tourists who travel by train the comfort criteria is most relevant

19 A shuttle service from or to the railway station and a good public transport system in the holiday region is (besides free tickets for public transport) important.


21 Example from the mobility log Other indicators: duration of the activities, dartizipation with other persons, means of transportation, etc.

22 Car-free communities (e.g. Zermatt in Switzerland) show how efficient and sustainable mobility of tourists can be locally achieved. The town centre is closed for cars and people have to park their cars at a collecting parking area outside. People who arrive by train have the same or even better conditions to manage the last mile to their destination, if the station is nearby the town centre. Electric vehicles take the people to their final destination [12]. Car-free communities

23 A comparison of capabilities of car-free respectively so called soft-mobil touristic offerings shows that at least 20% of tourists could be easily reached [11]. Not the accessibility of the community is the main important issue for holiday-makers but the quality of nature and the possibilities of recovery or other activities [5]. The local organisation of the motorized vehicles affects the means of transportation onsite and has a significant influence on the life quality for the inhabitants of tourist communities as well as the quality of holidays for tourists. Werfenweng in Austria shows approaches for an organisation of local mobility without direct railway accessibility. Car-free townships show that people adopt their behaviour under consideration of local boundary conditions. An intelligent organization of the motorised individual traffic enhances the chances for public transport and manages the problem of the last-mile link.

24 [1] Environmental Balance of Transport Austria , Data Handbook, Federal Ministry for the Environment, Youth and Family Affairs, Vienna, 1997 [2] Verkehr in Zahlen Österreich - Ausgabe 2007, Bundesministerium für Verkehr, Innovation und Technologie, Vienna, 2007 [3] H. Knoflacher: Grundlagen der Verkehrs- und Siedlungsplanung: Verkehrsplanung, Verlag Böhlau, 2007 [4] Verkehrsclub Österreich 1/1994, Wege zum Autofreien Tourismus, Wien, 1994 [5] Statistik Austria, Urlaubs- und Geschäftsreisen 2008, Wien, 2008 [6] Muhar A., Schauppenlehner T., Brandenburg C., Arnberger A., Trends- und Handlungsbedarf im Sommer-Bergtourismus, in OeAV-Dokumente Nr. 5, Aktivierungsprogramm umweltfreundliche Anreise in die Berge, Innsbruck, 2008 [7] [8] Forschungsforum 3/95. Autofreier Tourismus in Österreich. Das Tälerbusprojekt Lungau, Murau, Nockgebiet – Ein innovatives Modell, 1995 [9] Planersocietät, Ergebnisse der Besucherbefragung im Landkreis Wernigerode unter Berücksichtigung einer freizeitmobilitätsstilbasierten Typologie Bericht für das Projekt MobiHarz - Mobilitätsmanagement und – service für einen umweltfreundlichen Ausflugs- und Kurzurlaubsverkehr, 2003 [10] Umweltbundesamt Österreich: Erreichbarkeiten alpiner Tourismusstandorte mit dem öffentlichen Verkehr, Wien, 2009 [11] Ch. Schindler (1998), Chancen sanfter Mobilität in Österreich – die Akzeptanz von Verkehrsberuhigungsmaßnahmen, ÖGAF Tourismus Memo, 1999 [12] References

25 Thank you for attention! contact: Harald Frey Phone: +43 (1) Fax:+43 (1)

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