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1 / 77 MUTP: MCGM Traffic Management Unit Training Programme Public Transportation Planning MVA Public Transportation Planning Presented by Dr. Tom V.

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Presentation on theme: "1 / 77 MUTP: MCGM Traffic Management Unit Training Programme Public Transportation Planning MVA Public Transportation Planning Presented by Dr. Tom V."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 / 77 MUTP: MCGM Traffic Management Unit Training Programme Public Transportation Planning MVA Public Transportation Planning Presented by Dr. Tom V. Mathew Transportation Systems Engineering Department of Civil Engineering IIT Bombay September 2004

2 2 / 77 MUTP: MCGM Traffic Management Unit Training Programme Public Transportation Planning MVA 1. Introduction 2. Urban passenger transport modes 3. Vehicle characteristics & motion 4. Bus transit mode 5. Rail transit mode 6. Transit system performance 7. Planning Issues Overview

3 3 / 77 MUTP: MCGM Traffic Management Unit Training Programme Public Transportation Planning MVA 1. Introduction 1.1 Transportation & location of cities 1.2 Form & structure of cities 1.3 Brief history of public transportation

4 4 / 77 MUTP: MCGM Traffic Management Unit Training Programme Public Transportation Planning MVA The exchanges of goods affected transportation (eg. Mumbai, Chennai, Istanbul….) Intensification goods exchange resulted in transloading and route crossing which eventually became major cities (eg. Nagpur) Strategic consideration for cities include easy accessibility (eg. Moscow) Administrative/Political (eg. Delhi) 1.1 Transportation & location of cities

5 5 / 77 MUTP: MCGM Traffic Management Unit Training Programme Public Transportation Planning MVA Irregular: transportation has no role Grid: easy travel along the two axes Grid with superimposed diagonals: better aesthetics and easy travel, but complex intersection Radial and circular road network: 1.2 Form & structure of cities

6 6 / 77 MUTP: MCGM Traffic Management Unit Training Programme Public Transportation Planning MVA 1662: public coach service started in Paris with five routes each can carry eight passengers 1828: horse-drawn omnibus started in Paris on 10 fixed routed with fleet size 100 each can carry 14 passengers 1.3 Brief history of public transportation-a

7 7 / 77 MUTP: MCGM Traffic Management Unit Training Programme Public Transportation Planning MVA 1832: horse-drawn street railway in New York with three compartments with 10 passengers in side and 10 on top : horse- tramway in many cities which attracted many working-class because of high efficiency, lower fare, flexibility 1.3 Brief history of public transportation-b

8 8 / 77 MUTP: MCGM Traffic Management Unit Training Programme Public Transportation Planning MVA Steam: driven omnibus:-a failure Fireless: steam driven engines: only for short haul Compressed air system: high fuel cost 1.3 Brief history of public transportation-c

9 9 / 77 MUTP: MCGM Traffic Management Unit Training Programme Public Transportation Planning MVA Electric traction: using batteries:- high cost Cable cars: using rollers, pulleys etc. 1.3 Brief history of public transportation-b

10 10 / 77 MUTP: MCGM Traffic Management Unit Training Programme Public Transportation Planning MVA Electric street cars: tram lines in US leaded km in tram lines in US leaded km in Brief history of public transportation-c

11 11 / 77 MUTP: MCGM Traffic Management Unit Training Programme Public Transportation Planning MVA 1.3 Brief history of public transportation-d Motor buses: petrol based or diesel based petrol based or diesel based

12 12 / 77 MUTP: MCGM Traffic Management Unit Training Programme Public Transportation Planning MVA High-speed rail transit modes 1.3 Brief history of public transportation-e

13 13 / 77 MUTP: MCGM Traffic Management Unit Training Programme Public Transportation Planning MVA 2.1 Classification by usage 2.2 Modes definitions 2.3 Transit system characteristics 2.4 Transportation system evolution 2. Urban passenger transport modes

14 14 / 77 MUTP: MCGM Traffic Management Unit Training Programme Public Transportation Planning MVA 2.1 Classification by usage Private transport: own use Para transit: usually demand responsive Transit: common carrier urban passenger transport also known as mass transportation usually fixed route and fixed schedule Public transportation: transit + [paratransit]

15 15 / 77 MUTP: MCGM Traffic Management Unit Training Programme Public Transportation Planning MVA 2.2 Modes definitions: Right of way - a R/W: strip of land on which transit vehicles operate R/W-C: mixed traffic R/W-B: physically separated, but allows at-grade crossings R/W-A: fully controlled without any legal access

16 16 / 77 MUTP: MCGM Traffic Management Unit Training Programme Public Transportation Planning MVA 2.2 Modes definitions: Right of way-b R/W-C: mixed

17 17 / 77 MUTP: MCGM Traffic Management Unit Training Programme Public Transportation Planning MVA 2.2 Modes definitions: Right of way-b R/W-B: physically separated, but allows at-grade crossings

18 18 / 77 MUTP: MCGM Traffic Management Unit Training Programme Public Transportation Planning MVA 2.2 Modes definitions: Right of way-b R/W-A: fully controlled without any legal access

19 19 / 77 MUTP: MCGM Traffic Management Unit Training Programme Public Transportation Planning MVA 2.2 Modes definitions: Technologies Support: vertical contact between vehicle and riding surface (road, rail, water, air, magnetic) Guidance: lateral vehicle guidance (steered or guided) Propulsion: type of unit and transfer (diesel/gas/petrol/electric) and (friction/cable/magnetic) Control: regulation the travel of vehicle (visual/signal/automatic)

20 20 / 77 MUTP: MCGM Traffic Management Unit Training Programme Public Transportation Planning MVA 2.2 Modes definitions: Service types Type of trips: short-haul transit, city transit, regional transit Stopping schedule: local, accelerated, express Time of operation: regular or all-day service, commuter or peak-hour service, special or irregular service

21 21 / 77 MUTP: MCGM Traffic Management Unit Training Programme Public Transportation Planning MVA 2.3 Transit system components Vehicle: Ways, travel ways or right-of-way: Stops:Stations: Transfer stations: Multi-model transfer stations: Control system:

22 22 / 77 MUTP: MCGM Traffic Management Unit Training Programme Public Transportation Planning MVA 2.3 Transit system characteristics-a Service frequency (f): no of transit departure per hour Operation speed (Vo): Speed of travel experienced by passenger Reliability: % of vehicle arrival with less than a fixed time duration Safety: no of accidents per million km Line capacity (C): maximum no of persons a transit system can carry past a point during one hour

23 23 / 77 MUTP: MCGM Traffic Management Unit Training Programme Public Transportation Planning MVA 2.4 Transit system characteristics-b Product capacity (Pc): product of operating speed and capacities of the line (Vo x C) Productivity: the quality of output per unit of resources (vehicle-km) Utilization: Ratio of output (person-km/space-km) Other: level-of-service, service quality, fare

24 24 / 77 MUTP: MCGM Traffic Management Unit Training Programme Public Transportation Planning MVA 2.5 Transportation system evolution 1. Walking: 2. Private-automobiles: 3. Common-carrier service (taxis): 4. Construction of arterials: 5. Paratransit and bus transit:

25 25 / 77 MUTP: MCGM Traffic Management Unit Training Programme Public Transportation Planning MVA 2.5 Transportation system evolution 6. Partial separation of modes: 7. Guided transit: 8. Freeways: grade-separated wide paths 9. Rapid transit: fully controlled R/W 10. Fully automated transit:

26 26 / 77 MUTP: MCGM Traffic Management Unit Training Programme Public Transportation Planning MVA 3. Vehicle characteristics & motion 3.1 Resistance to motion 3.2 Propulsion 3.3 Travel analysis 3.4 Energy consumption

27 27 / 77 MUTP: MCGM Traffic Management Unit Training Programme Public Transportation Planning MVA 3.1 Resistance to motion Vehicle resistance Basic resistance Basic resistance Rollins resistance Rollins resistance Way resistance (Track or roadway) Way resistance (Track or roadway) Track or roadway position Track or roadway position Riding surface Riding surface Sway & oscillation Sway & oscillation Air resistance Air resistance Alignment resistance Gradient Gradient Curvature Curvature

28 28 / 77 MUTP: MCGM Traffic Management Unit Training Programme Public Transportation Planning MVA Propulsion provide the force to over come resistance to motion Power of IC engine is defined as: (HP) Indicated power: measured in the cylinder Indicated power: measured in the cylinder Brake power: measured at the motor shaft Brake power: measured at the motor shaft Effection power: at the perimeter of the wheels Effection power: at the perimeter of the wheels Tractive effort is a function of speed 3.2 Propulsion-IC engines-a

29 29 / 77 MUTP: MCGM Traffic Management Unit Training Programme Public Transportation Planning MVA 3.2 Propulsion-IC engines-b Gear I Gear II Gear III Vehicle Speed Tractive Effort

30 30 / 77 MUTP: MCGM Traffic Management Unit Training Programme Public Transportation Planning MVA 3.2 Propulsion-electric traction-a Power of electric motor: expressed in KW Hourly ratios: maximum power that can be produced by one hour of continues operation Hourly ratios: maximum power that can be produced by one hour of continues operation Continuous ration: the maximum power the motor can produce in unlimited operation Continuous ration: the maximum power the motor can produce in unlimited operation DC motor and AC motor DC: high initial torque, easy speed regulation, simple control DC: high initial torque, easy speed regulation, simple control AC: lightweight, durable, low transmission loss AC: lightweight, durable, low transmission loss AC transmission & DC motor AC transmission & DC motor

31 31 / 77 MUTP: MCGM Traffic Management Unit Training Programme Public Transportation Planning MVA 3.2 Propulsion-electric traction-b Speed Tractive Force

32 32 / 77 MUTP: MCGM Traffic Management Unit Training Programme Public Transportation Planning MVA 3.2 Propulsion: comparison ET Vs DT Higher acceleration rate Smoother acceleration & deceleration Low noise level, air pollution etc More durable, reliable and cheaper High initial investment and implementation time Low flexibility in routes of operation

33 33 / 77 MUTP: MCGM Traffic Management Unit Training Programme Public Transportation Planning MVA 3.3 Travel analysis-basic variable Distance s = f(t) Speed v = ds/dt Acceleration a = dv/dt = d 2 s/dt Jerk z = da/dt = d 3 s/dt

34 34 / 77 MUTP: MCGM Traffic Management Unit Training Programme Public Transportation Planning MVA 3.3 Travel analysis - regimes of motion Time Acceleration Cont Speed CoastingBrakingStanding Distance Speed

35 35 / 77 MUTP: MCGM Traffic Management Unit Training Programme Public Transportation Planning MVA 3.4 Energy consumption Transit vehicles has low consumption in terms of HP/kw per person km or vehicle km Transit vehicle still has high absolute consumption EC depend on: vehicle characteristic (technology, design features, capacity,…), R/W and operational aspects (scheduling, operations regimes….)

36 36 / 77 MUTP: MCGM Traffic Management Unit Training Programme Public Transportation Planning MVA 3.4 Energy consumption-operations regimes Time Acceleration Cont Speed CoastingBrakingStanding Energy consumption Distance Speed

37 37 / 77 MUTP: MCGM Traffic Management Unit Training Programme Public Transportation Planning MVA 4. Bus transit mode 4.1 General characteristics 4.2 Vehicle characteristics 4.3 Bus types 4.4 Operation in mixed traffic 4.5 Preferential treatment 4.6 Service quality

38 38 / 77 MUTP: MCGM Traffic Management Unit Training Programme Public Transportation Planning MVA 4.1 General characteristics Flexibility: ability to operate on most streets in mixed mode Low investment cost: minimum infrastructure, quick introduction, and easy changes/extension Limited capacity: ideally suited for lightly to moderately travelled transit routes

39 39 / 77 MUTP: MCGM Traffic Management Unit Training Programme Public Transportation Planning MVA 4.2 Vehicle characteristics Operation cost: cost per capacity decrease as vehicle size increases Line capacity: increases with vehicle size Vehicle maneuverability: decreases with vehicle size Riding comfort: increases with vehicle size for std. bus

40 40 / 77 MUTP: MCGM Traffic Management Unit Training Programme Public Transportation Planning MVA TypeSizeSeatsSpeed Minibus 6.6 x – – 70 Standard bus 9.7 x – – 70 Articulated bus 19 x – – 60 Double Decker bus 9.1 x – – Bus Type

41 41 / 77 MUTP: MCGM Traffic Management Unit Training Programme Public Transportation Planning MVA 4.4 Operation in mixed traffic-a Bus operation in urban street require least investment The average speed of buses are lower than others Equal treatment of transit and other vehicle is illogical, often result in high travel cost to all Purpose of transportation is to move people/goods and not vehicles This lead to preferential treatment

42 42 / 77 MUTP: MCGM Traffic Management Unit Training Programme Public Transportation Planning MVA Preferential treatment assume equal rights to persons and not vehicles It increases travel speed, increased reliability and better in age to buses Bus preferential treatment is the basic prerequisite for improving bus competitiveness But: popular ratio is that street space is under utilized and difficulty in enforcement 4.4 Operation in mixed traffic-b

43 43 / 77 MUTP: MCGM Traffic Management Unit Training Programme Public Transportation Planning MVA 4.5 Preferential treatment: on streets Reserved bus lane Exclusive bus lane Contra flow bus lane

44 44 / 77 MUTP: MCGM Traffic Management Unit Training Programme Public Transportation Planning MVA 4.5 Preferential treatment: at intersections Signal design considerations person delay other than vehicular delay Exclusive signal phase for buses Special/extended signal-automatic

45 45 / 77 MUTP: MCGM Traffic Management Unit Training Programme Public Transportation Planning MVA 4.5 Preferential treatment: on freeways HOV lanes Exclusive bus lanes Preferential entry to freeway

46 46 / 77 MUTP: MCGM Traffic Management Unit Training Programme Public Transportation Planning MVA Reliability in terms of high frequency and adherence to the schedule Riding comfort Safety Area coverage(route-km/km 2 ) 4.6 Service Quality

47 47 / 77 MUTP: MCGM Traffic Management Unit Training Programme Public Transportation Planning MVA 5. Rail transit modes 5.1 Rail transit characteristics 5.2 Rail mode types

48 48 / 77 MUTP: MCGM Traffic Management Unit Training Programme Public Transportation Planning MVA 5.1 Rail transit characteristics External guidance: minimum R/W high riding quality, strong identity, high passenger attraction & impact on cities Rail technology: conical wheel and flange results in simple, safe and fast, low rolling resistance, at- grade crossing, least affected by weather Electric propulsion: clean durable, smooth navigation,….. Exclusive right of way – cat. A

49 49 / 77 MUTP: MCGM Traffic Management Unit Training Programme Public Transportation Planning MVA 5.2 Rail mode types 1. Street car (SCR) 2. Light rail transit (LRT) 3. Rapid rail transit (RRT) 4. Regional rail (RGR) 5. Mono rail 6. Sky bus This classification based on R/W, no of cars, power pick up, vehicle control, max speed and technology

50 50 / 77 MUTP: MCGM Traffic Management Unit Training Programme Public Transportation Planning MVA 5.2 Rail mode types Street car (SCR)

51 51 / 77 MUTP: MCGM Traffic Management Unit Training Programme Public Transportation Planning MVA 5.2 Rail mode types Light Rail Transit (LRT)

52 52 / 77 MUTP: MCGM Traffic Management Unit Training Programme Public Transportation Planning MVA 5.2 Rail mode types: Rapid Rail Transit (RRT)

53 53 / 77 MUTP: MCGM Traffic Management Unit Training Programme Public Transportation Planning MVA 5.2 Rail mode types: Sky Bus

54 54 / 77 MUTP: MCGM Traffic Management Unit Training Programme Public Transportation Planning MVA 5.2 Comparison of modes Productive capacity Cost per lane SCR LRT RRT

55 55 / 77 MUTP: MCGM Traffic Management Unit Training Programme Public Transportation Planning MVA 5.2 Comparison of modes Line capacity Operating speed SCR LRT RRT

56 56 / 77 MUTP: MCGM Traffic Management Unit Training Programme Public Transportation Planning MVA 6.1 Quantitative performance attributes 6.2 Transit lane capacity 6.3 Way capacity 6.4 Station capacity 6.5 Conclusions 6. Transit System Performance

57 57 / 77 MUTP: MCGM Traffic Management Unit Training Programme Public Transportation Planning MVA Basic attributes: speed, density, frequency Work: no. of. Objects transported x distance Productive capacity: product of its capacity and operation speed (space-km/h 2 ) Efficiency ratio = output produced/resource consumed Consumption rate = resource needed/ output produced 6.1 Quantitative performance attributes

58 58 / 77 MUTP: MCGM Traffic Management Unit Training Programme Public Transportation Planning MVA 6.2 Transit lane capacity Frequency f = 3600/h, veh/hr Max.freq f max = 3600/max(h w,min,h s,min) veh/hr Lane capacity C = f max nC v pass/hr Where hw = the way headway, hs = station headway, hs = station headway, n = no of units n = no of units cv = vehicle capacity cv = vehicle capacity

59 59 / 77 MUTP: MCGM Traffic Management Unit Training Programme Public Transportation Planning MVA 6.2 Vehicle capacity Total capacity C v Seating capacity Factors affecting Vehicle dimention Vehicle dimention Usable area Usable area Comfort standards Comfort standards Seat/Standee ration Seat/Standee ration

60 60 / 77 MUTP: MCGM Traffic Management Unit Training Programme Public Transportation Planning MVA 6.3 Way capacity Way capacity C w = 3600 n C v / hw,min Factors affecting way capacity Distance between vehicles (speed, brakers rate,…) Distance between vehicles (speed, brakers rate,…) Vehicle control gate gives (manual, visual, positive control of spacing, automate) Vehicle control gate gives (manual, visual, positive control of spacing, automate) Operations safety regimes (normal braking, emergency braking, instant) Operations safety regimes (normal braking, emergency braking, instant)

61 61 / 77 MUTP: MCGM Traffic Management Unit Training Programme Public Transportation Planning MVA 6.4 Stations capacity Station capacity C w = 3600 n C v / h s, min Factors affecting: Stopping sight distance Stopping sight distance Station spacing Station spacing Acceleration Acceleration Block length Block length Relation between consecutive vehicle in the station Relation between consecutive vehicle in the station

62 62 / 77 MUTP: MCGM Traffic Management Unit Training Programme Public Transportation Planning MVA 6.5 Inferences Capacity is not single, fixed numbers, but is closely related to the system performance and level of service Operational capacity stretches the system to its maximum and it is not desirable There is a significant difference between design capacity and the no. of persons actually transported Way capacity is different from station capacity and it is wrong to compare Cw of one mode and Cs of other Theoretical capacities are often different from practical capacities

63 63 / 77 MUTP: MCGM Traffic Management Unit Training Programme Public Transportation Planning MVA 7. Planning Issues

64 64 / 77 MUTP: MCGM Traffic Management Unit Training Programme Public Transportation Planning MVA RADIAL PATTERN CBD BUS ROUTE Suitable for cities with strong central core around which the development has taken place. Population density reduces as we move from CBD to fringes.

65 65 / 77 MUTP: MCGM Traffic Management Unit Training Programme Public Transportation Planning MVA BUS ROUTE RADIAL AND CIRCULAR GROWTH CENTRE Suitable for cities where the activity centres are developed along radial corridors.

66 66 / 77 MUTP: MCGM Traffic Management Unit Training Programme Public Transportation Planning MVA GRID PATTERN BUS ROUTE GROWTH CENTRE Suitable for cities having multiple activity centres spread uniformly through out.

67 67 / 77 MUTP: MCGM Traffic Management Unit Training Programme Public Transportation Planning MVA BUS ROUTE GROWTH CENTRE Suitable for cities that have evolved linearly along a major corridor and the activity centres are spread parallel to the corridor. TRUNK AND FEEDER SYSTEM

68 68 / 77 MUTP: MCGM Traffic Management Unit Training Programme Public Transportation Planning MVA BUS ROUTE CITY BOUNDARY BRANCHES AND LOOPS

69 69 / 77 MUTP: MCGM Traffic Management Unit Training Programme Public Transportation Planning MVA Competition or Coordination ? Is it desirable to have coordination between various modes or, To permit inter modal competition among various modes to yield competitive equilibrium ? Experience of deregulation have shown that competition between two bus operators with vehicles of different sizes and operating at different frequencies may both make money

70 70 / 77 MUTP: MCGM Traffic Management Unit Training Programme Public Transportation Planning MVA Competition or Coordination ? In case of bus and light rail the likely imbalance in financial costs may well make profitable equilibrium less likely Competition between high and low quality services in the same route may discourage any individual operator from offering high quality

71 71 / 77 MUTP: MCGM Traffic Management Unit Training Programme Public Transportation Planning MVA Lessons It appears that coordination of modes is necessary for the success of large-scale systems Some street competition appears to be desirable for similar as well as small capacity systems In case of light rail it is recommended that there can be competition for the market in respect of vehicle size, service frequency etc

72 72 / 77 MUTP: MCGM Traffic Management Unit Training Programme Public Transportation Planning MVA Integrated System The instruments of coordination include Route network coordination Easy to use inter-modal transfer sites The sale of through tickets and inter-modal passes (travel cards) Use of one service to feed another service Avoidance of duplication by parallel services Use of advanced information and communication services to allow faster decisions in planning, tracking and auditing inter-modal moves

73 73 / 77 MUTP: MCGM Traffic Management Unit Training Programme Public Transportation Planning MVA Route Network Strategies Entire network can be planned to optimize various systems Feeder Trunk Line concept Feeder express concept Transfer

74 74 / 77 MUTP: MCGM Traffic Management Unit Training Programme Public Transportation Planning MVA Integration Considerations Fare structure All modes and whole area collection outside system Information system Vehicle 2-way communication Automatic vehicle location Real time information system Proper information on system

75 75 / 77 MUTP: MCGM Traffic Management Unit Training Programme Public Transportation Planning MVA Integration TSM actions Deliberately encourage the use of combination of modes Para transit integration To be integrated at parking Preferential treatment of HOV Bus lanes Signal preemption Separate streets for buses

76 76 / 77 MUTP: MCGM Traffic Management Unit Training Programme Public Transportation Planning MVA Conclusion Evolution of Public Transportation Different characteristics of PT Major modes: Bus and Rail Preferential treatment for PT Complementary modes Integration of PT system

77 77 / 77 MUTP: MCGM Traffic Management Unit Training Programme Public Transportation Planning MVA Transportation Systems Engineering Department of Civil Engineering IIT Bombay Thanking You


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