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Public Transportation Planning

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Presentation on theme: "Public Transportation Planning"— Presentation transcript:

1 Public Transportation Planning
Presented by Dr. Tom V. Mathew Transportation Systems Engineering Department of Civil Engineering IIT Bombay September 2004

2 Overview Introduction Urban passenger transport modes
Vehicle characteristics & motion Bus transit mode Rail transit mode Transit system performance Planning Issues

3 1. Introduction 1.1 Transportation & location of cities
1.2 Form & structure of cities 1.3 Brief history of public transportation

4 1.1 Transportation & location of cities
The exchanges of goods affected transportation (eg. Mumbai, Chennai, Istanbul….) Intensification goods exchange resulted in transloading and route crossing which eventually became major cities (eg. Nagpur) Strategic consideration for cities include easy accessibility (eg. Moscow) Administrative/Political (eg. Delhi)

5 1.2 Form & structure of cities
Irregular: transportation has no role Grid: easy travel along the two axes Grid with superimposed diagonals: better aesthetics and easy travel, but complex intersection Radial and circular road network:

6 1.3 Brief history of public transportation-a
1662: public coach service started in Paris with five routes each can carry eight passengers 1828: horse-drawn omnibus started in Paris on 10 fixed routed with fleet size 100 each can carry 14 passengers

7 1.3 Brief history of public transportation-b
1832: horse-drawn street railway in New York with three compartments with 10 passengers in side and 10 on top : horse-tramway in many cities which attracted many working-class because of high efficiency, lower fare, flexibility

8 1.3 Brief history of public transportation-c
Steam: driven omnibus:-a failure Fireless: steam driven engines: only for short haul Compressed air system: high fuel cost

9 1.3 Brief history of public transportation-b
Electric traction: using batteries:-high cost Cable cars: using rollers, pulleys etc.

10 1.3 Brief history of public transportation-c
Electric street cars: tram lines in US leaded km in

11 1.3 Brief history of public transportation-d
Motor buses: petrol based or diesel based

12 1.3 Brief history of public transportation-e
High-speed rail transit modes

13 2. Urban passenger transport modes
2.1 Classification by usage 2.2 Modes definitions 2.3 Transit system characteristics 2.4 Transportation system evolution

14 2.1 Classification by usage
Private transport: own use Para transit: usually demand responsive Transit: common carrier urban passenger transport also known as mass transportation usually fixed route and fixed schedule Public transportation: transit + [paratransit]

15 2.2 Modes definitions: Right of way - a
R/W: strip of land on which transit vehicles operate R/W-C: mixed traffic R/W-B: physically separated, but allows at-grade crossings R/W-A: fully controlled without any legal access

16 2.2 Modes definitions: Right of way-b
R/W-C: mixed

17 2.2 Modes definitions: Right of way-b
R/W-B: physically separated, but allows at-grade crossings

18 2.2 Modes definitions: Right of way-b
R/W-A: fully controlled without any legal access

19 2.2 Modes definitions: Technologies
Support: vertical contact between vehicle and riding surface (road, rail, water, air, magnetic) Guidance: lateral vehicle guidance (steered or guided) Propulsion: type of unit and transfer (diesel/gas/petrol/electric) and (friction/cable/magnetic) Control: regulation the travel of vehicle (visual/signal/automatic)

20 2.2 Modes definitions: Service types
Type of trips: short-haul transit, city transit, regional transit Stopping schedule: local, accelerated, express Time of operation: regular or all-day service, commuter or peak-hour service, special or irregular service

21 2.3 Transit system components
Vehicle: Ways, travel ways or right-of-way: Stops: Stations: Transfer stations: Multi-model transfer stations: Control system:

22 2.3 Transit system characteristics-a
Service frequency (f): no of transit departure per hour Operation speed (Vo): Speed of travel experienced by passenger Reliability: % of vehicle arrival with less than a fixed time duration Safety: no of accidents per million km Line capacity (C): maximum no of persons a transit system can carry past a point during one hour

23 2.4 Transit system characteristics-b
Product capacity (Pc): product of operating speed and capacities of the line (Vo x C) Productivity: the quality of output per unit of resources (vehicle-km) Utilization: Ratio of output (person-km/space-km) Other: level-of-service, service quality, fare

24 2.5 Transportation system evolution
Walking: Private-automobiles: Common-carrier service (taxis): Construction of arterials: Paratransit and bus transit:

25 2.5 Transportation system evolution
Partial separation of modes: Guided transit: Freeways: grade-separated wide paths Rapid transit: fully controlled R/W Fully automated transit:

26 3. Vehicle characteristics & motion
3.1 Resistance to motion 3.2 Propulsion 3.3 Travel analysis 3.4 Energy consumption

27 3.1 Resistance to motion Vehicle resistance Basic resistance
Rollins resistance Way resistance (Track or roadway) Track or roadway position Riding surface Sway & oscillation Air resistance Alignment resistance Gradient Curvature

28 3.2 Propulsion-IC engines-a
Propulsion provide the force to over come resistance to motion Power of IC engine is defined as: (HP) Indicated power: measured in the cylinder Brake power: measured at the motor shaft Effection power: at the perimeter of the wheels Tractive effort is a function of speed

29 3.2 Propulsion-IC engines-b
Gear I Gear II Gear III Vehicle Speed Tractive Effort

30 3.2 Propulsion-electric traction-a
Power of electric motor: expressed in KW Hourly ratios: maximum power that can be produced by one hour of continues operation Continuous ration: the maximum power the motor can produce in unlimited operation DC motor and AC motor DC: high initial torque, easy speed regulation, simple control AC: lightweight, durable, low transmission loss AC transmission & DC motor

31 3.2 Propulsion-electric traction-b
Speed Tractive Force

32 3.2 Propulsion: comparison ET Vs DT
Higher acceleration rate Smoother acceleration & deceleration Low noise level, air pollution etc More durable, reliable and cheaper High initial investment and implementation time Low flexibility in routes of operation

33 3.3 Travel analysis-basic variable
Distance s = f(t) Speed v = ds/dt Acceleration a = dv/dt = d2s/dt Jerk z = da/dt = d3s/dt

34 3.3 Travel analysis - regimes of motion
Acceleration Cont Speed Coasting Braking Standing Distance Speed Time

35 3.4 Energy consumption Transit vehicles has low consumption in terms of HP/kw per person km or vehicle km Transit vehicle still has high absolute consumption EC depend on: vehicle characteristic (technology, design features, capacity,…), R/W and operational aspects (scheduling, operations regimes….)

36 3.4 Energy consumption-operations regimes
Time Acceleration Cont Speed Coasting Braking Standing Energy consumption Distance Speed

37 4. Bus transit mode 4.1 General characteristics
4.2 Vehicle characteristics 4.3 Bus types 4.4 Operation in mixed traffic 4.5 Preferential treatment 4.6 Service quality

38 4.1 General characteristics
Flexibility: ability to operate on most streets in mixed mode Low investment cost: minimum infrastructure, quick introduction, and easy changes/extension Limited capacity: ideally suited for lightly to moderately travelled transit routes

39 4.2 Vehicle characteristics
Operation cost: cost per capacity decrease as vehicle size increases Line capacity: increases with vehicle size Vehicle maneuverability: decreases with vehicle size Riding comfort: increases with vehicle size for std. bus

40 4.3 Bus Type Type Size Seats Speed Minibus 6.6 x 2.3 20 – 30 40 – 70
Standard bus 9.7 x 2.5 50 – 80 Articulated bus 19 x 2.5 100 – 120 30 – 60 Double Decker bus 9.1 x 2.4 65 – 100 15 – 50

41 4.4 Operation in mixed traffic-a
Bus operation in urban street require least investment The average speed of buses are lower than others Equal treatment of transit and other vehicle is illogical, often result in high travel cost to all Purpose of transportation is to move people/goods and not vehicles This lead to preferential treatment

42 4.4 Operation in mixed traffic-b
Preferential treatment assume equal rights to persons and not vehicles It increases travel speed, increased reliability and better in age to buses Bus preferential treatment is the basic prerequisite for improving bus competitiveness But: popular ratio is that street space is under utilized and difficulty in enforcement

43 4.5 Preferential treatment: on streets
Reserved bus lane Exclusive bus lane Contra flow bus lane

44 4.5 Preferential treatment: at intersections
Signal design considerations person delay other than vehicular delay Exclusive signal phase for buses Special/extended signal-automatic

45 4.5 Preferential treatment: on freeways
HOV lanes Exclusive bus lanes Preferential entry to freeway

46 4.6 Service Quality Reliability in terms of high frequency and adherence to the schedule Riding comfort Safety Area coverage(route-km/km2)

47 5. Rail transit modes 5.1 Rail transit characteristics
5.2 Rail mode types

48 5.1 Rail transit characteristics
External guidance: minimum R/W high riding quality, strong identity, high passenger attraction & impact on cities Rail technology: conical wheel and flange results in simple, safe and fast, low rolling resistance , at-grade crossing, least affected by weather Electric propulsion: clean durable, smooth navigation,….. Exclusive right of way – cat . A

49 5.2 Rail mode types Street car (SCR) Light rail transit (LRT)
Rapid rail transit (RRT) Regional rail (RGR) Mono rail Sky bus This classification based on R/W, no of cars, power pick up, vehicle control, max speed and technology

50 5.2 Rail mode types Street car (SCR)

51 5.2 Rail mode types Light Rail Transit (LRT)

52 5.2 Rail mode types: Rapid Rail Transit (RRT)

53 5.2 Rail mode types: Sky Bus

54 5.2 Comparison of modes RRT Cost per lane LRT SCR Productive capacity

55 5.2 Comparison of modes RRT Operating speed LRT SCR Line capacity

56 6. Transit System Performance
6.1 Quantitative performance attributes Transit lane capacity Way capacity Station capacity Conclusions

57 6.1 Quantitative performance attributes
Basic attributes: speed, density, frequency Work: no. of. Objects transported x distance Productive capacity: product of its capacity and operation speed (space-km/h2) Efficiency ratio = output produced/resource consumed Consumption rate = resource needed/ output produced

58 6.2 Transit lane capacity Frequency f = 3600/h, veh/hr
Max.freq fmax = 3600/max(hw,min,hs,min) veh/hr Lane capacity C = fmaxnCv pass/hr Where hw = the way headway, hs = station headway, n = no of units cv = vehicle capacity

59 6.2 Vehicle capacity Total capacity Cv Seating capacity
Factors affecting Vehicle dimention Usable area Comfort standards Seat/Standee ration

60 6.3 Way capacity Way capacity Cw = 3600 n Cv / hw,min
Factors affecting way capacity Distance between vehicles (speed, brakers rate,…) Vehicle control gate gives (manual, visual, positive control of spacing, automate) Operations safety regimes (normal braking, emergency braking, instant)

61 6.4 Stations capacity Station capacity Cw = 3600 n Cv / hs, min
Factors affecting: Stopping sight distance Station spacing Acceleration Block length Relation between consecutive vehicle in the station

62 6.5 Inferences Capacity is not single, fixed numbers, but is closely related to the system performance and level of service Operational capacity stretches the system to its maximum and it is not desirable There is a significant difference between design capacity and the no. of persons actually transported Way capacity is different from station capacity and it is wrong to compare Cw of one mode and Cs of other Theoretical capacities are often different from practical capacities

63 7. Planning Issues

Suitable for cities with strong central core around which the development has taken place. Population density reduces as we move from CBD to fringes.

Suitable for cities where the activity centres are developed along radial corridors.

Suitable for cities having multiple activity centres spread uniformly through out.

BUS ROUTE GROWTH CENTRE Suitable for cities that have evolved linearly along a major corridor and the activity centres are spread parallel to the corridor.


69 Competition or Coordination ?
Is it desirable to have coordination between various modes or, To permit inter modal competition among various modes to yield competitive equilibrium ? Experience of deregulation have shown that competition between two bus operators with vehicles of different sizes and operating at different frequencies may both make money

70 Competition or Coordination ?
In case of bus and light rail the likely imbalance in financial costs may well make profitable equilibrium less likely Competition between high and low quality services in the same route may discourage any individual operator from offering high quality

71 Lessons It appears that coordination of modes is necessary for the success of large-scale systems Some street competition appears to be desirable for similar as well as small capacity systems In case of light rail it is recommended that there can be competition for the market in respect of vehicle size, service frequency etc

72 Integrated System The instruments of coordination include
Route network coordination Easy to use inter-modal transfer sites The sale of through tickets and inter-modal passes (travel cards) Use of one service to feed another service Avoidance of duplication by parallel services Use of advanced information and communication services to allow faster decisions in planning, tracking and auditing inter-modal moves

73 Route Network Strategies
Entire network can be planned to optimize various systems Feeder Trunk Line concept Feeder express concept Transfer

74 Integration Considerations
Fare structure All modes and whole area collection outside system Information system Vehicle 2-way communication Automatic vehicle location Real time information system Proper information on system

75 Integration TSM actions
Deliberately encourage the use of combination of modes Para transit integration To be integrated at parking Preferential treatment of HOV Bus lanes Signal preemption Separate streets for buses

76 Evolution of Public Transportation Different characteristics of PT
Conclusion Evolution of Public Transportation Different characteristics of PT Major modes: Bus and Rail Preferential treatment for PT Complementary modes Integration of PT system

77 Transportation Systems Engineering Department of Civil Engineering
Thanking You Transportation Systems Engineering Department of Civil Engineering IIT Bombay

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