2 Warm-Up: Pick up NOTES PACKET on front cart. ScheduleWarm Up:Discrimination against African-Americans—Voting, Court Challenges, Jim Crow, Segregation, Black Codes & NAACPCooperative WorkClosure: How did discrimination impact African-Americans?Assignment: Packet page 1 due
3 Warm-Up: Word-Web on page 9 Schedule:Warm-UpPowerPoint: Brown v. Board of Education Topeka Kansas 1954Brown v. Board argumentsSegregation in 21st century AmericaKey Question: How did the Brown v. Board case impact American society??Assignment: Packet page 1 due
4 Court Decisions and Grassroots Organizing Blacks had been fighting for equality since Civil WarWanted political rights, better jobs, & end to segregationSupreme Court decisions & grassroots movement (locally organized by ordinary citizens) helped expand civil rights
6 Brown Takes on Plessy v. Ferguson NAACP benefited from these changesThey established fund to pay for legal challenges to segregationStill, “separate but equal” law in effect in 1950s1950s, African Americans sued to end segregation – integrate – in public schoolsBefore then, white school boards gave white schools newer books, equipment, & school buildings than black schoolsSchools were separate, but they were NOT equalThurgood Marshall, NAACP lawyer, led the fight against segregation in courts
7 Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka 1954 Court overturned Plessy v. FergusonCourt said that because facilities are separate, they can never be equalAmerica’s schools should be integratedBrown decision limited to public schools
8 Warm-Up Answer question at top of page 13 in Notes Packet ScheduleWarm Up:Rosa Parks ReadingRosa Park perceptions of agencyRosa Parks & the Montgomery Bus Boycott NotesClosure: How did the Montgomery Bus Boycott enhance African-American civil rights?HW: Assignment packet page 1 due Wednesday
9 The Way Things Were…Black people could not sit just anywhere they wanted in the bus. They had to sit in the back of the bus. If white people were already sitting in the front of the bus, the black person had to pay the fare, get off the bus, and reenter at the back door. Sometimes the bus driver just drove off and left them before they could get back on at the back door. If the bus filled up with people, the driver would ask a black person to move so he could reposition the movable sign which divided the black and white sections.
11 Rosa Parks December 1, 1955, in Montgomery, Alabama, Rosa Parks got on bus to ride homeGroup of white people got on board along wayBus driver told Parks & other blacks to move to back of busEveryone obeyed except ParksParks was arrestedBut this event started movementto end segregation in US
12 Montgomery Bus Boycott 1955, Rosa Parks arrested for refusing to give up her seat on busNews of her arrest spread quicklyNAACP & churches asked blacks to boycott riding buses – Montgomery Bus BoycottBoycott is type of political activism –direct action taken to support or opposea social or political goal
13 That night, NAACP held meeting Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. – Baptist minister from Georgia – told them “we’re tired of being segregated & humiliated”Boycott went on for 13 monthsKing & other leaders faced death threats, bombings, jailingsSupreme Court eventuallydeclared bus segregation illegalNow blacks could sit whereverthey wanted on buses
14 Results of boycott:Ended segregation on Montgomery busesLed to founding of Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC)Coordinated nonviolent civil rights protests all over SouthBoycott made Martin Luther King national figure in civil rights movement
15 Warm-Up Answer question at top of page 18 in notes packet ScheduleWarm Up:Little Rock Nine photo analysisLittle Rock Nine NotesWarriors Don’t Cry ExcerptsClosure: How did the Montgomery Bus Boycott enhance African-American civil rights?HW: Assignment packet page
16 Civil Rights Supporters Face Violence Civil rights victories angered Southern whitesKu Klux Klan used beatings, arson, murder to threaten blacksMany whites organized groups called White Citizens Councils to prevent desegregationOpposition of whites to desegregation – “massive resistance”
17 Showdown in Little Rock Massive resistance threatened school desegregation in Little Rock, ArkansasAfter Brown case, Little Rock school board planned to integrate9 black kids go to Central High School – “the Little Rock Nine”
18 Segregationists tried to stop them Governor Orval Faubus ordered National Guard to prevent students from entering schoolWent on for 3 weeksSeptember 24, President Eisenhower ordered 101st Airborne Division into Little RockThe paratroopers protected the students as they went to school
19 Sit-Ins Energize the Movement Victories like one in Little Rock encouraged others to fight for rights1960, 4 black college students started sit-in at lunch counter in Greensboro, NCSit-in – protest where people sit & refuse to move until demands met
20 Students ordered coffee – waitress said no b/c they were black Students came back each day w/ more protestors (over 100)Following weeks, 1000s of protestors held sit-ins in SouthSegregationists began abusing protestorsThrew acid & ammonia, yelled & beat them, burned w/ cigarettesProtests eventually forced stores w/ lunch counters to serve African Americans
21 Out of this movement, Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee formed Student-led group which used nonviolence tactics to pressure for change
22 Warm-Up: Civil Rights Quiz ScheduleWarm Up:When finished with quiz, complete Assignment Packet page + text readingClosure: How was discrimination utilized to weaken civil rights of African Americans? How was the civil rights movement strengthened?Assignment: Packet page 2 due
23 Warm-Up: Complete top part of page 23 in NOTES PACKET Schedule:Warm-UpCivil Rights Movement NotesBirmingham Protest Video & QuestionsEqual Rights NotesClosure: How did ‘2nd class’ Americans fight for equality??Assignment: Packet page 2 due
24 The Movement Gains Strength Early 1960s, Congress did not act on civil rights issuesHowever, ordinary people all over America were joining civil rights movementAs this grassroots movement grew, politicians forced to get involved
25 Kennedy and Civil Rights 1960, America elected new presidentSouthern Democrats supported segregationKennedy did not want to anger them (could prevent him getting reelected)But civil rights activists kept pressuring the govt.May 1961, Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) staged freedom ridesDespite attacks, freedom riders kept goingKennedy sent federal marshals to protect them4 months later, federal govt. integrated all interstate bus facilities
26 Protests in Birmingham 1960s, civil rights movement gained strengthBlacks in Birmingham, AL wanted to integrate public places, get better jobs, & better housingProtestors knew Public Safety Commissioner would use violence to stop protestsAlso knew sight of segregationists beating up nonviolent protestors would increase America’s pressure for change
27 Demonstration began April 1963 – cops arrested & held Dr. King SCLC used children in protestsPolice used dogs & firehouses on themPeople watched on television – they were horrifiedSoon Birmingham’s leaders desegregated lunch counters, removed segregation signs, & hired more black workers
28 Freedom RidesProtests against segregation on interstate buses in SouthDuring rides, whites would sit in back, blacks sit in frontAlong the way, blacks would try to use “whites only” facilitiesMany were attacked for doing so
29 Equal Rights Struggle: Mexican-Americans Mexican Americans united to fight for equality1950s, Cesar Chavez worked w/ Dolores Huerta to create labor unionChavez inspired by Dr. King & Ghandi (nonviolent)1962, Chavez formed United Farm Workers Organizing Committee (UFWOC)1965, California grape growers refused to recognize unionChavez organized boycott of grapes – it worked
30 Farm workers inspired Mexican Americans in cities to organize Students walked out of class to get better facilities, more Mexican American teachersThis action led to many reforms1970, Mexican Americans formed La Raza Unida to elect Mexican Americans to public officeLead to better jobs, pay, housing, education
31 Native American Activism As America grew, Indians lost their land & millions of their peopleSurviving Indians forced onto reservations (poverty)Many children forced into “Indian schools”Indian language & culture forbidden hereIndian children taught to assimilate – blend into white culture
33 1950s, Bureau of Indian Affairs started “termination policy” State governments would control IndiansIndians also lost another 1.6 million acresIndians united against termination policyNational Congress of American Indians (NCAI) – founded to protect Indians – led protestsGovt. changed policy 1958
34 By 1960s, Indians were least wealthy & least healthy of all groups in U.S. Indian unemployment – 10 times country’s averageLife expectancy – 20 years shorter than country’s average1961, Indians issued Declaration of Indian Purpose – wanted to control own livesDemanded rights for people on reservations & acceptance of Indian laws1970s, Indians won control of social programs, law enforcement, & educationNative Americans also won back some landAlso went to court over hunting & fishing rights on old land
35 The Women’s Movement Revives Women’s rights movement began mid-1800sVictory achieved 1920 – women gained right to voteBut women still had few rights & job opportunitiesWWII, 7 million women filled jobs for menWhen soldiers came home, many women lost jobs
36 1960s, women still discriminated against at work & few legal rights Married women could not sign contracts, sell property, or get creditWomen could lose job if got pregnant (encouraged to quit)In The Feminine Mystique, Betty Friedan described problem for women:Women wanted more than husband, children, & home
37 1966 Friedan started National Organization for Women (NOW) Tried to help women get good jobs & equal pay1966, 4% of lawyers & 1% of judges were womenWomen earned only 60% of what men earned2012, women still only earned 78% of what men didProblem – “Glass Ceiling” – invisible barrier keeping women from advancing2012, women lead 18 of 500 biggest companies in US
38 The Movement’s Impact1972 Congress passed Equal Rights Amendment (ERA)Equality shall not be denied or abridged (shortened) by government because of genderTried to protect women against discrimination & help them achieve equality in jobs, pay, education38 states had to accept the lawBy deadline, only 35 didOpponents argued ERA would destroy families & that women’s problems were not govt’s business
39 Other reforms helped reduce inequality Higher Education Act of 1972 (“Title IX”) – outlawed discrimination against women in schoolExample: many schools spent more money on men’s sports than women’s sportsTitle IX made that illegal
40 Warm-Up: Complete question on the bottom of page 26 Schedule:Warm-UpMLK Jr. & Malcolm X ReadingsClosure: Which civil rights leader’s philosophy do you agree? Why?
41 Warm-Up: Complete question on the top of page 34 on Notes Packet Schedule:Warm-UpPPT New Civil Rights: President Kennedy/Johnson & New SocietyClosure: How was the civil rights movement a success? How was the civil rights unfulfilled?
42 The High Water MarkBirmingham protests helped inspire othersA march on Washington & voter registration drive helped convince Congress to make more changes
43 The March on Washington Birmingham convinced Americans to support laws to protect civil rightsAugust 28, 1963, 250,000 joined March on WashingtonDuring march, Dr. King delivered his“I Have a Dream” speechHe hoped his children would be judged by “their character” rather than “the color of their skin”The march united many civil rights groupsAlso convinced Kennedy to promise his support
44 New Civil Rights LawsPresident Kennedy did not live long enough to keep promiseNovember 22, 1963, Kennedy & V.P. Lyndon Johnson went to Texas to campaignAs motorcade rode through Dallas, shots rang outKennedy was hit – died within an hourJohnson was sworn in as president – promised to continue Kennedy’s policiesCivil Rights Act of 1964 became law in JulyBanned segregation in public placesCreated Equal Employment Opportunity Commission – to prevent job discriminationSegregation officially became illegal
45 Kennedy’s Assassination Fall 1963, Kennedy losing popularity – he supported civil rightsBut most still supported KennedyNovember 22, 1963, Kennedy landed in Dallas, TXCame to make friends w/ state’s Democratic PartyStreets of downtown Dallas full of applauseJackie & President Kennedy sat in open-air limousineGovernor John Connally (& wife) sat in frontAs limo approached Texas School Book Depository, rifle shots rang outPresident Kennedy was shot in headTaken to nearby hospital – President Kennedy was deadLyndon Johnson took over as PresidentDallas police charged Lee Harvey Oswald w/ murderPalm print found on rifle used to kill KennedyOswald was 24, ex-marine, had lived in Soviet Union, supported CastroNovember 24, while Oswald being transferred to another prison, Jack Ruby shot & killed Oswald on TV
46 Unanswered QuestionsSome people wondered if Oswald involved in conspiracy1963, Warren Commission investigated Kennedy’s murderConcluded Oswald shot Kennedy on his ownAnother investigation in 1979 found Oswald had taken part in conspiracyInvestigators believed 2 people fired on PresidentVarious theories have come about:Anti-Castro CubansCommunist-sponsored attackConspiracy by CIAAmerican mafiaV.P. Lyndon Johnson
47 Fighting For Voting Rights South had used literacy tests, poll taxes, & violence to stop blacks from votingCivil Rights Act said states cannot use different voting standards for blacks & whitesSame year, states ratified 24th AmendmentOutlawed poll taxesStill, many blacks had hard time voting
48 August 6, 1965, Johnson signed Voting Rights Act 1964, SNCC organized voter registration drive for Southern blacks – Freedom SummerVolunteers were harassed & some even killedBut they registered many African American votersPresident Johnson told Alabama Governor George Wallace he wanted no more violencePresident sent troops to protect protestorsAugust 6, 1965, Johnson signed Voting Rights ActBanned literacy tests & other laws preventing people from voting
49 Johnson & Great Society Johnson’s presidency called Great SocietyHelped poor, elderly, women, & the disenfranchised (people not allowed to vote)Also passed laws to promote education, end discrimination, protect environmentMany of these programs still exist today – Medicare (health insurance for elderly) & Medicaid (medical care for poor)Congress also passed Elementary & Secondary School Act – federal funds for educationCongress also strengthened Clean Air Act & Clean Water ActPassed laws to protect endangered species & preserve forest
50 Division in the Civil Rights Movement Late 1960s, civil rights leader disagreed about movementSCLC wanted more nonviolent protestBut other groups wanted to be more aggressive1966, SNCC kicked out white membersThey began to call for “black power”Wanted blacks to make own organizations to fight racismNation of Islam – branch of Islam begun in U.S. – also told blacks to separate from whitesNOI led by Elijah MuhammadBut most popular member was Malcolm X
51 By mid-1960s, however, Malcolm X rejected NOI (but he remained Muslim) In Mecca, Saudi Arabia, Malcolm X saw all Muslims living in peaceHe learned that what Nation of Islam taught was not real IslamHe came back to U.S. & wanted all races to be equal1965, members of Nation of Islam killed Malcolm XIn North, no laws took away blacks’ civil rightsBut they were still discriminated againstAfrican Americans in cities grew frustrated riotsApril 4, 1968, Martin Luther King was assassinated in Memphis, TNAfrican American communities erupted in violence (40 died)
52 Warm-Up: Find prescribed groups Schedule:Warm-UpCivil Rights Review Packet & QuestionsClosure: How did the civil rights movement progress throughout the 20th century?
53 Warm-Up: Log onto a computer follow the directions below. Schedule:Moodle.wilsonsd.orgUser/password guestSocial Studies US History II –Peshler1st Tab Civil Rights (JFK Assassination)Open up linkClosure: Who killed President JFK?
54 Warm-Up: Grab Scantron Schedule:Warm-UpCivil Rights TestClosure: How did the civil rights movement progress throughout the 20th century?
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