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Civil rights movement.

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Presentation on theme: "Civil rights movement."— Presentation transcript:

1 Civil rights movement

2 Warm-Up: Pick up NOTES PACKET on front cart.
Schedule Warm Up: Discrimination against African-Americans—Voting, Court Challenges, Jim Crow, Segregation, Black Codes & NAACP Cooperative Work Closure: How did discrimination impact African-Americans? Assignment: Packet page 1 due

3 Warm-Up: Word-Web on page 9
Schedule: Warm-Up PowerPoint: Brown v. Board of Education Topeka Kansas 1954 Brown v. Board arguments Segregation in 21st century America Key Question: How did the Brown v. Board case impact American society?? Assignment: Packet page 1 due

4 Court Decisions and Grassroots Organizing
Blacks had been fighting for equality since Civil War Wanted political rights, better jobs, & end to segregation Supreme Court decisions & grassroots movement (locally organized by ordinary citizens) helped expand civil rights


6 Brown Takes on Plessy v. Ferguson
NAACP benefited from these changes They established fund to pay for legal challenges to segregation Still, “separate but equal” law in effect in 1950s 1950s, African Americans sued to end segregation – integrate – in public schools Before then, white school boards gave white schools newer books, equipment, & school buildings than black schools Schools were separate, but they were NOT equal Thurgood Marshall, NAACP lawyer, led the fight against segregation in courts

7 Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka 1954
Court overturned Plessy v. Ferguson Court said that because facilities are separate, they can never be equal America’s schools should be integrated Brown decision limited to public schools

8 Warm-Up Answer question at top of page 13 in Notes Packet
Schedule Warm Up: Rosa Parks Reading Rosa Park perceptions of agency Rosa Parks & the Montgomery Bus Boycott Notes Closure: How did the Montgomery Bus Boycott enhance African-American civil rights? HW: Assignment packet page 1 due Wednesday

9 The Way Things Were… Black people could not sit just anywhere they wanted in the bus. They had to sit in the back of the bus. If white people were already sitting in the front of the bus, the black person had to pay the fare, get off the bus, and reenter at the back door. Sometimes the bus driver just drove off and left them before they could get back on at the back door. If the bus filled up with people, the driver would ask a black person to move so he could reposition the movable sign which divided the black and white sections.


11 Rosa Parks December 1, 1955, in Montgomery,
Alabama, Rosa Parks got on bus to ride home Group of white people got on board along way Bus driver told Parks & other blacks to move to back of bus Everyone obeyed except Parks Parks was arrested But this event started movement to end segregation in US

12 Montgomery Bus Boycott
1955, Rosa Parks arrested for refusing to give up her seat on bus News of her arrest spread quickly NAACP & churches asked blacks to boycott riding buses – Montgomery Bus Boycott Boycott is type of political activism – direct action taken to support or oppose a social or political goal

13 That night, NAACP held meeting
Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. – Baptist minister from Georgia – told them “we’re tired of being segregated & humiliated” Boycott went on for 13 months King & other leaders faced death threats, bombings, jailings Supreme Court eventually declared bus segregation illegal Now blacks could sit wherever they wanted on buses

14 Results of boycott: Ended segregation on Montgomery buses Led to founding of Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) Coordinated nonviolent civil rights protests all over South Boycott made Martin Luther King national figure in civil rights movement

15 Warm-Up Answer question at top of page 18 in notes packet
Schedule Warm Up: Little Rock Nine photo analysis Little Rock Nine Notes Warriors Don’t Cry Excerpts Closure: How did the Montgomery Bus Boycott enhance African-American civil rights? HW: Assignment packet page

16 Civil Rights Supporters Face Violence
Civil rights victories angered Southern whites Ku Klux Klan used beatings, arson, murder to threaten blacks Many whites organized groups called White Citizens Councils to prevent desegregation Opposition of whites to desegregation – “massive resistance”

17 Showdown in Little Rock
Massive resistance threatened school desegregation in Little Rock, Arkansas After Brown case, Little Rock school board planned to integrate 9 black kids go to Central High School – “the Little Rock Nine”

18 Segregationists tried to stop them
Governor Orval Faubus ordered National Guard to prevent students from entering school Went on for 3 weeks September 24, President Eisenhower ordered 101st Airborne Division into Little Rock The paratroopers protected the students as they went to school

19 Sit-Ins Energize the Movement
Victories like one in Little Rock encouraged others to fight for rights 1960, 4 black college students started sit-in at lunch counter in Greensboro, NC Sit-in – protest where people sit & refuse to move until demands met

20 Students ordered coffee – waitress said no b/c they were black
Students came back each day w/ more protestors (over 100) Following weeks, 1000s of protestors held sit-ins in South Segregationists began abusing protestors Threw acid & ammonia, yelled & beat them, burned w/ cigarettes Protests eventually forced stores w/ lunch counters to serve African Americans

21 Out of this movement, Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee formed
Student-led group which used nonviolence tactics to pressure for change

22 Warm-Up: Civil Rights Quiz
Schedule Warm Up: When finished with quiz, complete Assignment Packet page + text reading Closure: How was discrimination utilized to weaken civil rights of African Americans? How was the civil rights movement strengthened? Assignment: Packet page 2 due

23 Warm-Up: Complete top part of page 23 in NOTES PACKET
Schedule: Warm-Up Civil Rights Movement Notes Birmingham Protest Video & Questions Equal Rights Notes Closure: How did ‘2nd class’ Americans fight for equality?? Assignment: Packet page 2 due

24 The Movement Gains Strength
Early 1960s, Congress did not act on civil rights issues However, ordinary people all over America were joining civil rights movement As this grassroots movement grew, politicians forced to get involved

25 Kennedy and Civil Rights
1960, America elected new president Southern Democrats supported segregation Kennedy did not want to anger them (could prevent him getting reelected) But civil rights activists kept pressuring the govt. May 1961, Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) staged freedom rides Despite attacks, freedom riders kept going Kennedy sent federal marshals to protect them 4 months later, federal govt. integrated all interstate bus facilities

26 Protests in Birmingham
1960s, civil rights movement gained strength Blacks in Birmingham, AL wanted to integrate public places, get better jobs, & better housing Protestors knew Public Safety Commissioner would use violence to stop protests Also knew sight of segregationists beating up nonviolent protestors would increase America’s pressure for change

27 Demonstration began April 1963 – cops arrested & held Dr. King
SCLC used children in protests Police used dogs & firehouses on them People watched on television – they were horrified Soon Birmingham’s leaders desegregated lunch counters, removed segregation signs, & hired more black workers

28 Freedom Rides Protests against segregation on interstate buses in South During rides, whites would sit in back, blacks sit in front Along the way, blacks would try to use “whites only” facilities Many were attacked for doing so

29 Equal Rights Struggle: Mexican-Americans
Mexican Americans united to fight for equality 1950s, Cesar Chavez worked w/ Dolores Huerta to create labor union Chavez inspired by Dr. King & Ghandi (nonviolent) 1962, Chavez formed United Farm Workers Organizing Committee (UFWOC) 1965, California grape growers refused to recognize union Chavez organized boycott of grapes – it worked

30 Farm workers inspired Mexican Americans in cities to organize
Students walked out of class to get better facilities, more Mexican American teachers This action led to many reforms 1970, Mexican Americans formed La Raza Unida to elect Mexican Americans to public office Lead to better jobs, pay, housing, education

31 Native American Activism
As America grew, Indians lost their land & millions of their people Surviving Indians forced onto reservations (poverty) Many children forced into “Indian schools” Indian language & culture forbidden here Indian children taught to assimilate – blend into white culture


33 1950s, Bureau of Indian Affairs started “termination policy”
State governments would control Indians Indians also lost another 1.6 million acres Indians united against termination policy National Congress of American Indians (NCAI) – founded to protect Indians – led protests Govt. changed policy 1958

34 By 1960s, Indians were least wealthy & least healthy of all groups in U.S.
Indian unemployment – 10 times country’s average Life expectancy – 20 years shorter than country’s average 1961, Indians issued Declaration of Indian Purpose – wanted to control own lives Demanded rights for people on reservations & acceptance of Indian laws 1970s, Indians won control of social programs, law enforcement, & education Native Americans also won back some land Also went to court over hunting & fishing rights on old land

35 The Women’s Movement Revives
Women’s rights movement began mid-1800s Victory achieved 1920 – women gained right to vote But women still had few rights & job opportunities WWII, 7 million women filled jobs for men When soldiers came home, many women lost jobs

36 1960s, women still discriminated against at work & few legal rights
Married women could not sign contracts, sell property, or get credit Women could lose job if got pregnant (encouraged to quit) In The Feminine Mystique, Betty Friedan described problem for women: Women wanted more than husband, children, & home

37 1966 Friedan started National Organization for Women (NOW)
Tried to help women get good jobs & equal pay 1966, 4% of lawyers & 1% of judges were women Women earned only 60% of what men earned 2012, women still only earned 78% of what men did Problem – “Glass Ceiling” – invisible barrier keeping women from advancing 2012, women lead 18 of 500 biggest companies in US

38 The Movement’s Impact 1972 Congress passed Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) Equality shall not be denied or abridged (shortened) by government because of gender Tried to protect women against discrimination & help them achieve equality in jobs, pay, education 38 states had to accept the law By deadline, only 35 did Opponents argued ERA would destroy families & that women’s problems were not govt’s business

39 Other reforms helped reduce inequality
Higher Education Act of 1972 (“Title IX”) – outlawed discrimination against women in school Example: many schools spent more money on men’s sports than women’s sports Title IX made that illegal

40 Warm-Up: Complete question on the bottom of page 26
Schedule: Warm-Up MLK Jr. & Malcolm X Readings Closure: Which civil rights leader’s philosophy do you agree? Why?

41 Warm-Up: Complete question on the top of page 34 on Notes Packet
Schedule: Warm-Up PPT  New Civil Rights: President Kennedy/Johnson & New Society Closure: How was the civil rights movement a success? How was the civil rights unfulfilled?

42 The High Water Mark Birmingham protests helped inspire others A march on Washington & voter registration drive helped convince Congress to make more changes

43 The March on Washington
Birmingham convinced Americans to support laws to protect civil rights August 28, 1963, 250,000 joined March on Washington During march, Dr. King delivered his “I Have a Dream” speech He hoped his children would be judged by “their character” rather than “the color of their skin” The march united many civil rights groups Also convinced Kennedy to promise his support

44 New Civil Rights Laws President Kennedy did not live long enough to keep promise November 22, 1963, Kennedy & V.P. Lyndon Johnson went to Texas to campaign As motorcade rode through Dallas, shots rang out Kennedy was hit – died within an hour Johnson was sworn in as president – promised to continue Kennedy’s policies Civil Rights Act of 1964 became law in July Banned segregation in public places Created Equal Employment Opportunity Commission – to prevent job discrimination Segregation officially became illegal

45 Kennedy’s Assassination
Fall 1963, Kennedy losing popularity – he supported civil rights But most still supported Kennedy November 22, 1963, Kennedy landed in Dallas, TX Came to make friends w/ state’s Democratic Party Streets of downtown Dallas full of applause Jackie & President Kennedy sat in open-air limousine Governor John Connally (& wife) sat in front As limo approached Texas School Book Depository, rifle shots rang out President Kennedy was shot in head Taken to nearby hospital – President Kennedy was dead Lyndon Johnson took over as President Dallas police charged Lee Harvey Oswald w/ murder Palm print found on rifle used to kill Kennedy Oswald was 24, ex-marine, had lived in Soviet Union, supported Castro November 24, while Oswald being transferred to another prison, Jack Ruby shot & killed Oswald on TV

46 Unanswered Questions Some people wondered if Oswald involved in conspiracy 1963, Warren Commission investigated Kennedy’s murder Concluded Oswald shot Kennedy on his own Another investigation in 1979 found Oswald had taken part in conspiracy Investigators believed 2 people fired on President Various theories have come about: Anti-Castro Cubans Communist-sponsored attack Conspiracy by CIA American mafia V.P. Lyndon Johnson

47 Fighting For Voting Rights
South had used literacy tests, poll taxes, & violence to stop blacks from voting Civil Rights Act said states cannot use different voting standards for blacks & whites Same year, states ratified 24th Amendment Outlawed poll taxes Still, many blacks had hard time voting

48 August 6, 1965, Johnson signed Voting Rights Act
1964, SNCC organized voter registration drive for Southern blacks – Freedom Summer Volunteers were harassed & some even killed But they registered many African American voters President Johnson told Alabama Governor George Wallace he wanted no more violence President sent troops to protect protestors August 6, 1965, Johnson signed Voting Rights Act Banned literacy tests & other laws preventing people from voting

49 Johnson & Great Society
Johnson’s presidency called Great Society Helped poor, elderly, women, & the disenfranchised (people not allowed to vote) Also passed laws to promote education, end discrimination, protect environment Many of these programs still exist today – Medicare (health insurance for elderly) & Medicaid (medical care for poor) Congress also passed Elementary & Secondary School Act – federal funds for education Congress also strengthened Clean Air Act & Clean Water Act Passed laws to protect endangered species & preserve forest

50 Division in the Civil Rights Movement
Late 1960s, civil rights leader disagreed about movement SCLC wanted more nonviolent protest But other groups wanted to be more aggressive 1966, SNCC kicked out white members They began to call for “black power” Wanted blacks to make own organizations to fight racism Nation of Islam – branch of Islam begun in U.S. – also told blacks to separate from whites NOI led by Elijah Muhammad But most popular member was Malcolm X

51 By mid-1960s, however, Malcolm X rejected NOI (but he remained Muslim)
In Mecca, Saudi Arabia, Malcolm X saw all Muslims living in peace He learned that what Nation of Islam taught was not real Islam He came back to U.S. & wanted all races to be equal 1965, members of Nation of Islam killed Malcolm X In North, no laws took away blacks’ civil rights But they were still discriminated against African Americans in cities grew frustrated  riots April 4, 1968, Martin Luther King was assassinated in Memphis, TN African American communities erupted in violence (40 died)

52 Warm-Up: Find prescribed groups
Schedule: Warm-Up Civil Rights Review Packet & Questions Closure: How did the civil rights movement progress throughout the 20th century?

53 Warm-Up: Log onto a computer follow the directions below.
Schedule: User/password  guest Social Studies  US History II –Peshler 1st Tab  Civil Rights (JFK Assassination) Open up link Closure: Who killed President JFK?

54 Warm-Up: Grab Scantron
Schedule: Warm-Up Civil Rights Test Closure: How did the civil rights movement progress throughout the 20th century?

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