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Fundamentals of Bus Bar Protection

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1 Fundamentals of Bus Bar Protection
GE Multilin

2 Outline Bus components Bus protection techniques CT Saturation
Bus arrangements Bus components Bus protection techniques CT Saturation Application Considerations: High impedance bus differential relaying Low impedance bus differential relaying Special topics

3 Single bus - single breaker
Distribution and lower transmission voltage levels No operating flexibility Fault on the bus trips all circuit breakers

4 Multiple bus sections - single breaker with bus tie
Distribution and lower transmission voltage levels Limited operating flexibility

5 Double bus - single breaker with bus tie
Transmission and distribution voltage levels Breaker maintenance without circuit removal Fault on a bus disconnects only the circuits being connected to that bus

6 Main and transfer buses
Increased operating flexibility A bus fault requires tripping all breakers Transfer bus for breaker maintenance

7 Double bus – single breaker w/ transfer bus
Very high operating flexibility Transfer bus for breaker maintenance

8 Double bus - double breaker
High operating flexibility Line protection covers bus section between two CTs Fault on a bus does not disturb the power to circuits

9 Breaker-and-a-half bus
Used on higher voltage levels More operating flexibility Requires more breakers Middle bus sections covered by line or other equipment protection

10 Ring bus Higher voltage levels
High operating flexibility with minimum breakers Separate bus protection not required at line positions

11 Bus components breakers Low Voltage circuit breakers
SF6, EHV & HV - Synchropuff

12 Disconnect switches & auxiliary contacts

13 Current Transformers Gas (SF6) insulated current transformer
Oil insulated current transformer (35kV up to 800kV) Bushing type (medium voltage switchgear)

14 Protection Requirements
High bus fault currents due to large number of circuits connected: CT saturation often becomes a problem as CTs may not be sufficiently rated for worst fault condition case large dynamic forces associated with bus faults require fast clearing times in order to reduce equipment damage False trip by bus protection may create serious problems: service interruption to a large number of circuits (distribution and sub-transmission voltage levels) system-wide stability problems (transmission voltage levels) With both dependability and security important, preference is always given to security Protection of power system busbars is one of the most critical relaying applications. Busbars are areas in power systems where fault current levels may be very high. In spite of that, some of the circuits connected to the bus may have their Current Transformers (CTs) insufficiently rated. This creates a danger of significant CT saturation and jeopardizes security of the busbar protection system. A false trip of a distribution bus can cause outages to a large number of customers as numerous feeders and/or sub-transmission lines may get disconnected. A false trip of a transmission busbar may drastically change system topology and jeopardize power system stability. Hence, the requirement of a maximum security of busbar protection. On the other hand, bus faults generate large fault currents. If not cleared promptly, they endanger the entire substation due to both dynamic forces and thermal effects. Hence, the requirement of high-speed operation of busbar protection. With both security and dependability being very important for busbar protection, the preference is always given to security.

15 Bus Protection Techniques
Interlocking schemes Overcurrent (“unrestrained” or “unbiased”) differential Overcurrent percent (“restrained” or “biased”) differential Linear couplers High-impedance bus differential schemes Low-impedance bus differential schemes Power system busbars vary significantly as to the size (number of circuits connected), complexity (number of sections, tie-breakers, disconnectors, etc.) and voltage level (transmission, distribution). The above technical aspects combined with economic factors yield a number of solutions for busbar protection.

16 Interlocking Schemes Blocking scheme typically used
Short coordination time required Care must be taken with possible saturation of feeder CTs Blocking signal could be sent over communications ports (peer-to-peer) This technique is limited to simple one-incomer distribution buses A simple protection for distribution busbars can be accomplished as an interlocking scheme. Overcurrent (OC) relays are placed on an incoming circuit and at all outgoing feeders. The feeder OCs are set to sense the fault currents on the feeders. The OC on the incoming circuit is set to trip the busbar unless blocked by any of the feeder OC relays. A short coordination timer is typically required to avoid race conditions. When using microprocessor-based multi-functional relays it becomes possible to integrate all the required OC functions in one or few relays. This allows not only reducing wiring but also shortening the coordination time and speeding-up operation of the scheme. Modern relays provide for fast peer-to-peer communications using protocols such as the UCA with the GOOSE mechanism. This allows eliminating wiring and sending the blocking signals over the communications. The scheme although easy to apply and economical is limited to specific (simple) busbar configurations.

17 Overcurrent (unrestrained) Differential
Differential signal formed by summation of all currents feeding the bus CT ratio matching may be required On external faults, saturated CTs yield spurious differential current Time delay used to cope with CT saturation Instantaneous differential OC function useful on integrated microprocessor-based relays Typically a differential current is created externally to a current sensor by summation of all the circuit currents. Preferably the CTs should be of the same ratio. If they are not, a matching CT (or several CTs) is needed. This in turn may increase the burden for the main CTs and make the saturation problem even more serious. Historically, means to deal with the CT saturation problem include definite time or inverse-time overcurrent characteristics. Although economical and applicable to distribution busbars, this solution does not match performance of more advanced schemes and should not be applied to transmission-level busbars. The principle, however, is used as a protection function in an integrated microprocessor-based busbar relay. If this is the case, such unrestrained differential element should be set above the maximum spurious differential current and may give a chance to speed up operation on heavy internal faults as compared to a percent (restrained) bus differential element

18 Linear Couplers ZC = 2  – 20  - typical coil impedance
(5V per 1000Amps => 60Hz ) If = 8000 A 40 V 10 V 0 V 20 V 2000 A 4000 A 0 A 59 A linear coupler (air core mutual reactor) produces its output voltage proportional to the derivative of the input current. Because they are using air cores, linear couplers do not saturate. During internal faults the sum of the busbar currents, and thus their derivatives, is zero. Based on that, a simple busbar protection is thus achieved by connecting the secondary windings of the linear couplers in series (in order to respond to the sum of the primary currents) and attaching a simple voltage sensor. Disadvantages of this approach are similar to those of the high-impedance scheme External Fault

19 Linear Couplers Esec= Iprim*Xm - secondary voltage on relay terminals
IR= Iprim*Xm /(ZR+ZC) – minimum operating current where, Iprim – primary current in each circuit Xm – liner coupler mutual reactance (5V per 1000Amps => 60Hz ) ZR – relay tap impedance ZC – sum of all linear coupler self impedances If = 8000 A Internal Bus Fault 0 A 0 V 10 V 20 V 40 V 2000 A 4000 A 59

20 Linear Couplers Fast, secure and proven
Require dedicated air gap CTs, which may not be used for any other protection Cannot be easily applied to reconfigurable buses The scheme uses a simple voltage detector – it does not provide benefits of a microprocessor-based relay (e.g. oscillography, breaker failure protection, other functions)

21 High Impedance Differential
Operating signal created by connecting all CT secondaries in parallel CTs must all have the same ratio Must have dedicated CTs Overvoltage element operates on voltage developed across resistor connected in secondary circuit Requires varistors or AC shorting relays to limit energy during faults Accuracy dependent on secondary circuit resistance Usually requires larger CT cables to reduce errors  higher cost Cannot easily be applied to reconfigurable buses and offers no advanced functionality

22 Percent Differential Percent characteristic used to cope with CT saturation and other errors Restraining signal can be formed in a number of ways No dedicated CTs needed Used for protection of re-configurable buses possible Percent differential relays create a restraining signal in addition to the differential signal and apply a percent (restrained) characteristic. The choices of the restraining signal include “sum”, “average” and “maximum” of the bus currents. The choices of the characteristic include typically single-slope and double-slope characteristics. This low-impedance approach does not require dedicated CTs, can tolerate substantial CT saturation and provides for high-speed tripping. Many integrated relays perform CT ratio compensation eliminating the need for matching CTs. This principle became really attractive with the advent of microprocessor-based relays because of the following: Advanced algorithms supplement the percent differential protection function making the relay very secure. Protection of re-configurable busbars becomes easier as the dynamic bus replica (bus image) can be accomplished without switching secondary current circuits. Integrated Breaker Fail (BF) function can provide optimal tripping strategy depending on the actual configuration of a busbar. Distributed architectures are proposed that place Data Acquisition Units (DAU) in bays and replace current wires by fiber optic communications.

23 Low Impedance Percent Differential
Individual currents sampled by protection and summated digitally CT ratio matching done internally (no auxiliary CTs) Dedicated CTs not necessary Additional algorithms improve security of percent differential characteristic during CT saturation Dynamic bus replica allows application to reconfigurable buses Done digitally with logic to add/remove current inputs from differential computation Switching of CT secondary circuits not required Low secondary burdens Additional functionality available Digital oscillography and monitoring of each circuit connected to bus zone Time-stamped event recording Breaker failure protection

24 Digital Differential Algorithm Goals
Improve the main differential algorithm operation Better filtering Faster response Better restraint techniques Switching transient blocking Provide dynamic bus replica for reconfigurable bus bars Dependably detect CT saturation in a fast and reliable manner, especially for external faults Implement additional security to the main differential algorithm to prevent incorrect operation External faults with CT saturation CT secondary circuit trouble (e.g. short circuits)

25 Low Impedance Differential (Distributed)
Data Acquisition Units (DAUs) installed in bays Central Processing Unit (CPU) processes all data from DAUs Communications between DAUs and CPU over fiber using proprietary protocol Sampling synchronisation between DAUs is required Perceived less reliable (more hardware needed) Difficult to apply in retrofit applications

26 Low Impedance Differential (Centralized)
All currents applied to a single central processor No communications, external sampling synchronisation necessary Perceived more reliable (less hardware needed) Well suited to both new and retrofit applications.

27 CT Saturation

28 CT Saturation Concepts
CT saturation depends on a number of factors Physical CT characteristics (size, rating, winding resistance, saturation voltage) Connected CT secondary burden (wires + relays) Primary current magnitude, DC offset (system X/R) Residual flux in CT core Actual CT secondary currents may not behave in the same manner as the ratio (scaled primary) current during faults End result is spurious differential current appearing in the summation of the secondary currents which may cause differential elements to operate if additional security is not applied

29 CT Saturation No DC Offset With DC Offset
Waveform remains fairly symmetrical With DC Offset Waveform starts off being asymmetrical, then symmetrical in steady state

30 External Fault & Ideal CTs
Fault starts at t0 Steady-state fault conditions occur at t1 Ideal CTs have no saturation or mismatch errors thus produce no differential current

31 External Fault & Actual CTs
Fault starts at t0 Steady-state fault conditions occur at t1 Actual CTs do introduce errors, producing some differential current (without CT saturation)

32 External Fault with CT Saturation
Fault starts at t0, CT begins to saturate at t1 CT fully saturated at t2 CT saturation causes increasing differential current that may enter the differential element operate region.

33 Some Methods of Securing Bus Differential
Block the bus differential for a period of time (intentional delay) Increases security as bus zone will not trip when CT saturation is present Prevents high-speed clearance for internal faults with CT saturation or evolving faults Change settings of the percent differential characteristic (usually Slope 2) Improves security of differential element by increasing the amount of spurious differential current needed to incorrectly trip Difficult to explicitly develop settings (Is 60% slope enough? Should it be 75%?) Apply directional (phase comparison) supervision Improves security by requiring all currents flow into the bus zone before asserting the differential element Easy to implement and test Stable even under severe CT saturation during external faults

34 High-Impedance Bus Differential Considerations

35 High Impedance Voltage-operated Relay External Fault
59 element set above max possible voltage developed across relay during external fault causing worst case CT saturation For internal faults, extremely high voltages (well above 59 element pickup) will develop across relay

36 High Impedance Voltage Operated Relay Ratio matching with Multi-ratio CTs
Application of high impedance differential relays with CTs of different ratios but ratio matching taps is possible, but could lead to voltage magnification. Voltage developed across full winding of tapped CT does not exceed CT rating, terminal blocks, etc.

37 High Impedance Voltage Operated Relay Ratio matching with Multi-ratio CTs
Use of auxiliary CTs to obtain correct ratio matching is also possible, but these CTs must be able to deliver enough voltage necessary to produce relay operation for internal faults.

38 Electromechanical High Impedance Bus Differential Relays
Single phase relays High-speed High impedance voltage sensing High seismic IOC unit            

39 P -based High-Impedance Bus Differential Protection Relays
Operating time: 20 – I > 1.5xPKP

40 High Impedance Module for Digital Relays
RST = 2000 - stabilizing resistor to limit the current through the relay, and force it to the lower impedance CT windings. MOV – Metal Oxide Varistor to limit the voltage to 1900 Volts 86 – latching contact preventing the resistors from overheating after the fault is detected

41 High-Impedance Module + Overcurrent Relay

42 High Impedance Bus Protection - Summary
Fast, secure and proven Requires dedicated CTs, preferably with the same CT ratio and using full tap Can be applied to small buses Depending on bus internal and external fault currents, high impedance bus diff may not provide adequate settings for both sensitivity and security Cannot be easily applied to reconfigurable buses Require voltage limiting varistor capable of absorbing significant energy May require auxiliary CTs Do not provide full benefits of microprocessor-based relay system (e.g. metering, monitoring, oscillography, etc.) High-impedance protection responds to a voltage across the differential junction points. The CTs are required to have a low secondary leakage impedance (completely distributed windings or toroidal coils). During external faults, even with severe saturation of some of the CTs, the voltage does not rise above certain level, because the other CTs will provide a lower-impedance path as compared with the relay input impedance. The principle has been used for more than half a century because is robust, secure and fast. The technique, however, is not free from disadvantages. The most important ones are: The high-impedance approach requires dedicated CTs (significant cost associated). It cannot be easily applied to re-configurable buses (current switching using bistable auxiliary relays endangers the CTs, jeopardizes security and adds an extra cost). It requires a voltage limiting varistor capable of absorbing significant energy during busbar faults. The scheme requires only a simple voltage level sensor. From this perspective the high-impedance protection scheme is not a relay. If BF, event recording, oscillography, communications, and other benefits of microprocessor-based relaying are of interest, then extra equipment is needed (such as a Digital Fault Recorder or dedicated BF relays).

43 Low-Impedance Bus Differential Considerations

44 P-based Low-Impedance Relays
No need for dedicated CTs Internal CT ratio mismatch compensation Advanced algorithms supplement percent differential protection function making the relay very secure Dynamic bus replica (bus image) principle is used in protection of reconfigurable bus bars, eliminating the need for switching physically secondary current circuits Integrated Breaker Failure (BF) function can provide optimal tripping strategy depending on the actual configuration of a bus bar The low-impedance approach used to be perceived as less secure when compared with the high-impedance protection. This is no longer true as microprocessor-based relays apply sophisticated algorithms to match the performance of high-impedance schemes, and at the same time, the cost considerations make the high-impedance scheme less attractive. This is particularly relevant for large (cost of extra CTs) and complex (dynamic bus replica) buses that cannot be handled well by high-impedance schemes. Microprocessor-based low-impedance busbar relays are developed in one of the two architectures: Distributed Centralized

45 Small Bus Applications
2-8 Circuit Applications Up to 24 Current Inputs 4 Zones Zone 1 = Phase A Zone 2 = Phase B Zone 3 = Phase C Zone 4 = Not used Different CT Ratio Capability for Each Circuit Largest CT Primary is Base in Relay

46 Medium to Large Bus Applications
9-12 Circuit Applications Relay Current Inputs 4 Zones Zone 1 = Phase A (12 currents) Zone 2 = Phase B (12 currents) Zone 3 = Not used Zone 4 = Not used Relay Current Inputs 4 Zones Zone 1 = Not used Zone 2 = Not used Zone 3 = Phase C (12 currents) Zone 4 = Not used Different CT Ratio Capability for Each Circuit Largest CT Primary is Base in Relay CB 12 CB 11

47 Large Bus Applications
87B phase A 87B phase B 87B phase C Logic relay (switch status, optional BF)

48 Large Bus Applications For buses with up to 24 circuits

49 Summing External Currents Not Recommended for Low-Z 87B relays
Relay becomes combination of restrained and unrestrained elements In order to parallel CTs: CT performance must be closely matched Any errors will appear as differential currents Associated feeders must be radial No backfeeds possible Pickup setting must be raised to accommodate any errors

50 Definitions of Restraint Signals
“sum of” “scaled sum of” “geometrical average” “maximum of”

51 “Sum Of” vs. “Max Of” Restraint Methods
“Sum Of” Approach More restraint on external faults; less sensitive for internal faults “Scaled-Sum Of” approach takes into account number of connected circuits and may increase sensitivity Breakpoint settings for the percent differential characteristic more difficult to set “Max Of” Approach Less restraint on external faults; more sensitive for internal faults Breakpoint settings for the percent differential characteristic easier to set Better handles situation where one CT may saturate completely (99% slope settings possible)

52 Bus Differential Adaptive Approach
Region 1 Low current magnitudes CT saturation possible due to DC offset CT saturation difficult to detect More security required  Use 2-out-of-2 Operating Mode Region 2 High current magnitudes  Quick CT saturation possible CT saturation easy to detect Security required only if CT saturation detected Dynamically decide if 1-out-of-2 or 2-out-of-2 Operating Mode

53 Bus Differential Adaptive Logic Diagram

54 Phase Comparison Principle
Internal Faults: All fault (“large”) currents are approximately in phase. External Faults: One fault (“large”) current will be out of phase Secondary Current of Faulted Circuit (Severe CT Saturation) No Voltages are required or needed

55 Phase Comparison Principle Continued…
Implementation Select n fault “Contributors” A contributor is a feeder carrying a significant amount of current (above load) A feeder is a contributor if it’s current magnitude is: Above the high breakpoint setting of the bus differential element Above a certain portion of the restraint current Determine the angle between each Contributor and the sum of the remaining n-1 Contributors. Determine the maximum of the angles and compare with the directional threshold Threshold is set at 90o For external faults, the maximum of the angles should be greater than 90o An angle of more than 90o for an internal fault due to CT saturation is not physically possible.

56 CT Saturation Fault starts at t0, CT begins to saturate at t1
CT fully saturated at t2

57 CT Saturation Detector State Machine
NORMAL SAT := 0 EXTERNAL FAULT SAT := 1 FAULT & CT SATURATION The differential characteristic entered The differential- restraining trajectory out of the differential characteristic for certain period of time saturation condition current below the first slope for certain period of time The CT saturation condition is declared when the magnitude of the restraining signal becomes larger than the higher breakpoint and at the same time the differential current is below the first slope. As the phasor estimator in the main differential algorithm introduces a processing delay that may cause fast CT saturation to be missed, a similar procedure is done using the relations between the signals at the waveform level to catch fast CT saturation. Additionally, the sample-based stage of the saturation detector uses the time derivative of the restraining signal (di/dt) to better trace the saturation pattern shown in the above diagram. The CT saturation condition is of a transient nature and requires a seal-in, therefore the CT saturation detector state machine is used. The saturation detector is capable of detecting saturation occurring in approximately 2 ms into a fault. It should be emphasized that the saturation detector has no dedicated settings, but does rely on settings for the main differential characteristic for proper operation.

58 CT Saturation Detector Operating Principles
The 87B SAT flag WILL NOT be set during internal faults, regardless of whether or not any of the CTs saturate. The 87B SAT flag WILL be set during external faults, regardless of whether or not any of the CTs saturate. By design, the 87B SAT flag WILL force the relay to use the additional 87B DIR phase comparison for Region 2 The Saturation Detector WILL NOT Block the Operation of the Differential Element – it will only Force 2-out-of-2 Operation

59 CT Saturation Detector - Examples
The oscillography records on the next two slides were captured from a B30 relay under test on a real-time digital power system simulator First slide shows an external fault with deep CT saturation (~1.5 msec of good CT performance) SAT saturation detector flag asserts prior to BIASED PKP bus differential pickup DIR directional flag does not assert (one current flows out of zone), so even though bus differential picks up, no trip results Second slide shows an internal fault with mild CT saturation BIASED PKP and BIASED OP both assert before DIR asserts CT saturation does not block bus differential More examples available (COMTRADE files) upon request

60 CT Saturation Example – External Fault
0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 0.1 0.11 0.12 -200 -150 -100 -50 50 100 150 200 time, sec current, A ~1 ms Two examples of relay operation are presented: an external fault with heavy CT saturation and an internal fault with mild CT saturation. The protected bus includes six circuits connected to CT banks F1, F5, M1, M5, U1 and U5, respectively. The circuits F1, F5, M1, M5 and U5 are capable of feeding some fault current; the U1 circuit supplies a load. The F1, F5 and U5 circuits are significantly stronger than the F5 and M1 connections. The M5 circuit contains the weakest (most prone to saturation) CT of the bus. The Figure presents the bus currents and the most important logic signals for the case of an external fault. Despite very fast and severe CT saturation, the B30 remains stable. Despite heavy CT saturation the external fault current is seen in the opposite direction

61 CT Saturation – Internal Fault Example
The Figure presents the same signals but for the case of an internal fault. The B30 trips in 10 ms (fast form-C output contact).

62 Applying Low-Impedance Differential Relays for Busbar Protection
Basic Topics Configure physical CT Inputs Configure Bus Zone and Dynamic Bus Replica Calculating Bus Differential Element settings Advanced Topics Isolator switch monitoring for reconfigurable buses Differential Zone CT Trouble Integrated Breaker Failure protection

63 Configuring CT Inputs For each connected CT circuit enter Primary rating and select Secondary rating. Each 3-phase bank of CT inputs must be assigned to a Signal Source that is used to define the Bus Zone and Dynamic Bus Replica For B30, CTs are connected in 3-phase sets For B90, CTs are connected as individual single phases UR hardware is built to support combinations of both 1 A and 5 A secondaries within the same DSP module Some relays define 1 p.u. as the maximum primary current of all of the CTs connected in the given Bus Zone

64 Per-Unit Current Definition - Example
Current Channel Primary Secondary Zone CT-1 F1 3200 A 1 A 1 CT-2 F2 2400 A 5 A CT-3 F3 1200 A CT-4 F4 2 CT-5 F5 CT-6 F6 5000 A For Zone 1: 1.00 ASEC injected on F1 is 1.00 p.u. 6.67 ASEC injected on F2 is 1.00 p.u. 2.67 ASEC injected on F3 is 1.00 p.u. For Zone 2: 1.56 ASEC injected on F4 is 1.00 p.u. 20.83 ASEC injected on F5 is 1.00 p.u. 5.00 ASEC injected on F6 is 1.00 p.u. For Zone 1, 1 p.u. = 3200 AP For Zone 2, 1 p.u. = 5000 AP

65 Configuration of Bus Zone
Dynamic Bus Replica associates a status signal with each current in the Bus Differential Zone Status signal can be any logic operand Status signals can be developed in programmable logic to provide additional checks or security as required Status signal can be set to ‘ON’ if current is always in the bus zone or ‘OFF’ if current is never in the bus zone CT connections/polarities for a particular bus zone must be properly configured in the relay, via either hardwire or software

66 Configuring the Bus Differential Zone
Bus Zone settings defines the boundaries of the Differential Protection and CT Trouble Monitoring. Configure the physical CT Inputs CT Primary and Secondary values Both 5 A and 1 A inputs are supported by the UR hardware Ratio compensation done automatically for CT ratio differences up to 32:1 Configure AC Signal Sources Configure Bus Zone with Dynamic Bus Replica

67 Dual Percent Differential Characteristic
High Set (Unrestrained) High Slope Low Slope High Breakpoint Low Breakpoint Min Pickup

68 Calculating Bus Differential Settings
The following Bus Zone Differential element parameters need to be set: Differential Pickup Restraint Low Slope Restraint Low Break Point Restraint High Breakpoint Restraint High Slope Differential High Set (if needed) All settings entered in per unit (maximum CT primary in the zone) Slope settings entered in percent Low Slope, High Slope and High Breakpoint settings are used by the CT Saturation Detector and define the Region 1 Area (2-out-of-2 operation with Directional)

69 Calculating Bus Differential Settings – Minimum Pickup
Defines the minimum differential current required for operation of the Bus Zone Differential element Must be set above maximum leakage current not zoned off in the bus differential zone May also be set above maximum load conditions for added security in case of CT trouble, but better alternatives exist

70 Calculating Bus Differential Settings – Low Slope
Defines the percent bias for the restraint currents from IREST=0 to IREST=Low Breakpoint Setting determines the sensitivity of the differential element for low-current internal faults Must be set above maximum error introduced by the CTs in their normal linear operating mode Range: 15% to 100% in 1%. increments

71 Calculating Bus Differential Settings – Low Breakpoint
Defines the upper limit to restraint currents that will be biased according to the Low Slope setting Should be set to be above the maximum load but not more than the maximum current where the CTs still operate linearly (including residual flux) Assumption is that the CTs will be operating linearly (no significant saturation effects up to 80% residual flux) up to the Low Breakpoint setting

72 Calculating Bus Differential Settings – High Breakpoint
Defines the minimum restraint currents that will be biased according to the High Slope setting Should be set to be below the minimum current where the weakest CT will saturate with no residual flux Assumption is that the CTs will be operating linearly (no significant saturation effects up to 80% residual flux) up to the Low Breakpoint setting

73 Calculating Bus Differential Settings – High Slope
Defines the percent bias for the restraint currents IRESTHigh Breakpoint Setting determines the stability of the differential element for high current external faults Traditionally, should be set high enough to accommodate the spurious differential current resulting from saturation of the CTs during heavy external faults Setting can be relaxed in favour of sensitivity and speed as the relay detects CT saturation and applies the directional principle to prevent maloperation Range: 50% to 100% in 1%. increments

74 Calculating Unrestrained Bus Differential Settings
Defines the minimum differential current for unrestrained operation Should be set to be above the maximum differential current under worst case CT saturation Range: 2.00 to p.u. in 0.01 p.u. increments Can be effectively disabled by setting to p.u.

75 Dual Percent Differential Characteristic
High Set (Unrestrained) High Slope Low Slope High Breakpoint Low Breakpoint Min Pickup

76 Reconfigurable Buses Protecting re-configurable buses
Complex busbars are re-configurable. In particular a given circuit having a single metering point (CT) and single current interrupting device (CB) may be connected to more than one section depending on positions of isolators. This requires to monitor positions of the isolators in order to determine if a given current shall be included in the differential zone for a given section, and whether a given breaker shall be tripped upon detecting a fault in a given zone. This calls for “current switching” (AC) and “trip re-direction logic” (DC). The second operation does not impose any technical difficulties, but the first one is not a preferred solution in analog schemes as it may lead to damaging the CTs. Ability to follow the actual busbar configuration is referred to as a “dynamic bus image” or “dynamic bus replica” and is one of the strongest features of microprocessor-based busbar relays. Protecting re-configurable buses

77 Reconfigurable Buses Protecting re-configurable buses
Here, as an example one zone of protection shall cover the NORTH BUS. The figure shows zone boundaries by indicating metering and current interruption points. Protecting re-configurable buses

78 Reconfigurable Buses Protecting re-configurable buses
Here, another zone of protection is shown for the SOUTH BUS. The figure shows zone boundaries by indicating metering and current interruption points. Note, for example that a pair of a metering point CT-2 and a current interruption point B-2 belongs to the SOUTH zone only if the S-2 isolator is closed (S-1 is opened). The CT-2 / B-2 point belongs to the NORTH zone if the S-1 is closed (S-2 must be open). Protecting re-configurable buses

79 Reconfigurable Buses Protecting re-configurable buses
Ideally, zones shall overlap. This includes protection of the connected circuits as well. In this example, two B30 relays could be used to protect this double-bus arrangement. In reality, there is a physical area between a metering point (CT) and the associated current interruption point (CB). Depending on the mutual location of the two, certain blind or over-tripping spots may occur. This issue can be resolved using dynamic bus replica, and is addressed later in this material. Protecting re-configurable buses

80 Isolators Reliable “Isolator Closed” signals are needed for the Dynamic Bus Replica In simple applications, a single normally closed contact may be sufficient For maximum safety: Both N.O. and N.C. contacts should be used Isolator Alarm should be established and non-valid combinations (open-open, closed-closed) should be sorted out Switching operations should be inhibited until bus image is recognized with 100% accuracy Optionally block 87B operation from Isolator Alarm Each isolator position signal decides: Whether or not the associated current is to be included in the differential calculations Whether or not the associated breaker is to be tripped

81 Isolator – Typical Open/Closed Connections

82 Switch Status Logic and Dyanamic Bus Replica
Isolator Open Auxiliary Contact Isolator Closed Auxiliary Contact Isolator Position Alarm Block Switching Off On CLOSED No LAST VALID After time delay until acknowledged Until Isolator Position is valid OPEN NOTE: Isolator monitoring function may be a built-in feature or user-programmable in low impedance bus differential digital relays

83 Differential Zone CT Trouble
Each Bus Differential Zone may a dedicated CT Trouble Monitor Definite time delay overcurrent element operating on the zone differential current, based on the configured Dynamic Bus Replica Three strategies to deal with CT problems: Trip the bus zone as the problem with a CT will likely evolve into a bus fault anyway Do not trip the bus, raise an alarm and try to correct the problem manually Switch to setting group with 87B minimum pickup setting above the maximum load current.

84 Differential Zone CT Trouble
Strategies 2 and 3 can be accomplished by: Using undervoltage supervision to ride through the period from the beginning of the problem with a CT until declaring a CT trouble condition Using an external check zone to supervise the 87B function Using CT Trouble to prevent the Bus Differential tripping (2) Using setting groups to increase the pickup value for the 87B function (3)

85 Differential Zone CT Trouble – Strategy #2 Example
87B operates Undervoltage condition CT OK CT Trouble operand is used to rise an alarm The 87B trip is inhibited after CT Trouble element operates The relay may misoperate if an external fault occurs after CT trouble but before the CT trouble condition is declared (double-contingency)

86 Example Architecture for Large Busbars
Dual (redundant) fiber with 3msec delivery time between neighbouring IEDs. Up to 8 relays in the ring Phase A AC signals and trip contacts Phase B AC signals and trip contacts Phase C AC signals and trip contacts Digital Inputs for isolator monitoring and BF

87 Example Architecture – Dynamic Bus Replica and Isolator Position
Phase A AC signals wired here, bus replica configured here Phase B AC signals wired here, bus replica configured here Phase C AC signals wired here, bus replica configured here Auxuliary switches wired here; Isolator Monitoring function configured here Isolator Position

88 Example Architecture – BF Initiation & Current Supervision
Phase A AC signals wired here, current status monitored here Phase B AC signals wired here, current status monitored here Phase C AC signals wired here, current status monitored here Breaker Failure elements configured here BF Initiate & Current Supv.

89 Example Architecture – Breaker Failure Tripping
Phase A AC signals wired here, current status monitored here Breaker Fail Op Breaker Fail Op Trip Trip Phase B AC signals wired here, current status monitored here Phase C AC signals wired here, current status monitored here Breaker Fail Op Breaker Fail Op Trip Breaker Fail Op command generated here and send to trip appropriate breakers

90 IEEE “Guide for Protective Relay Applications to Power System Buses” is currently being revised by the K14 Working Group of the IEEE Power System Relaying Committee.

91 Questions?

92 Thanks for the time

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