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Bus Rapid Transit: A Sustainable Approach to Mass Transit Bhavik Shah 11/25/02.

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Presentation on theme: "Bus Rapid Transit: A Sustainable Approach to Mass Transit Bhavik Shah 11/25/02."— Presentation transcript:

1 Bus Rapid Transit: A Sustainable Approach to Mass Transit Bhavik Shah 11/25/02

2 Goals What is Bus Rapid Transit (BRT)? What is Bus Rapid Transit (BRT)? Elements of BRT Elements of BRT Curitiba, Brazil: The Success Story Curitiba, Brazil: The Success Story Applicability to the United States Applicability to the United States Conclusions Conclusions

3 What is BRT? Bus Rapid Transit uses a variety of innovative system designs and technologies to speed travel time, cut costs and make service more reliable. Bus Rapid Transit uses a variety of innovative system designs and technologies to speed travel time, cut costs and make service more reliable. Think rail, use buses. Think rail, use buses. These objectives are reached by These objectives are reached by: Lane priority Lane priority Signal priority Signal priority Vehicle design Vehicle design Stop spacing and design Stop spacing and design Fare collection Fare collection Rider appeal Rider appeal Land use policy Land use policy

4 Lane Priority Giving buses priority to lanes (HOV) speeds travel time. Giving buses priority to lanes (HOV) speeds travel time. Three types of priority lanes: curbside, median, and contraflow. Three types of priority lanes: curbside, median, and contraflow. Curbside bus lanes are usually effective during peak hours in peak directions; otherwise the lane is reserved for parking and deliveries. Since bus stops are in this lane, buses do not waste time remerging with traffic. Double curbside bus lanes allow them to pass one another (e.g. Madison Ave in NYC). Curbside bus lanes are usually effective during peak hours in peak directions; otherwise the lane is reserved for parking and deliveries. Since bus stops are in this lane, buses do not waste time remerging with traffic. Double curbside bus lanes allow them to pass one another (e.g. Madison Ave in NYC). This San Francisco bus lane is the lane adjacent to the curb lane and is in effect weekdays 7 am to 6 pm. Curbside deliveries and parking are still possible, except at stops.

5 Median Lanes Bus lanes are located in the middle two lanes of traffic, usu. separated from general traffic lanes by a raised curb. Bus lanes are located in the middle two lanes of traffic, usu. separated from general traffic lanes by a raised curb. Only appropriate for wide boulevards. Only appropriate for wide boulevards. Passenger platforms on right. There can be one central platform, but buses then must have doors on both sides. Passenger platforms on right. There can be one central platform, but buses then must have doors on both sides. Less likely to be congested than curbside bus lanes. Less likely to be congested than curbside bus lanes. Disadvantages are: 1) making left turns, and 2) passengers must cross lanes of traffic to reach platforms creating a safety concern, esp. passengers anxious to catch an approaching bus. Disadvantages are: 1) making left turns, and 2) passengers must cross lanes of traffic to reach platforms creating a safety concern, esp. passengers anxious to catch an approaching bus.

6 Contraflow Lanes A contraflow lane is a bus lane that runs in the opposite direction in what would otherwise be a one-way street. A contraflow lane is a bus lane that runs in the opposite direction in what would otherwise be a one-way street. These contraflow lanes can be used during peak times of the day to avoid traffic congestion or can be permanent. These contraflow lanes can be used during peak times of the day to avoid traffic congestion or can be permanent. They have a physical divide to only allow authorized vehicles through. They have a physical divide to only allow authorized vehicles through. BRT system in Orlando, FL.

7 Traffic Signal Priority Special treatment to transit vehicles at signalized intersections. Special treatment to transit vehicles at signalized intersections. Passive priority: timing signal lights with respect to avg. bus speed rather than avg. vehicle speed. Passive priority: timing signal lights with respect to avg. bus speed rather than avg. vehicle speed. Active priority: uses chips on the bus and light to calculate the speed of bus and time of approach, and depending on traffic situation at the time, to either give an early green signal or hold one that is being displayed. Active priority: uses chips on the bus and light to calculate the speed of bus and time of approach, and depending on traffic situation at the time, to either give an early green signal or hold one that is being displayed. Queue jumpers: short stretch of bus lane combined with traffic signal priority to cut queues of traffic and receive a green signal. Queue jumpers: short stretch of bus lane combined with traffic signal priority to cut queues of traffic and receive a green signal. Active Priority Light in Orlando, FL.

8 Vehicle Design Low level boarding: faster boarding time for all passengers, namely those in wheelchairs, which means shorter dwelling time at the bus stop. Low level boarding: faster boarding time for all passengers, namely those in wheelchairs, which means shorter dwelling time at the bus stop. Adding additional and wider doorways facilitates the rapid entry and exit of passengers (32 in. allows for easy access for those in mobility aids). Adding additional and wider doorways facilitates the rapid entry and exit of passengers (32 in. allows for easy access for those in mobility aids). Additional and wider doorways must be integrated with the structural support systems to maintain crash worthiness. Additional and wider doorways must be integrated with the structural support systems to maintain crash worthiness. Buses can be bi-/articulated with two or three sections capable of transporting passengers. (Think of the long A, H, and EE buses). Buses can be bi-/articulated with two or three sections capable of transporting passengers. (Think of the long A, H, and EE buses).

9 Vehicle Design Propulsion: Propulsion: cleaner diesel fuel due to stricter EPA standards cleaner diesel fuel due to stricter EPA standards compressed natural gas (CNG) hybrid electric-diesel buses have emerged as viable alternatively fueled vehicles compressed natural gas (CNG) hybrid electric-diesel buses have emerged as viable alternatively fueled vehicles Low noise and emission pollutionto make the buses sexy. Low noise and emission pollutionto make the buses sexy.

10 Stop Spacing and Location Stop spacing affects demand for transit service. Stop spacing affects demand for transit service. Tradeoff between: (a) closely spaced, frequent stops and shorter walking distance, but more time on the vehicle and (b) stops spaced further apart and longer walking distance, but less time on the vehicle. Tradeoff between: (a) closely spaced, frequent stops and shorter walking distance, but more time on the vehicle and (b) stops spaced further apart and longer walking distance, but less time on the vehicle. Stop locating can be near side, far side, or mid-block. Stop locating can be near side, far side, or mid-block. BRT systems with active signal priority and queue jumpers should place stops at the far side, allowing for effective use of these measures. It also clears the bus through the intersection with minimal delay. BRT systems with active signal priority and queue jumpers should place stops at the far side, allowing for effective use of these measures. It also clears the bus through the intersection with minimal delay. If the stop was on the near side, queue jumpers would be not be used, and the bus would have to merge with queue traffic on the curbside lane for the stop. Consequently, the bus would be delayed by at least one signal cycle. If the stop was on the near side, queue jumpers would be not be used, and the bus would have to merge with queue traffic on the curbside lane for the stop. Consequently, the bus would be delayed by at least one signal cycle.

11 Stop Location If bus stops are bays (think of bus stop across from ARC), there is a delay to remerge with traffic. If bus stops are bays (think of bus stop across from ARC), there is a delay to remerge with traffic. Bays are not efficient for BRT systems. Bays are not efficient for BRT systems. If necessary, located on far side of intersections with tapered deceleration and acceleration lanes. If necessary, located on far side of intersections with tapered deceleration and acceleration lanes. Priority Merge Rule: all vehicles to yield the right of way, when safe to do so, to buses signaling to reenter the traffic stream a stop. Priority Merge Rule: all vehicles to yield the right of way, when safe to do so, to buses signaling to reenter the traffic stream a stop. Rule is common in Europe, Australia, Japan, Oregon, Washington, and Florida. Rule is common in Europe, Australia, Japan, Oregon, Washington, and Florida. PMR is BRT-friendly as it reduces waiting times at subsequent stops and decreases travel times for passengers. PMR is BRT-friendly as it reduces waiting times at subsequent stops and decreases travel times for passengers.

12 Fare Collection On-board collection increases dwelling time thus decreasing the efficiency of a BRT system. On-board collection increases dwelling time thus decreasing the efficiency of a BRT system. Monthly passes, smart cards, pre-paid tickets. Incentives for pre-payment is a sharp discounts for multi-trip cards/tickets. Monthly passes, smart cards, pre-paid tickets. Incentives for pre-payment is a sharp discounts for multi-trip cards/tickets. Pay as you board worst during peak hours. Pay as you board worst during peak hours. Pay on exit: speeds up boarding at central sites during peak hours, and decreases dwell time as smaller groups exit the bus at the stops. Pay on exit: speeds up boarding at central sites during peak hours, and decreases dwell time as smaller groups exit the bus at the stops. Free fare zone, loading platforms (staffed), paid area terminals (barrier free for transfers), and proof of payment Free fare zone, loading platforms (staffed), paid area terminals (barrier free for transfers), and proof of payment Loading platform in Curitiba, Brazil.

13 Rider Appeal Providing proper information to the customer is crucial for high quality transit information. (aka being user friendly) Providing proper information to the customer is crucial for high quality transit information. (aka being user friendly) Therefore, to increase the appeal of a BRT system, and consequently, ridership, each stop should have: Therefore, to increase the appeal of a BRT system, and consequently, ridership, each stop should have: A stop name. A stop name. Route names and destinations for all routes serving the stop. Route names and destinations for all routes serving the stop. Span of service and frequency of service. Span of service and frequency of service. Service schedule for low- frequency routes. Service schedule for low- frequency routes. A system map A system map Orlando BRT Service Map

14 Rider Appeal Onboard schematic maps and automated announcements can assist passengers when/where to board and exit. Onboard schematic maps and automated announcements can assist passengers when/where to board and exit. Use of real time information of arrival times to be displayed at bus stops, kiosks, etc. Use of real time information of arrival times to be displayed at bus stops, kiosks, etc. Technology is Automated Vehicle Location (AVL) and is powered by GPS. Technology is Automated Vehicle Location (AVL) and is powered by GPS. Reduces anxiety of waiting. Reduces anxiety of waiting. Market BRT system as being an preferable mode of transportation: color schemes and logos to identify the BRT system (and distinguish it from the regular bus system), stops and stations need appealing architectural and aesthetic designs to attract riders, market faster travel times, new technologies (signals and AVL), and offer coupons. Market BRT system as being an preferable mode of transportation: color schemes and logos to identify the BRT system (and distinguish it from the regular bus system), stops and stations need appealing architectural and aesthetic designs to attract riders, market faster travel times, new technologies (signals and AVL), and offer coupons.

15 Land Use Policy Modifying land use policies to permit growth that is concentrated around transit nodes and corridors will help to maintain and increase transit's base of riders in the future. Modifying land use policies to permit growth that is concentrated around transit nodes and corridors will help to maintain and increase transit's base of riders in the future. Location of stations already near developed sites, e.g. shopping malls, is ideal for optimizing land use with mass transit. Location of stations already near developed sites, e.g. shopping malls, is ideal for optimizing land use with mass transit. Orlando's Lynx system has created Superstops at major shopping malls. Buses stop at loading areas close to the mall entrance. Amenities include shelters, system information, bike racks, and a guide to mall stores.

16 BRT in Use Several cities across the world are using a BRT system. Several cities across the world are using a BRT system. These include: Bogotá, Quito, Rouen, London, Sydney, Istanbul, and Taipei. These include: Bogotá, Quito, Rouen, London, Sydney, Istanbul, and Taipei. By far, however, the greatest success story in BRT comes from Curitiba, Brazil. By far, however, the greatest success story in BRT comes from Curitiba, Brazil.

17 Curitiba, Brazil During 1950s and 60s, cities across Brazil experienced rapid population growth due to agricultural mechanization. Curitiba had one of the highest population growths, 6% a yr. During 1950s and 60s, cities across Brazil experienced rapid population growth due to agricultural mechanization. Curitiba had one of the highest population growths, 6% a yr. demanded effective city planning in areas ranging from social services, housing and sanitation, to the environment and transportation demanded effective city planning in areas ranging from social services, housing and sanitation, to the environment and transportation By the 1960s, officials were working on a Master Plan (1966) to meet these demands, which included a consolidated bus transit system By the 1960s, officials were working on a Master Plan (1966) to meet these demands, which included a consolidated bus transit system

18 Transportation and Development restructured the citys radial configuration into a linear model of urban expansion restructured the citys radial configuration into a linear model of urban expansion transportation land use and road systems can be used as integrative tools of development; backbone for development and growth of the city transportation land use and road systems can be used as integrative tools of development; backbone for development and growth of the city direct linear growth by attracting residential and commercial density along a mass transportation lane direct linear growth by attracting residential and commercial density along a mass transportation lane The Research and Urban Planning Institute of Curitiba (IPPUC) was created to monitor the implementation and operations of the BRT. The Research and Urban Planning Institute of Curitiba (IPPUC) was created to monitor the implementation and operations of the BRT. The BRT, with its 2,000 buses, serves eight neighboring cities, 2 million passengers, and an approval rating of 90%. The BRT, with its 2,000 buses, serves eight neighboring cities, 2 million passengers, and an approval rating of 90%.

19 New Infrastructure

20 Transportation System Road hierarchy (spider web network) Road hierarchy (spider web network) 5 main arterial roads, structural growth corridors that dictate the growth pattern of the city, had two median express bus lanes 5 main arterial roads, structural growth corridors that dictate the growth pattern of the city, had two median express bus lanes By 1982, all 5 arteries, inter-district, and feeder lines were complete. By 1982, all 5 arteries, inter-district, and feeder lines were complete. Types of routes: feeder, interdistrict, and express Types of routes: feeder, interdistrict, and express Express buses travel as fast as subway cars, but at one eighth the construction costs Express buses travel as fast as subway cars, but at one eighth the construction costs As buildings moved away from corridor avenues, the density of the building capacity decreased. (urban apt. buildings to residential homes) As buildings moved away from corridor avenues, the density of the building capacity decreased. (urban apt. buildings to residential homes)

21 A Fare System Paper transfers: forgery Paper transfers: forgery Two-fare system for feeder and express: failed because it favored the rich living near the middle Two-fare system for feeder and express: failed because it favored the rich living near the middle One fare policy: can take you from anywhere within the system (40+ miles worth of travel) One fare policy: can take you from anywhere within the system (40+ miles worth of travel) Shorter rides subsidize longer ones. Shorter rides subsidize longer ones. Installed automatic ticket vendors at stops and terminals to decrease dwell time. Installed automatic ticket vendors at stops and terminals to decrease dwell time. The system is entirely financed by these fares and without any subsidies. A 1990 laws dictates that revenues can only be used to pay for the system. This avoids fare inflation. The system is entirely financed by these fares and without any subsidies. A 1990 laws dictates that revenues can only be used to pay for the system. This avoids fare inflation.

22 Bus and Station Design Buses: Buses: Three doors: 2 exiting, 1 boarding Three doors: 2 exiting, 1 boarding Turbo engines Turbo engines Wider doors Wider doors Lower floors Lower floors Bi/Articulated for greater passenger capacity ( ) Bi/Articulated for greater passenger capacity ( ) Boarding tube stations along direct and express lines. Boarding tube stations along direct and express lines. Staffed (to deter fare evaders). Staffed (to deter fare evaders). Three functions: shelter, pre-boarding payment and level boarding Three functions: shelter, pre-boarding payment and level boarding Speeds boarding time, especially with the disabled, therefore less idling and less pollution Speeds boarding time, especially with the disabled, therefore less idling and less pollution

23 Bus Tube

24 Some Numbers 340 routes 340 routes 2,000 buses transport 2 million passengers daily 2,000 buses transport 2 million passengers daily 700 miles of bus routes; 40 miles dedicated to bus use only 700 miles of bus routes; 40 miles dedicated to bus use only 25 terminals, 200+ bus tubes 25 terminals, 200+ bus tubes 30 routes and buses designed for specific use by the disabled 30 routes and buses designed for specific use by the disabled 50-second deadhead (period between buses) at peak times, and 2 to 3 minutes at other times at the central station 50-second deadhead (period between buses) at peak times, and 2 to 3 minutes at other times at the central station first city in Brazil to use less polluting fuels; 89.4% diesel, 8% anhydrous alcohol, and 2.6% soybean additive first city in Brazil to use less polluting fuels; 89.4% diesel, 8% anhydrous alcohol, and 2.6% soybean additive The resulting fuel is less polluting and cuts the emissions of particles to the air by up to 43 per cent. The resulting fuel is less polluting and cuts the emissions of particles to the air by up to 43 per cent.

25 More Numbers Cost of implementing the bus system in Curitiba was $2.0 million (U.S.) per mile. Cost of implementing the bus system in Curitiba was $2.0 million (U.S.) per mile. 10 percent of yearly income on transport. 10 percent of yearly income on transport. As a result, despite the second highest per capita car ownership rate in Brazil (one car for every three people), Curitiba's gasoline use per capita is 30 percent below that of eight comparable Brazilian cities. As a result, despite the second highest per capita car ownership rate in Brazil (one car for every three people), Curitiba's gasoline use per capita is 30 percent below that of eight comparable Brazilian cities.

26 BRT and Beyond Curitibas public policy has been eco-socio- friendly. Innovative with approach to public life. Curitibas public policy has been eco-socio- friendly. Innovative with approach to public life. In addition to BRT, pedestrian walkways, bike paths, parks, recycling programs, etc. all encourage a greener, healthier city and lifestyle. In addition to BRT, pedestrian walkways, bike paths, parks, recycling programs, etc. all encourage a greener, healthier city and lifestyle.

27 BRT in the United States BRT systems are in place in several American cities including: BRT systems are in place in several American cities including: Boston Boston Charlotte Charlotte Cleveland Cleveland Dulles, VA Dulles, VA Eugene-Springfield, OR Eugene-Springfield, OR Hartford Hartford LA LA Miami Miami Phoenix (planning) Phoenix (planning) San Francisco San Francisco

28 Orlando at a Glance Opened Aug 1997 Opened Aug 1997 BRT improved an already existing transit system serving Orlando BRT improved an already existing transit system serving Orlando target market is people who drive to downtown Orlando and then use Lymmo to get to other locations, such as the Courthouse, restaurants, shopping, etc target market is people who drive to downtown Orlando and then use Lymmo to get to other locations, such as the Courthouse, restaurants, shopping, etc Service offers: Service offers: exclusive lanes for the entire 2.3 mile route exclusive lanes for the entire 2.3 mile route signal pre-emption signal pre-emption stations with large shelters and route information stations with large shelters and route information automatic vehicle location (AVL) automatic vehicle location (AVL) next bus arrival information at kiosks next bus arrival information at kiosks new low-floor compressed natural gas (CNG) buses new low-floor compressed natural gas (CNG) buses marketing and image development through vehicle graphics, stations, advertisements, and business tie-ins marketing and image development through vehicle graphics, stations, advertisements, and business tie-ins free fare, so no fare collection delay free fare, so no fare collection delay Fierce marketing to attract riders: theme buses, coupon-of-the-day, etc. Fierce marketing to attract riders: theme buses, coupon-of-the-day, etc.

29 Lymmo System Lymmo Right-of-Way and Station at Turn-Around Area Lymmo Bus Painted in Leonardo DaVinci Theme

30 Performance Table 1 Route Statistics for Lymmo and Rest of System

31 Costs $1.2 million to operate, 65% more than the Freebee service of $1.2 million to operate, 65% more than the Freebee service of Because of the even greater increase in ridership, the average cost per boarding decreased from $1.37 for Freebee to $1.14 for Lymmo. Because of the even greater increase in ridership, the average cost per boarding decreased from $1.37 for Freebee to $1.14 for Lymmo. total capital cost of the system was $21 million, of which $3 million was for vehicles, $0.4 million for landscaping, and the remainder for street reconstruction, shelters, information kiosks, AVL, traffic signals, banners, and other expenses total capital cost of the system was $21 million, of which $3 million was for vehicles, $0.4 million for landscaping, and the remainder for street reconstruction, shelters, information kiosks, AVL, traffic signals, banners, and other expenses

32 Criticisms to BRT Curitiba, for example, has far lower labor costs, far fewer environmental controls, and much less stringent bureaucratic review of transportation projects. Curitiba, for example, has far lower labor costs, far fewer environmental controls, and much less stringent bureaucratic review of transportation projects. politicians want solutions that fit their election cycles; score big with voters by extending past into future (road projects) politicians want solutions that fit their election cycles; score big with voters by extending past into future (road projects) Americas car culture Americas car culture Price on gasoline is cheap, discouraging public transportation as is. (oh yes, this is where Prof. Sunil talks about his famous (or infamous) gas tax) Price on gasoline is cheap, discouraging public transportation as is. (oh yes, this is where Prof. Sunil talks about his famous (or infamous) gas tax)

33 Conclusions BRT provides a sustainable, efficient method of mass transit. BRT provides a sustainable, efficient method of mass transit. Can be used in conjunction with land use and developmental policies to curtail sprawl and guide growth. Can be used in conjunction with land use and developmental policies to curtail sprawl and guide growth. Appeal to riders is key for any mass transit system to workmust be attractive and user friendly Appeal to riders is key for any mass transit system to workmust be attractive and user friendly Gas tax or DIE! lol Gas tax or DIE! lol

34 The End


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