This is a base map of your bin fold coverage If you want to show sources and detectors on the map, check these then Reload plot.
Click on base map to see picks centered on the closest bin Here are the picks centered on the base map position plotted by offset vs time
Currently we are assigning picks to the first refractor To set refractor branch information drag a best-fit line over the range of picks you want to assign to the first refractor By dragging the line you have done 3 things: 1.You have set a first refractor offset range 2.You have estimated a refractor velocity 3.You have estimated a delay time
Refractor offset distance is shown by the red zone The slope of the line estimates the refractor velocity The zero offset intercept estimates 2x the delay time These values are provided here and can be edited
Another way to use the Branch Assignment window Click on Apply LMO correction to picks Now move the slider Drag the line again to specify the offset range for First refractor As before the offsets, velocity and delay time appear here and are editable
The base map provides a map of the branch parameters To accept all these branch assignment parameters, you must push OK – apply changes button
After accepting your new branch assignment field, you will be asked if you want to interpolate the delay times and velocities to the source and detectors If you push Yes, this will initialize the source and detector databases with these delay times and refractor velocities. If you already have a refractor solution from previous session, these new values will replace the old solution. You will have one more chance to change your mind.
If you said Yes to interpolating the delay times and velocities to the source and detector tables, you will next see this process window.
Applying analyses to traces Next, you will see how to apply a delay-time and refractor-velocity solution to the traces The following two slides show the program options that you can use to help QC delay time and refractor velocities
From a conventional pick window … Under Options/Display under Background color options, Click on Use the branch numbers (if assigned) Push the M toggle button
Push T toggle button to limit the time window Eliminate the traces that dont belong to the refractor – Push X toggle button
Applying the branch assignment derived delay times and refractor velocities Recall that above we assigned branch offsets in the Branch Assignment window Recall that by assigning branch offsets, we also determined a crude delay time field and a refractor velocity field Now we will apply those fields to our traces, using the technique we just described Note that we have also turned off the refractor background color to simplify the display
A perfect refraction solution (refractor velocities and delay times) would flatten the refractor to zero time. This shot is pretty good, meaning the refractor velocity and delay times for this source and its detectors are probably close to correct
This source did not respond as well. The simple delay times interpolated from the branch assignment are not correct in detail. This does not mean that this source has a problem. It just means that the delay time and refractor velocity field are not accurate for this location. The flatness should improve when we actually compute refractor velocities and delay times from the picks themselves … in the next step.
Lets see how the delay-time and velocity solution we picked in branch assignment looks in another window.
Inline-crossline azimuth-limited common- offset pick window We will look at the solution applied to the traces that fall within a narrow offset range and a narrow azimuth range We will look at these limited traces across an entire prospect
As with the source record display, flattened traces imply a good solution. Here is the common- offset window with the branch-derived velocity and delay times applied. In general, refracted arrivals along this inline and crossline line up pretty well on zero. This cross line shows significant residual shape.
Compute conventional refractor velocities and delay times by going to Model/RVC delay time/velocity computation sequence Click on RVC for a conventional least-squares solution
This runs your data through a standard sequence of steps shown here
Analysis QC At this point 1. You have picked refracted arrivals 2. You have assigned your picks to refractors 3. You have computed refractor velocities and delay times 4. You have also estimated source and detector geometry errors This is automatically performed as part of the standard sequence It estimates source and detector mispositions
At this point in the tutorial you will examine your velocity and delay time fields
Click on Model/3D (and 2D) model building window
In this window, the surface elevations, weathering velocity and weathering thickness are accessed through weathering layer
Refractor delay times, refractor velocities and elevation of the refractors are accessed via First refractor, Second refractor, etc. Note: Some versions of Seismic Studio require you to click on Weathering layer definition before you can examine refractor parameters
This window can be used to construct simple refractor-based earth models.
In this case, we will use the default constant weathering velocity of 2000.
The result is this First refractor elevation surface. To smooth the refractor elevations (and cause the weathering velocity to be modified) click on Modify attribute Note: Modify attribute will modify the attribute that is currently being displayed.
This now displays the smoothed first refractor elevation. The weathering velocity is no longer constant 2000. To compute statics, click here If you change your mind, you can undo the modification here.
Statics in Seismic Studio Seismic Studio computes an individual static value at each source and detector location. Statics are calculated as the sum of vertical times through each model layer, then to an intermediate datum, then to a final datum. Both the intermediate datum and final datum are optional.
Statics in Seismic Studio Surface Refractor Intermediate Datum Final Datum Weathering velocity … set in model building, typically varies spatially Refractor velocity …varies spatially Replacement velocity … constant, user-specified For this model, at any station location, the static will be the sum of 3 times.
Statics in Seismic Studio Surface For this model, at any station location, the static will be the sum of 3 times. T1T1 T2T2 T3T3 T 1 = layer-thickness / weathering-velocity T 2 = refractor-to-intermediate datum thickness / refractor-velocity T 3 = intermediate-to-final datum thickness / replacement-velocity
Statics in Seismic Studio Surface If no intermediate datum is requested, for example, then the static would be the sum of two times T1T1 T2T2 T 1 = layer-thickness / weathering-velocity T 2 = refractor-to-final datum thickness / replacement-velocity As mentioned above, both the intermediate datum and final datum are optional
Accessing the Statics Wizard Each of Seismic Studios model building windows has a Compute statics button.
If you want either an intermediate datum or a final datum, check them here. Click Next >> This is the first page of the Statics Wizard
If you requested an intermediate datum, you design it here The wizard shows you some model statistics to help you For this model, we choose an flat intermediate datum of -100 to be just beneath the refractor Click Next >>
If you requested an final datum, you design it here Again, the wizard shows you some model statistics to help you Final datum elevation and replacement velocity are often specified by the project client Click Next >>
If your data have uphole information associated, then this page provides several options. Otherwise, you can ignore this page. Click Finish
In the 3D (and 2D) model building window, click Plot statics to see the statics you just computed.
What to do with the statics You can see some stacks of the traces with statics applied You can export the statics for use by other processing systems
To Stack traces in Seismic Studio click on Stacks
Slice Stacking in Seimic Studio Will be presented in a special tutorial
Exporting statics Statics are computed for each source and detector in the survey There are several options for exporting the statics for use by processing systems This tutorial will show you one option: Export source/detector tables
Conclusions This tutorial shows you a standard analysis/modeling path through Seismic Studio On simple data, this may be an adequate template For more difficult data, more advanced procedures may be required Advanced procedures can be learned via a Renegade training class