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DB-Time-based Oracle Performance Tuning: Theory and Practice Graham Wood, Uri Shaft, John Beresniewicz Oracle Corporation RMOUG Feb 2008.

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Presentation on theme: "DB-Time-based Oracle Performance Tuning: Theory and Practice Graham Wood, Uri Shaft, John Beresniewicz Oracle Corporation RMOUG Feb 2008."— Presentation transcript:

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2 DB-Time-based Oracle Performance Tuning: Theory and Practice Graham Wood, Uri Shaft, John Beresniewicz Oracle Corporation RMOUG Feb 2008

3 The following is intended to outline our general product direction. It is intended for information purposes only, and may not be incorporated into any contract. It is not a commitment to deliver any material, code, or functionality, and should not be relied upon in making purchasing decisions. The development, release, and timing of any features or functionality described for Oracles products remains at the sole discretion of Oracle.

4 Agenda Brief History of Oracle Performance Tuning Methods DB Time: What is it? DB Time: Data Sources DB Time Method

5 Oracle Tuning Methods Prehistory Debug code Dark Ages Counters/Ratios BSTAT/ESTAT SQL*Trace Renaissance Increased instrumentation inc. Wait Events Move from counters to timers STATSPACK

6 Oracle Tuning Methods More Recent Methods – Time-based methods YAPP Instance tuning - instance statistics Non intrusive Always on Method R Session tuning – sql trace based Tightly scoped Must be highly selective Modern advances DB Time Tuning Instrumentation improvements ASH, AWR,ADDM

7 Why Do We Care About Time? Performance Is Always About Time Human time is critical to the enterprise System time includes human and IT resource time to accomplish business goals System performance affects business goals Time is money. Performance improvement usually means doing things faster Method: find where system time is spent – reduce it!

8 The DB Time Method Uses combination of cumulative and sampled DB Time Always on data only Combines best of current methods Low intrusion Detailed data No scope necessary for collections No requirement to reproduce problem Works for concurrency problems such as locking

9 The DB Time Method Supports multiple scopes for diagnosis Database Instance Session Client id Module/Action SQL ID More inclusive, less intrusive

10 Database time (DB Time) Time spent in database calls by foreground sessions Includes CPU time, IO time and wait time Excludes idle wait time The lingua franca for Oracle performance analysis Database time is total time spent by user processes either actively working or actively waiting in a database call.

11 Single session with Database Black Box server Browse Books Read Reviews For One Book Add to Cart Checkout TIME = time spent in database A Single Session

12 Active Session = Session currently spending time in a database call Database Time (DB Time) = Total time session spent in all database calls Average Activity of the Session (% Activity) = The ratio of time active to total wall clock time Browse Books Read Reviews For One Book Add to Cart Checkout TIME = time spent in database Fundamental concepts

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14 Active sessions Foreground sessions in a database call Backgrounds are also interesting Either on CPU, waiting for IO, or waiting (not idle) V$ACTIVE_SESSION_HISTORY is a collection of timed regular samples of active session attributes Active sessions are foreground sessions contributing to DB time in any given moment.

15 = time spent in database Multiple Sessions TIME User 1 User 2 User 3 User n t At time t we have 2 active sessions DB Time = Sum of DB Time Over All Sessions Avg. Active Sessions = Sum of Avg. Activity Over All Sessions

16 = time spent in database Browse Books Read Reviews For One Book Add to Cart Checkout TIME Avg. Active Sessions = Wall Clock (Elapsed) Time Database Time The Basic Relationship

17 DB time

18 = time spent in database Breaking down DB Time (example) TIME User 1 User 2 User 3 User n Sessions do different database things at different times

19 Breaking down DB Time (example) TIME User 1 User 2 User 3 User n CPU I/O Other Waits Maybe I should investigate other wait time?

20 Database time (DB Time) Database time vs Wall clock time Database time vs Response time

21 System load and DB time More users => More calls => DB time increases Larger transactions => Longer calls => DB time increases DB time increases as system load increases.

22 System performance and DB time IO performance degrades => IO time increases => DB time increases Application performance degrades => Wait time increases => DB time increases DB time increases as system performance degrades.

23 System performance and DB time

24 Where to find DB time? V$SYS_TIME_MODEL STAT_NAME = DB time Accumulated value over entire instance V$WAITCLASSMETRIC_HISTORY AVERAGE_WAITER_COUNT It is precisely Average Active Sessions V$SYSMETRIC_HISTORY Database Time Per Second, CPU Usage Per Sec Units are Centi-seconds per second Value is 100 x Average Active Sessions

25 Where to find DB time? V$SQL ELAPSED_TIME Also wait class times V$ACTIVE_SESSION_HISTORY Sample per second Count = time

26 Active Session History (ASH) Persisted samples of active session information Sessions contributing to DB time at time of sampling One-second sampling interval is a great default Allows simplified AAS computations DB time and Average active sessions can be computed by aggregating ASH samples

27 time t0t1 Estimating DB time with ASH Active sessions t = 1 sec ASH sample count is value of active sessions function at sample times DB Time DB time is area under curve

28 Integral approximation using ASH

29 EM Top Activity page ASH-estimated DB time by wait class Aggregated over 15 second intervals

30 Sampled vs. cumulative DB time

31 Where is DB time used? ADDM AWR and AWR compare periods reports EM Performance page and drill downs ASH report Server-generated Alerts

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33 Average active sessions Time-normalized DB time Full-time equivalent sessions Not whole sessions How many full-time virtual sessions to do the work? Comparable Across systems Across time periods Average active sessions is the rate of change of DB time over time.

34 What are the units? Time / time = unitless? DB time accumulates in micro- or centi-seconds Time-normalized metrics are per second of elapsed Centi-seconds (foreground time) per second (elapsed) Centi-users per second User seconds per elapsed second (normalize time units) Active session seconds per second Active sessions

35 EM Performance page Cumulative DB time by wait class v$waitclassmetric_history and v$sysmetric_history 1 minute intervals

36 Percent Activity % activity = DB time *100 / elapsed time Used for individual sessions

37 Percent Activity

38 DB Time Tuning DB Time can be aggregated at multiple levels: Database / instance Service / module / action Session / user / client id SQL id / rowsource Performance improvement for Oracle database means doing the same work in less DB Time

39 Performance Problem Resolution 101 Discover the problem: User phone call or other complaint Metric threshold alert or system monitoring Scope the problem: How widespread is it? How severe is it? In other words: Who or what is wasting DB Time and how much is being wasted? Diagnose the problem Scope the solution How much of the pain can be relieved?

40 The DB Time Method 1.Scope 2.Set Goal 3.Investigate DB time distribution 4.Identify the largest potential for improvement 5.Modify system 6.Evaluate against Goal

41 The DB Time Method Scope What is the problem? Business Requirements Resource capacity Resource contention System wide or individual Business Function

42 The DB Time Method Set Goal Quantitative Establishes the STOP TUNING criteria Should be business driven for applications (X per day)

43 The DB Time Method Investigate DB time distribution Identify major contributors to DB time at the selected scope System scope V$SYS_TIME_MODEL V$ACTIVE_SESSION_HISTORY V$SQL Identify high load service, sessions and SQL Identify resource constraints or contention

44 The DB Time Method Investigate DB time distribution Session scope V$SESS_TIME_MODEL V$ACTIVE_SESSION_HISTORY Identify if database is the problem Identify high load SQL Identify application efficiency issues Identify resource constraints or contention

45 The DB Time Method Identify the largest potential for improvement What can be changed that will produce the greatest reduction in scoped DB time? Parameters System Application SQL Design Modify system

46 The DB Time Method Need to have examples here Instance level and SQL level maybe?

47 The DB Time Method Evaluate against Goal Did our changes to the system achieve our goal? If not return to step 3 and repeat If we have reached our goal STOP

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52 Summary DB Time is the fundamental performance metric The DB Time Method uses many different sources of DB time within the database to allow many different scopes of performance tuning Time based diagnosis removes value judgments from performance analysis

53 New In 11g – Enhancements for RAC ADDM has Database analysis mode New AWR Database report EM Performance screens for RAC enhanced to support new server capabilities.

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