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ICS 434 Advanced Database Systems

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1 ICS 434 Advanced Database Systems
Dr. Abdallah Al-Sukairi Second Semester (032) King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals Information & Computer Science Department

2 Outline Advanced Data Modeling The Relational Data Model: Version 2
Databases on the Web Client-Server Architecture Client-Server Databases & Tools The System Catalog Query Processing and Optimization Transaction Processing Concurrency Control Recovery Administration & Security Distributed Databases Database Replication Object-Oriented Databases Data Warehousing and Data Mining Other Emerging Database Technologies

3 2. Advanced Data Modeling

4 The Entity-Relationship (ER) Model
Introduce by Peter Chen in 1976 In 1988 ANSI chose ER model as the standard model for IRDS Elements of the the ER model: Entities Relationships Attributes

5 Entities Classes of real-world objects, represented by rectangles

6 Relationships Relate two or more entities represented by diamonds
Degree recursive binary n-ary

7 ... Relationships Minimal and Maximal cardinality (min, max)
min-card ( participation ) optional - 0 mandatory - 1 max-card ( cardinality ratio ) 1 to 1 1 to N N to N

8 Example

9 Attributes Properties of entities or relationships single-valued
multi-valued simple composite domain ID Name B_Date Employee

10 ... Attributes Keys (identifiers) minimal and maximal cardinality
min-card 0 optional 1 mandatory max-card 1 single-valued N multi-valued (0, 1) is the default Keys (identifiers) simple or composite internal or external (strong entity) (weak entity)

11 Problem with ER Model The Entity Relationship Model in its original form did not support the generalization abstraction Extended Entity-Relationship (EER) Model

12 Generalization Hierarchies
Generalization vs. Specialization Coverage of generalization total ( t ) or partial ( p ) disjoint ( d ) or overlapping ( o )

13 Inheritance Subset entities inherit all the properties of the generic entity

14 ER-to-Relational Mapping
Entity Relation 1:1 Relationship Foreign Key 1:N Relationship Foreign Key M:N Relationship Relation Multi-valued Attribute Relation Ternary Relationship Relation

15 Generalization Hierarchy Mapping
Superclass C with attributes {K, a1, .... ,an} m subclasses {S1, S2, .... ,Sm} Option A relation L for C relation Li for each subclass Si with attributes = {k} U {attributes of Si} works for any constraints Option B relation Li for each subclass Si with attributes = {K, a1, .... ,an} U {attributes of Si} Works only with disjoint and total constraints

16 ... Generalization Hierarchy Mapping
Option C a single relation with attributes = {K, a1, .... ,an} U {attributes of S1} U .... U {attributes of Sm} U {t} (t = type attribute to indicate the subclass, more than one is needed when overlapping) Preferable if only few specific attributes exist

17 What is UML? UML (Unified Modeling Language)
An emerging standard for modeling object-oriented software Resulted from the convergence of notations from three leading object-oriented methods: OMT (James Rumbaugh) OOSE (Ivar Jacobson) Booch (Grady Booch) Supported by several CASE tools Rational ROSE Together ...

18 Different Views in UML Structural View Class Diagrams Behavioral View
Object Diagrams Behavioral View Sequence Diagrams Collaboration Diagrams Statechart Diagrams Activity Diagrams Environment View Deployment Diagrams Implementation View Component Diagrams User View Use Case Diagrams Structural or Static View – ER view

19 Class Diagrams: Static Structure
“A class diagram is a graphic presentation of the static view that shows a collection of declarative (static) model elements, such as classes, types, and their contents and relationships.” Graphic vs. Textual

20 Class Diagrams: Example
1 Review Specification Name 1 this is a comment 1 1 Review Criteria * 1 Name Review Item 1 1 Grading Criteria 1 1 * * Alternative Subpart Sequence Simple Review Item * More Analysis View Note Aggregation and Composition Generalization Specialization Multiplicity Constraints: Functional Dependencies Associations Usually Binary Relations Sometimes Multiplicity Constraint is optional if there is a default. Name is optional but I highly suggest it 1 is a set of is subpart of of 1 1 1 Review Item Iteration Constraint 2..*

21 Class Diagrams: Multiplicity Constraints
Denote a Set of Non-Negative Integers Common Forms 0..1 abbreviated as 1 0..* abbreviated as * 1..* General Form i..j, k..l, m..n, … , z..* Any i..i can be abbreviated as i It is preferred that intervals increase

22 Class Diagrams: Attributes
Review Specification Name 1 {A Simple Review Item is neither an Alternative, Subpart, or Sequence} Alternative * * is a set of Review Item Simple Review Item 2..* Name Review Criteria Grading Criteria * 1 Sequence * Subpart 1 Can have attribute type General Constraint in braces. Roles Can have visibility constraints on roles (+,-) Association Class Problems with N-ary is subpart of of Sequence of Review Item Iteration Constraint

23 Class Diagrams: Associations
Academic Department 1 {subset} 1 of {ordered} 2..* 1 Faculty Member 1 1 is married to Person Department Chair # Spouse:Dependant 1 0..4 0..4 Class Section Navigation is the directed arc from Faculty Member to Spouse. Constraints on Associations: implicit (derivable), ordered, (changeable, addOnly, frozen) Dependant must be an Interface(set of operations) N-ary relation and multiplicity constraints – Functional Dependency Faculty Member teaches Section of Class during given Semester {A Faculty Member can teach at most 4 sections of any Class during a given Semester} * Semester

24 Class Diagrams: Associations
Qualified Association Class term : Semester section: Integer taught by Faculty Member 0..4 1 Specialization between Associations 1 Faculty Member 2..* Academic Department Quaternary with functional dependency 1 CS Faculty Member 2..* CS Department

25 Class Diagrams: Generalization/Specialization
University Person {root} {overlapping, complete} Faculty Staff Student graduation status … is optional and means there are other specializations on other diagrams graduation status is a discriminator Complete: all children are present (but not all on this diagram) Stereotypes: <<implementation>> inheritance Special forms of classes and relations Overlapping constraint. {disjoint, incomplete} <<implementation>> Undergraduate Graduate Dog

26 Database Application System Life Cycle
System Definition Design Implementation Loading or Data Conversion Application Development or Conversion Testing and Validation Operation Monitoring and Maintenance

27 The Database Design Process
Requirements Collection and Analysis Data driven Process driven Process Requirements Transaction Design Database Requirements Conceptual Design Conceptual Schema (ER Model) Logical Design ( Model Mapping & Normalization ) frequencies performance constraints Set of Normalized relation Physical Design Transaction Implementation DDL Statements

28 Requirements Collection and Analysis
Identification of user groups and application areas Review of existing documentation Analysis of the operating environment and the processing requirements Questionnaires and interviews

29 Conceptual Design A high-level data model (semantic data model) with the following characteristics: Expressiveness Simplicity Minimallity Diagrammatic Representation Formality

30 Approaches to Conceptual Database Design
Centralized View integration View (schema) integration Identifying correspondence and conflicts among the views: Naming conflict Type conflict Constraint conflict Modifying views to confirm to one another Merging views Restructuring Strategies

31 Example: UML

32 Example: EER

33 Example: Relational Database Schema

34 Some of the Currently Available Automated Database Design Tools
COMPANY TOOL FUNCTIONALITY Embarcadero Technologies ER Studio Database Modeling in ER and IDEF1X DB Artisan Database administration and space and security management Oracle Developer 2000 and Designer 2000 Database modeling, application development Popkin Software System Architect 2001 Data modeling, object modeling, process modeling, structured analysis/design Platinum Technology Platinum Enterprice Modeling Suite: Erwin, BPWin, Paradigm Plus Data, process, and business component modeling Persistence Inc. Pwertier Mapping from O-O to relational model Rational Rational Rose Modeling in UML and application generation in C++ and JAVA Rogue Ware RW Metro Resolution Ltd. Xcase Conceptual modeling up to code maintenance Sybase Enterprise Application Suite Data modeling, business logic modeling Visio Visio Enterprise Data modeling, design and reengineering Visual Basic and Visual C++

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