Ministering to those Affected by Mental Illness Vickie R. Carpenter, NCCU, 2007
1 in 4 families is affected by severe and persistent mental illness in their lifetime. 1 in 5 suffering from manic-depression who are untreated will commit suicide. Mental Illness is a no fault disease. Over 50% of homeless have a brain disorder. Mental Illness is a brain disorder. Stigma and discrimination prevent people with brain disorders from seeking treatment. (Strobel, 1997)
Mental Illness is caused by: Laziness Promiscuity Violence Sin Substance Abuse Those with mental illness should: Just snap out of it Just pray for healing Just stop avoiding responsibilities
Mental health is often a taboo subject Health insurance usually sets strict annual limits on amount of care patient can receive Mental issues viewed as a condition, not a true medical illness Mental patients feel their disease is inferior to other medical problems
Viewing mental health issues as symptoms rather than behaviors will reconnect the body with the brain Mental Illnesses are biological in origin with environmental factors possibly triggering an existing genetic predisposition to the illness Like epilepsy, MI is a biological brain disorder Some medications used to treat epilepsy are also used to treat mental illnesses (Lakhan, 2007)
Attention Deficit Hyper Active (ADHD) Depression Bipolar Schizophrenia Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Panic Disorder, General Anxiety Disorder(GAD) Eating Disorders (Bulimia, Anorexia)
Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Most common reason children are referred for mental health services Difficulty paying attention: uncompleted task, can not listen to complete instructions, easily distracted Hyperactivity: continuous fidgeting, problems sitting for any length of time, always on the go Impulsivity: blurting out answers before questions are completed, can not wait their turn, acting without considering consequences (Durand and Barlow, 2006)
Alexander Graham Bell: invented telephone Terry Bradshaw: football quarterback Jim Carey: actor Prince Charles: future king of England Winston Churchill: failed 6 th grade Walt Disney: creator of Mickey Mouse Galileo: astronomer, inventor Magic Johnson: basketball Salvador Dali: artist Mozart: composer (Neu beCALMd. 1997)
May develop suddenly without warning Cant work or perform daily chores Inability to enjoy anything Feeling of worthlessness, suicidal Sometimes physical pain Diminished ability to think or concentrate Even infants can become depressed Up to 20% of those in nursing homes Lifetime prevalence is 4.9% (Durand & Barlow, 2006)
Patty Duke: actress Brian Wilson: musician (Beachboys) Diana: Princess of Wales Brooke Shields: actress Buzz Aldrin: astronaut Terry Bradshaw: football Jim Carrey: actor, comedian Drew Carey: actor, comedian Robin Williams: actor, comedian Rodney Dangerfield: actor, comedian (Scimelpfening, 2007)
Depression alternates with mania Unipolar: only one of the above Mixed state: experiencing both at same time Mania: excessive elation, grandiosity, inflated self esteem Racing thoughts, decreased need for sleep, excessive involvement in pleasurable but risky behaviors Severe impairment in normal functioning Hospitalization often required (Durand & Barlow, 2006)
During mania, person feels invincible, can work nonstop; excessive spending Person does not want to give up this extremely productive capabilities Resist treatment: behavior seems reasonable to them Pleasurable state so many stop medication to return to manic state Lifetime prevalence: 1.3% (Durand & Barlow, 2006)
Edgar Allen Poe: writer Virginia Wolf: writer Mark Twain: writer Jane Pauley: TV news reporter Theodore Roosevelt: former president of U.S. Robert Schumann: poet Jimmy Hendrix: musician Ludwig van Beethoven: musician Rosemary Clooney: musician John Strugnell: biblical scholar (MH today)
Disabling disorder Perceptual, emotional, intellectual deficits Loss of contact with reality visual and auditory hallucinations, delusions Paranoia, depression, mania Inappropriate emotional responses Social withdrawal, suicidal Feared due to extreme bizarre behaviors Nothing to do with multiple personalities (Garrett, 2006)
3,000,000 Americans will develop schizophrenia in their lifetime Economic burden $20,000,000,000 annually Prevalence: 1% of the population world wide All social classes, cultures equally vulnerable 1980: 20 years after first hospitalization: 22% fully recovered 43% improved 35% remained the same 56% were fully employed (Garrett, 2006)
Vincent van Gogh: artist Lionel Aldridge: Green Bay Packers John Nash: Nobel Prize Winner Meera Popkin: Broadway: Cats, Miss Saigon Eduard Einstein: son of Albert Picasso: artist Mark Vonnegut: son of Kurt (writer) Vaslov Nijinsky: Russian dancer Mother of Alan Alda: actor Mary Todd Lincoln: wife of Abraham (Schizophrenia.com, 1996)
Obsessions are intrusive or nonsensical thoughts, images or urges that the individual tries to resist or eliminate Compulsions are the thoughts or actions used to suppress the obsessions and provide relief: rituals (hand washing, repeated words) Culmination of anxiety disorders: debilitating avoidance, major depression, panic attacks; all occurring simultaneously with OCD symptoms (Durand & Barlow, 2006)
Compulsions bear no logical relation to obsession, actually reinforce obsession Most common rituals: checking (prevent imagined disaster), ordering, arranging (symmetry) washing, cleaning (contamination) Hoarding is a type of OCD Prevalence is 2.6% Is remarkably similar across cultures Therapy and medications have 50% to 85% success in treating OCD (Durand & Barlow, 2006 )
Albert Einstein: inventor Donald Trump: entrepreneur David Beckham: soccer player Michael Jackson: musician Kathy Lee Gifford: actress Martin Scorsese: film director Ludwig van Beethoven: composer Michelangelo: artist Thomas Stonewall Jackson: Civil War General (Girlshrink Article Archive 2003)
Caused by any traumatic event: war, physical assault, natural catastrophes, death of a loved one Feelings of fear, helplessness, horror during event Event relived through flashbacks or nightmares Avoidance of talk of trauma and trauma recollections Startle response Up to 30% of soldiers returning from Iraq (Durand & Barlow, 2006)
Can be delayed for years, reason unknown Anxiety about uncontrolled emotions Cognitive Therapy (reliving the trauma with assistance of therapist) very positive outcome The broader and deeper the network of social support, the less chance of developing PTSD Stress creates cortisol in the body Support from loved ones reduces cortisol Prevalence in general population 2.2% Vietnam POWs: 67% developed PTSD (Durand & Barlow, 2006)
All encompassing drive to be thin Anorexia nervosa: person eats minimal amounts of food 20% die within a few years, 5% more within 10 years with 50% of these deaths being suicide Widespread: grew dramatically 1960-1995 Bulimia nervosa: out of control binge eating followed by purging Mortality rate from eating disorders is highest for any psychological disorder (Durand and Barlow, 2006)
Karen Carpenter: musician Paula Abdul: musician Jane Fonda: actress Anna Freud: Sigmund's daughter Cathy Rigby: gymnast Mary Kate Olsen: actress Audrey Hepburn: actress Dianna: Princess of Wales Nadia Comaneci: gymnast ( Eating Disorder Referral and Information Center, 2007)
Blow to self image Become spectator of life Angry that their life has been unfairly taken away May become totally engulfed by the illness Identity becomes confused Being around what used to be normal reflects their brokenness Question the meaning of their existence
Confusion and frustration Incompetent and helpless Financial drain Harbor self blame for persons illness Person with illness may continually blame family for their illness Level of family stress creates divorce Some have stated mental illness is worth than death: you mourn the loss of the person as you knew them along with hopes and dreams over and over
Stigma keeps people from seeking help Causes isolation when symptoms flair Denial of illness Refuse medications Resist hospitalization Fire doctors, social workers, mh professionals Self directed blame: shame, self destruction Blame directed at others: anger, rage Question the meaning of their existence
Compassionate service is a core challenge as a Christian Deliver a message of acceptance from both God and the local congregation can provide support. Carry out the usual support system: Provide food, transportation, socialization Cards and phone calls of encouragement Prayer Visitation Be a friend: if you dont know, ask
Psalm 57:1 Be merciful to me, O God, be merciful to me, for in youre my soul take refuge; in the shadow of your wings I will take refuge, until the destroying storms pass by. Matthew 11:28-30 Come to me all you that are weary and are carrying heavy burdens and I will give you rest. Hebrews 13:5 ….God has said, I will never leave you or forsake you.
Luke 8:26-29 The story of the man called Legion is told. People with mental illness were banished from their communities in biblical times due to fear of behaviors. Jesus sought out this man and healed him. Legion wanted to follow Jesus but Jesus sent him back to his community. A man with mental illness became the first evangelist to the Gentiles.
31)A priest happened to be going down the same road, and when he saw the man, he passed by on the other side. 32)So too, a Levite, when he came to the place and saw him, passed by on the other side. 33)But a Samaritan, as he traveled, came where the man was; and when he saw him, he took pity on him. 34)He went to him and bandaged his wounds, pouring on oil and wine. Then he put the man on his own donkey, took him to an inn and took care of him.
35)The next day he took out two silver coins [a] and gave them to the innkeeper. 'Look after him,' he said, 'and when I return, I will reimburse you for any extra expense you may have.'a 36)"Which of these three do you think was a neighbor to the man who fell into the hands of robbers?" 37)The expert in the law replied, "The one who had mercy on him." Jesus told him, "Go and do likewise."
Response from an employee in the adult admissions unit at John Umpstead Hospital, the NC state psychiatric hospital: Absolutely! This is their right...to receive and send mail. It really does pick up their spirits. It also picks up their spirits to be able to send cards or letters. Our department helps patients to make cards and I mail them.
Helping Someone With Mental Illness: Compassionate Guide For Family, Friends and Care Givers; Rosalynn Carter, Susan Golant;1998 Ministries on Mental Illness, by the General Board of Church and society of the UMC;2002 A Path Through the Sea: One Womans Journey from Depression to Wholeness; Lillian V. Grisham; 1993 Strength for His People: A Ministry for Families of the Mentally Ill; Pastor Steven Waterhouse; 1994
Durand, M. & Barlow, D (2006). Understanding and defining mood disorder. In M. Taflinger, K. Makarewycz, D. Moneypenny, & S. Harkrader (Eds.) Essentials of Abnormal Psychology (4 th ed., pp. 208-261). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Eating Disorder Referral and Information Center (2007, March 20). Famous people who have died from Eds. Retrieved March 20, 207, from http://www.edrefferal. com/ Celebrities_who_died_or_have_Eating_ disorders.html Garrett, B. (2003). Psychological disorders. In Garrett, B. (Ed). Brain and behavior (pp. 364-395). Belmont CA: Wadsworth GirlShrink Article Archive (2003). Famous people with obsessive compulsive disorder. Retrieved March 19, 2007, from www.girlshrink.com/articles/article/ 2334483/31830.html
Lakhan, S. (2007, March 23) When did the brain become disconnected from the body? Retrieved March 26, 2007, from http://www.brainblogger.com/2007/03/23/when- did-the-brain-become-disconnected-from-the body MH today (n.d.) Famous people with bipolar disorder. Retrieved March 20, 2007, from http://www.mentaltoday. com/bp/famous_people.html Neu beCALMd (n.d.) Famous people with ADD/ADHD. Retrieved March 19, 2007, from http://www.adhdrelief. com/famous.html Schizophrenia.com (1996). Famous people and schizophrenia. Retrieved March 22, 2007, fromhttp://www.schizophrenia.com/famous.htm Strobel, S. (1997). Creating a circle of caring: the church and the mentally ill. Raleigh, NC: NAMI-NC.