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SCADA Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition Ramtin Raji Kermani Fall 2005 Computer Sciences & Engineering Department Shiraz University.

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Presentation on theme: "SCADA Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition Ramtin Raji Kermani Fall 2005 Computer Sciences & Engineering Department Shiraz University."— Presentation transcript:

1 SCADA Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition Ramtin Raji Kermani Fall 2005 Computer Sciences & Engineering Department Shiraz University

2 SCADA Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition Road Map: What is a Control System? What is SCADA ? Where and why SCADA is used? SCADA architecture Components of SCADA Security issues Modern features

3 SCADA Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition First of all, Lets see what is a Control System ? A control system, is a system that holds responsible in top of another system (being controlled system) for setting and stabling the system in a predefined state. Nowadays control systems are mostly microprocessor based. (Microcontrollers, PLCs, PC-Based Control systems). Process being controlled Sensor Actuator Controller System

4 SCADA Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition Example of a monitoring and control system is a system which monitors temperature and switches heaters on and off.

5 SCADA Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition What is SCADA? SCADA is Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition. Real-time industrial process control systems used to centrally monitor and control remote or local industrial equipment such as motors, valves, pumps, relays, sensors, etc. SCADA is Combination of telemetry and Data Acquisition. SCADA is not just a hardware, neither a software. Its a concept, its a system as a combination of special hardware, software and protocols. SCADA is used to control chemical plant processes, oil and gas pipelines, electrical generation and transmission equipment, manufacturing facilities, water purification and distribution infrastructure, etc.

6 SCADA Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition Why SCADA is needed ? The Ability to Remotely collect different plants on different places. The Ability to control process from a distance. The Ability to create logs and reports about systems current and past state. The Ability to send necessary information to Engineers and operators in real-time using Instant Messaging and SMS.

7 SCADA Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition Where SCADA is used ? - Electrical generation/distribution, - Natural gas distribution - Fuel Oil storage & flow - Water storage & flow - Lighting - Heating, cooling, ventilation - Fire alarms & suppression - Elevators & escalators - Gates & doors, alarms - Video security cameras - Traffic signals - Process Line Control

8 SCADA Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition SCADA is not a new stuff ! It has been used since the early days of control systems to remotely Control and Monitor current and past state of being controlled system (our plant, factory, etc.)

9 SCADA Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition Early Power System Control (in 1919) Control room (mimic wall) 1970s formerly, all instruments were directly wired to the control room

10 SCADA Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition Late 1990s Control Centers

11 SCADA Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition A little Confused ?!?! Lets SEE what it is !

12 SCADA Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition Central Monitoring Unit Communications Network Sensor Programmable Logic Controller Sensor Fiber, Radio, Modem, Microwave, Telephone, Wireless, Powerline Carrier Remote Terminal Unit (RTU) RTU

13 SCADA Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition SCADA Hardware - Field level instrumentation and control devices Sensing field variables, controlling the process and …. - Remote Terminal Units (RTUs) Send control and monitoring data to MTU. (could be a PLC) - Master Terminal Unit or MTU (Also called The Master Station) gathering information from RTUs, Monitoring and processing, sending necessary control actions to RTUs. - Communication System

14 SCADA Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition Going a little more in details …

15 SCADA Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition Communication Network Instrumentation Remote Station Central Monitoring Station LAN, WAN, INTERNET Communication Network Instrumentation Remote Station Central Monitoring Station Communication Network Instrumentation Remote Station Corporate Architecture

16 SCADA Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition Focus –Safety –100% Availability –Electro-mechanical –No updating, Aged equipment The Language –RTUs, PLCs, IEDs – DNP, Modbus – Low Bandwidth – Analog & Digital The Vendors –Allen Bradley(AB)/Rockwell, Honeywell, Siemens, Johnson Controls Focus –Security –99.5% Availability –Electronic –Continuous Updating, New The Language –Routers, Switches, Servers – IP, Ethernet – High Bandwidth – All Digital The Vendors –IBM, Microsoft, CISCO, Dell Physical Plant Computer Networking What are the concerns ?

17 SCADA Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition Protocols used in SCADA Systems: DNP (Distributed Network Protocol) Modbus DeviceNet Mostly Open Protocol are used in SCADA systems. The most popular protocols are as follows:

18 SCADA Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition SCADA Functionality: - Data acquisition and display store binary & analog data into process data base - Alarm & Events record important changes and operator actions - History data base keep a record of the process values - Measured processing calculate derived values (limit supervision, trending) - Logging & reporting - Human Machine Interface (HMI): graphical object state presentation, lists, reports - Operator Command handling binary commands, set points recipes, batches, scripts (command procedures)

19 SCADA Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition Current state Alarms and events Trends and history Remote Monitoring including:

20 SCADA Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition What is an alarm, an event ? A&E consider changes occurring in the plant (process) or in the control system (operator actions, configuration changes,…) that merit to be recorded. Recorded changes can be of three kinds: - informative: no action required (e.g. "production terminated at 11:09") - warning: plant could stop or be damaged if no corrective action is taken "soon" (e.g. fuel low") - blocking: the controller took action to protect the plant and further operation is prevented until the reason is cleared (e.g. Temperature too high") An event is a change related to: operator actions ("grid synchronisation performed at 14:35"), configuration changes ("new software loaded in controller 21"), and system errors ("no life sign from controller B3")

21 SCADA Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition Implementing alarms by variables An alarm is often encoded as a simple 16-bit word sent by an object (thru PLC) in the plant. Each bit has a different meaning, the error condition is reset when the word is 0. [120] low oil pressure 121] low water level [122] trajectory error [123] synchronisation error [123] tool error [131] robot %R1% not ready … word

22 SCADA Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition New Trends in SCADA - Web-Based SCADA systems - Connecting SCADA system to Internet - Gives more functionality to our system - Security issues should be covered - Using Instant Messaging to report systems status (implemented) - Giving more functionality - Using a reliable instant messaging service - Using Short Message Service to report critical situations (implemented) - A kind of instant messaging, using Mobile Telecommunication network - Using SMS Server, connecting a cell to PC, setting up a web server and using WAP

23 SCADA Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition Instant Messaging for SCADA Facilitate the remote monitor and control by utilizing the secure IM Instant Messaging (IM) is a type of communications service over the Internet that enables individuals to exchange text messages and track availability of a list of users in real-time. By taking advantage of the near real time feature of IM and richness of the IM presence, we bring forward a secure IM based remote monitor and control system. LDAP-based device and system management Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) [6] specifically targeted at management applications and browser applications that provide read/write interactive access to directories.

24 SCADA Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition IM Architecture for SCADA

25 SCADA Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition A simple IM based remote monitor/control interface

26 SCADA Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition SCADA on mobile phone The system allows you to use your mobile phone to monitor and control your process from any location. More versatile than a pager system. You can get detailed alarm messages about any event that occurs in your business. The application has been written in J2ME The refresh time is about 2 s Java application in mobile phone transfers data to/from WWW server.

27 SCADA Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition

28 SCADA Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition

29 SCADA Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition Last words on SCADA With new trends and technologies of Computer and Electrical Engineering, there are lots of functionalities available, that we can add to our SCADA system. You saw that SCADA covers different fields of Computer Engineering like Computer networking, Control, Programming, Embedded Systems, Operating Systems, Real-time Systems and …. SCADA is a very fast growing technology which is widely used in plants and factories and makes good job opportunities for you in the industry, in computer engineering field..

30 SCADA Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition References: Modern SCADA protocols, Elsevier, newness publication DESY SCADA Experience, EPICS Workshop - Oak Ridge Engineering The Architecture Of Distributed Control Systems, Eric Runnerstrom MPR Associates Joint Program Office for Special Technology Countermeasures, National Defense Industrial Association July 2003

31 SCADA Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition Questions ? Comments? Thanks for coming … Ramtin Raji Kermani, Fall 2005


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