Presentation on theme: "2003 CDA Clinical Practice Guidelines"— Presentation transcript:
12003 CDA Clinical Practice Guidelines J. Robin Conway M.D.Diabetes ClinicSmiths Falls, ON
2Worldwide rates of diabetes mellitus: predictions 8070605040302010Prevalence (millions)Year199520002025Why is Diabetes such an important disease?Because the predictions are that in the next 25 years, the number of Diabetics in North America will doubleNorth AmericaEuropeSoutheastAsiaWorld Health OrganizationCanadian Diabetes Association, 1998 website.
42 Million Canadians Have Diabetes Mellitus Frequency of diagnosed and undiagnosed diabetes and IGT, by age (U.S. data - Harris)1.5 Million Canadians Have Diabetes MellitusAccording to data from the Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada, overall, 4% of Canadian men and 5% of women report having diabetes mellitus, that is 1.5 million Canadians.1 They report an increasing prevalence of diabetes with age, ranging from 1-3% in the youngest (15-34 years) to 9-12% in the oldest (55-74 years) age groups.1The true prevalence may be double that of self-reported diabetes, based on this U.S. study by Harris, which showed that 50% of adults with diabetes have not been diagnosed.2 The high incidence of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) in the population is also a consideration. Although the data in this graph are from the U.S., the prevalence data for Canada are very similar.Type 2 (noninsulin dependent) diabetes accounts for up to 95% of cases, while type 1 (insulin dependent) diabetes is much less frequent, affecting about 5-10% of the population with diabetes.2,3 By 1995, an estimated 110 million individuals worldwide had been diagnosed with diabetes, and the WHO projects this will double by the yearReferences: 1. Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada. Heart Disease and Stroke in Canada, Ottawa, Canada, Harris MI. Undiagnosed NIDDM: Clinical and public health issues. Diabetes Care 1993;16: Plosker GL, Faulds D. Troglitazone. Drugs 1999;57(3): Turner NC, Clapham JC. Insulin resistance, impaired glucose tolerance and non-insulin-dependent diabetes, pathologic mechanisms and treatment: current status and therapeutic possibilities. Prog Drug Res 1998;51:33-94.Harris. Diabetes Care 1993;16:
5Cardiovascular Disease Risk is Increased 2 to 4 Times Framingham study: diabetes and CAD mortality at 20-year follow-upCardiovascular Disease Risk is Increased 2 to 4 TimesPhysicians managing patients with diabetes are well aware of the significant relationship between diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease is 2- to 4-fold higher than in age- and sex-matched individuals without diabetes.1-3 Twenty-year follow-up mortality data from the Framingham study emphasizes the significantly increased risk of CAD mortality in individuals with type 2 diabetes.Men and women with diabetes are more likely to experience silent ischemia and myocardial infarction (MI) and the outcome of an infarction is worse than in individuals without diabetes. After an acute MI, people with diabetes are at greater risk for congestive heart failure, recurrent infarction, arrhythmias and have lower overall survival rates.3 About 75% to 80% of individuals with diabetes die from coronary artery, cerebrovascular or peripheral vascular diseases.2References: 1. Haffner SM. Epidemiology of insulin resistance and its relation to coronary artery disease. Am J Cardiol 1999;84:11J-4J. 2. Edmonds M. Dyslipidemia in diabetes mellitus. Can J CME 1997;Aug: Meltzer S, et al clinical practice guidelines for the management of diabetes in Canada. CMAJ 1998;159(Suppl):S1-29.Haffner Am J Cardiol 1999;84:11J-4J.
6THE BURDEN OF DIABETES87% of Type 2 Diabetes is managed in Primary CareDiascan Study: 23.5% of patients in our office have diabetesQue screening >2 Risk Factors 79% tested % Diabetes % IGT or IFG % No Treatment AdviceLeiter et al. Diabetes Care 2000Strychar I et al. Cdn J Diab 2003(abs)
7T2DM in Family Practice 84% of patients had A1c in past year Average A1c 7.9% (goal<7%)88% had BP check48% had lipid profiles28% tested for microalbuminuria15% had foot examsHarris S et al. Cdn Fam Phys 2003
8Cardiovascular Risk Sask Smiths Falls Statin 19.9% 70% ACE 48.9% 91% ASA % %Brown L et al. Cdn J Diab 2003(abs)Nozek L et al. Cdn J Diab 2003(abs)Conway R et al. Cdn J Diab 2003(abs)
9Burden of Poor Control - Cost The socioeconomic buden of diabetes can be documented in different ways:Burden of poor control established by assessing the relationship between glycemic control and diabetes health care costExample of such a study is given above where Gilmer et al. Estimated the cost to health plans associated with different levels of glycemic controlLack of control in diabetes has a socioeconomic burden for all stakeholders in health care
102003 CDA Guidelines Early Aggressive Screening FPG every 3yrs over age 40High Risk Groups Relatives of Diabetics Aboriginals & Hispanics PCOS Schizophrenics Dyslipidemia
11SCREENING & PREVENTION All individuals should be evaluated annually for Diabetes risk on the basis of history, clinical and demographic criteria.Screening for Diabetes using a fasting plasma glucose should be performed every 3 years for individuals over 40 years of age.More frequent or earlier testing with either a fasting plasma glucose or OGTT in people with additional risk factors for Diabetes,
12PREVENTION Pre diabetes OGTT should be considered if BMI>25 and FPG between 5.7 & 7 to identify IGT or DiabetesWith IGT a program of lifestyle mod that includes wt loss & exercise to prevent T2DWith IGT treatment with Metformin or Acarbose should be considered.
13DIAGNOSIS FBS >7 mmol/L + symptoms RBS >11 mmol/L + symptoms PREDIABETESIFG FBS mmol/LIGT 2 hr PC glucose on OGTTIf FBS > 5.7 mmol/L do OGTT
14Target for most patients Recommended targets for glycemic control*A1C**(%)FPG/preprandial PG(mmol/L)2-hour postprandial PG(mmol/L)Target for most patients7.0Normal range(considered for patientsin whom it can beachieved safely)6.0*Treatment goals and strategies must be tailored to the patient, with consideration given to individual risk factors.†Glycemic targets for children 12 years of age and pregnant women differ from these targets. Please refer to “Other Relevant Guidelines” for further details.**An A1C of 7.0% corresponds to a laboratory value of Where possible, Canadian laboratories should standardize theirA1C values to DCCT levels (reference range: to 0.060). However, as many laboratories continue to use a differentreference range, the target A1C value should be adjusted based on the specific reference range used by the laboratory thatperformed the test. As a useful guide: an A1C target of 7.0% refers to a threshold that is approximately 15% above the upper limit of normal.A1C = glycosylated hemoglobinDCCT = Diabetes Control and Complications TrialFPG = fasting plasma glucosePG = plasma glucose
15Monitoring A1c every 3 months Self Monitor Glucose, interpret results,alter food choices, physical activity, frequency of testing & medicationsType 1 should test at least 3 times a dayType 2 should test at least dailyType 1 in acute illness should test ketones if glucose >14 mmol/L
16Exercise150 minutes of moderate intensity aerobic exercise over 3 nonconsecutive days of the week or if willing 4 hrs/weekEncourage resistance exercise 3 times/week
17Nutrition Nutrition Counselling Canada Food Guide For PPG control Amnt & source of CHO, Glycemic IndexSucrose to 10% CalDiscuss AlcoholIntensive Insulin do CHO counting
18Goals in Diabetes FBS<7, PC<11, A1c<7% BP <130/80 TC/HDL <4, LDL <2.5, Trig <1.5ACR <2 Male, <2.8 Female
20Need for Combination Therapy in UKPDS % of PatientsSlide 37Speaker notes:Because diabetes follows a deteriorating course, most patients will eventually require combination therapy.In the UKPDS, at the 3-year point, 50% of patients required combination therapy to maintain glycemic control at previous levels; at the 9-year point, 75% of patients needed a combination regimen.Stratton IM, Adler AI, Neil HA, et al. Association of glycaemia with macrovascular and microvascular complications of type 2 diabetes (UKPDS 35): prospective observational study. BMJ 2000;321(7258):
21Pathophysiology of Type 2 Diabetes Decreased insulin secretionLoss of ‘first-phase’ insulin secretionIncreased insulin resistance, resulting in:Decreased glucose and fat uptakeIncreased free fatty acid releaseIncreased hepatic glucose outputSlide 17Speaker notes:The pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes thus involves decreased insulin secretion, loss of the first phase secretion of insulin, and increased insulin resistance.Resistance to insulin results in increased fatty acid release and hepatic glucose output, as well as decreased uptake of glucose and fatty acids by target tissues such as muscle.
22UKPDS: Long-term Glucose Control 9Conventional8HbA1c (%)Intensive7Slide 16Speaker notes:This slide shows the deterioration of glycemic control that was associated with the loss of beta-cell function over time.ULN = Upper Limit of NormalUKPDS Group. U.K. prospective diabetes study 33. Intensive blood-glucose control with sulphonylureas or insulin compared with conventional treatment and risk of complications in patients with type 2 diabetes. U.K. Prospective Diabetes Study Group. Lancet 1998;352:ULN = 6.2%63691215Years of treatmentUKPDS Study Group, Lancet, 1998;352:
23Progressive Loss of -cell Function in UKPDS 204060801001234567-cell function (%)Years from randomizationNon obeseObese-cell function (%)Slide 15Speaker notes:The United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) illustrated the loss of beta-cell function in type 2 diabetes over time.However, it is critical to note that the slopes of the deterioration are very similar in the conventionally- and intensively-treated groups. This powerful observation implies that diabetes eventually follows a deteriorating course, regardless of the treatment.The progressive loss of beta-cell function is a key component of the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes.UKPDS Group. U.K. prospective diabetes study 16. Overview of 6 years' therapy of type II diabetes: a progressive disease. U.K. Prospective Diabetes Study Group. Diabetes 1995;44:ConventionalSulphonylureaMetforminMean age at baseline 53 yrs.UKPDS 16: Diabetes 1995; 44:1249–1258
24Stages of Type 2 Diabetes in Relationship to ß-cell Function Type 2 Diabetes is Characterized by Insulin Resistance and Progressive ß-cell Failure100755025Stages of Type 2 Diabetes inRelationship to ß-cell FunctionBeta Cell Function (%)ImpairedglucosetolerancePostprandial hyperglycemiaType 2 diabetes phase IType 2 diabetes phase IIIType 2 diabetes phase IIIn Type 2 diabetes, there is both an impairment of beta cell (ß-cell) function and an impairment of insulin action. Impaired ß-cell function results in a decrease in insulin secretion whereas impaired insulin action results in insulin resistance.1REFERENCE:1. Lebovitz HE. Insulin secretagogues: old and new. Diabetes Review. 1999; 7(3):Years from Diagnosis50% of ß-cell function is already lost at diagnosisElevated PPG occurs before diagnosisLebovitz HE. Diabetes Review 1999;7(3):
25Impaired Insulin Secretion in Type 2 Diabetes Time6 am10 am2 pm6 pm10 pm2 am800600400200Insulin secretion (pmol/min)Type 2 diabeteshealthyThe difference in insulin secretion between type 2 diabetes and healthy individuals can be found in a specific defect of loss of 1st-phase insulin secretion.As a result, plasma glucose levels are higher in type 2 diabetes both under fasting conditions and in response to meals.Adapted from Polonsky KS et al. N Engl J Med 1996; 334: 777.
26Type 2 Diabetes: Underlying Defects PathophysiologyType 2 Diabetes: Underlying DefectsInsulin resistance Beta-cell functionType 2 diabetesOther defects: lipolysisrelease of NEFA hepatic glucose productionThe main pathologic defects in diabetes are peripheral insulin resistance and defective beta-cell secretory function. Insulin resistance occurs when cells do not respond efficiently to insulin. Insulin resistance (and impaired insulin secretion) are initiator abnormalities for diabetes.As insulin resistance develops, more insulin is produced by the beta-cells in the pancreas to compensate. This leads to hyperinsulinemia. Eventually, beta-cell dysfunction develops and thus adequate blood glucose control cannot be maintained.Increased lipolysis with release of NEFA (non-esterified fatty acid) or free fatty acids and increased hepatic glucose production are also present.Adapted from Matthaei et al. Endocrine Reviews 2000;21:Adapted from Frayn. Br J Nutr 2000;83(suppl 1): S71-S77.
27Type 2 Diabetes - Dual Impairment Insulin SecretionImpaired insulin secretion from pancreatic ß-cellsA sluggish and inadequate response to the glucose load imposed by mealsCharacteristic only of Type 2 diabetes100% of patients have impaired secretion at diagnosisApprox. 84% have insulin resistanceAlso associated with other metabolic conditionsInsulin ResistanceType 2 diabetes is characterized by beta cell dysfunctionType 2 diabetes is by far the most common form of diabetes and usually arises because of impaired pancreatic beta cell function causing impaired insulin secretion in response to a glucose load.1,2Type 2 diabetes may also result from insulin resistanceInsulin resistance occurs when normal levels of insulin are produced but fail to exert their usual biological actions. Insulin resistance also develops as a result of elevated blood glucose levels, and hyperglycemia itself may impair insulin mediated glucose transport i.e. insulin resistance is a consequence of glucose toxicity.1,2Insulin resistance is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes, however, not all people with insulin resistance develop diabetes.3REFERENCES:1. Lebovitz HE. Insulin secretagogues: old and new. Diabetes Review. 1999; 7(3):2. Polonsky KS, Given BD, Hirsh LJ, et al. Abnormal patterns of insulin secretion in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. The New England Journal of Medicine 1988;318:3. Bonora E, et al. Prevalence of insulin resistance in metabolic disorders: The Bruneck Study. Diabetes 1998; 47:Lebovitz HE. Diabetes Review. 1999; 7(3): Polonsky KS, et al. NEJM 1988;318: Bonora E, et al. Diabetes 1998;47:
28Issues to be Addressed when Selecting Agents Degree of -cell deficiencyMagnitude of insulin resistanceExtent of fasting hyperglycemiaMagnitude of postprandial hyperglycemiaSlide 38Speaker notes:When selecting agents, clinicians need to be aware of four key parameters:The degree of beta-cell deficiencyThe presence and magnitude of insulin resistanceThe severity of fasting hyperglycemia, andThe severity of postprandial hyperglycemia.Each of these parameters may differ in importance between individual patients.
29Epidemiological Evidence Linking PPG with Cardiovascular Disease
30CHD Risk and Type 2 Diabetes Db- No diabetes; Db+ Diabetes; MI- No prior MI; MI+ prior MISeveral studies have shown the risk that having type 2 diabetes confers on overall cardiovascular mortality. For example, Haffner et al. compared the 7-year incidence of MI (fatal and nonfatal) among 1373 non-diabetic subjects with the incidence among 1069 diabetic subjects, from a Finnish population-based studyThe 7-year incidence rates of MI, stroke and death from CV were reported.Haffner found a similar incidence of cardiovascular disease (MI, stroke, death— diagonal-striped column 2 and 3 in each group) between the known risk factor of prior MI and diabetes after adjustment for other cv risk factors (smoking hypertension, LDL, HDL, total cholesterol and triglycerides). This study supports the rationale for treating CV risk factors aggressively in diabetes patients.StrokeCV deathMIp<0.001 for prior MI vs. no MI and diabetes vs. no diabetescalculated with Cox proportional-hazards models, adjusted for age and sexHaffner SM et al. N Engl J Med 339: , 1998
312-hour PPG, Not FPG, Predicted All-cause Mortality 2.52.01.51.00.50.0Hazard ratio³11.1Recognizing that overall glycemic control, A1C is comprised of both PPG and FPG, DECODE tried to determine the relationship between fasting plasma glucose (American Diabetes Association) versus 2-hour plasma glucose and the risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality.As PPG levels increased, moving up along the z-axis, the hazard ratio increased dramaticallyThe increase in risk was not as great as you increased FPG, shown across the x-axisDECODE clearly demonstrated that CV mortality was more closely associated with two-hour PPG than with FPG.n= 25,364 people in 13 European population- or occupational-based studies. 1,275 of these people had a previous diagnosis of diabetes. 18,048 men, 7316 women aged 30+; Mean follow-up: 7.3 yrs2-hr PPG was associated with a 73% increased risk of all-cause mortality independently of fasting glucose levels (DECODE, 1999). A two-hour glucose level of ≥11.1 mmol/L more than doubled the risk of deathThus, the DECODE study clearly demonstrated that CV mortality was more closely associated with two-hour glucose than with fasting glucose levels.DECODE study group. Glucose tolerance and mortality: comparison of WHO and American Diabetes Association diagnostic criteria. Lancet 1999;354:617–621. Graph from Table 3, p. 619.7.8 –11.02-hour PPG, 75g OGTT (mmol/L)<7.8< – ³7.0Fasting plasma glucose (mmol/L)Adjusted for age, centre, sexAdapted from DECODE Study Group. Lancet 1999;354:617.
32Epidemiological Evidence Linking High PPG* with CVD Risk & Mortality DECODE, High PPG is associated with increased risk of death, independent of FPGPacific and Indian Ocean, High PPG with normal FPG doubles the risk of mortalityFunagata Diabetes Study, IGT, but not IFG, is a risk factor for CVDWhitehall, Paris, Helsinki Study Men in upper 2.5% of PPG distribution had significantly higher CHD mortalityThe Rancho-Bernardo Study, PPG more than doubles the risk of fatal CVD and heart disease in older adultsDiabetes Intervention Study, PPG (1-hr post-breakfast), but not FPG, is associated with CHDThis slide summarizes a number of studies showing that elevated PPG* (2-hr PPG after 75g OGTT except where indicated)is a significant risk factor in the development of macrovascular diabetic complicationsThe recent DECODE study indicated that using FPG concentrations alone, without 2-hr PPG to screen for diabetes, would not identify individuals at increased risk of death associated with hyperglycemia.Similarly the Pacific and Indian Ocean study determined that isolated 2 hour post-challenge hyperglycemia at least doubles the risk of mortality and that this is not detected using FPG alone. In the Funagata diabetes study, the new US category of impaired fasting glucose (IFG) (fasting plasma glucose of between mmol/L) was found not to be a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) but impaired glucose tolerance, (plasma glucose concentration of mmol/L 2 hours after a 75 g glucose dose) was. In the Whitehall, Paris, Helsinki study, men in the upper 20% and 2.5% of the 2-hour post meal glucose distribution were found to have a higher risk of all-cause mortality or cardiovascular associated mortality, respectively. The failure of fasting glucose alone to identify older adults at high risk for CVD was highlighted in the Rancho-Bernardo study, while in older women, 2-hour post meal hyperglycemia ≥11.1 mmol/L and FPG < 7 mmol/L doubled the risk of fatal CVD. In the Diabetes intervention study, 1-hr PPG (post-breakfast) was associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease and mortality.NOTE: Possible criticism of these studies is that they did not all include diagnosed type 2 diabetes patients*2-hour PPG after 75g OGTT, except where indicated1DECODE Study Group. Lancet 1999;354:617. 2Shaw JE et al. Diabetologia 1999;42:1050.3Tominaga M et al. Diabetes Care 1999;22:920. 4Balkau B et al. Diabetes Care 1998;21:360.5Barrett-Connor E et al. Diabetes Care 1998;21: Hanefeld M et al. Diabetologia 1996;39:1577.
33Intervention Studies to Control PPG and its Effect on CV Disease Manzella 20051Type 2Repaglinide had greater PPG lowering and a significantly greater improvement in endothelial function and a decline in oxidative stress compared to glyburideEsposito 20042After 12 months, CIMT regression (decrease of > mm) was observed in 52% of the repaglinide group vs 18% in the glyburide group (p<0.01).Hanefeld 20043Acarbose reduced relative risk of myocardial infarction by 64% (p=0.012) and any CV event 35% (p=0.0061)Chiasson 20034IGTAcarbose reduced relative risk of CV events by 49% and new cases of hypertension by 34% compared to placeboRecent intervention studies using agents that targeted PPG and their effect on CV markers and outcomes.Manzella month, randomized, cross-over, parallel-group study. Investigators blinded to treatment. Repaglinide 1 mg BID. Glyburide 5 mg bid. The main beneficial effect seems to be mediated by Nitric oxide as this beneficial effect was blocked by NO inhibitors, l-NMMA Note: Greater FPG lowering with repaglinide - the changes in endothelial function may be due to glucose loweringEsposito type 2 drug-naïve RPG n=88, glyburide n=87. A multivariate analysis was performed with CIMT as the dependent variable and FPG, glucose peaks, A1C, IL-6, IL-18, and CRP were the independent variables. The model explained 60% variability in the change of CIMT with changes in glucose peak (28% p=0.002). Context to CIMT changes: DCCT/EDIC N Engl J Med 2003; 358: 23. mean progression of intima-media thickness was significantly less in the intensive therapy between year 6 and year one vs. conventional therapy: vs (difference 0.014mm) p=0.01; REGRESS Pravastatin 40 mg/day: mm/year vs. placebo ( p=0.0085) mean change after 2 years, combined mean intima media thickness of femoral and carotid arteries; Statin studies also showed a reduction in coronary events by 20-40%. Esposito also included patients (8% of total) who were on statins. This study did not look at postprandial lipidsHanefeld 2004 Meta-analysis of 7, randomized, placebo-controlled studies in type 2 DM patients randomized to acarbose (n=1248) or placebo (n=932) over > 1 year. Acarbose reduced RR: Myocardial infarction 64% (p=0.012); Any CV event 35% (p=0.0061); These CV benefits are in addition to risk reduction by concomitant CV therapy. Note: data from published information as well as Bayer databaseChiasson Patients with IGT randomized to placebo (n=715) or acarbose 100 mg TID (n=714). Multicentre, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial followed up for a mean of 3.3 (SD 1.2) years. 49% relative risk reduction in CV events; hazard ratio [HR] 0.51; 95% CI % relative risk reduction in new cases of hypertension HR 0.66; 95% Confidence interval , p= Notes: 24% discontinued prematurely; 19% discontinued due to adverse effects (GI); studied in IGT not diabetes; 49% relative risk reduction corresponded to 2.5% absolute risk reduction. The absolute numbers of events is 12 cases of MI in placebo group and 1 case in the acarbose group1. Chiasson et al. JAMA 2003; 290: Hanefeld M, et al. Eur Heart J 2004;25(1): Esposito K et al. Circulation 2004; Manzella D et al. Diabetes Care 2005; 28(2): 366.
34Sites of Action of Currently Available Therapeutic Options LIVERMUSCLEADIPOSE TISSUEPANCREASGLUCOSE PRODUCTIONBiguanidesThiazolidinedionesPERIPHERALGLUCOSE UPTAKEThiazolidinediones(Biguanides)Sites of Action o f Currently Available Therapeutic OptionsThe major metabolic defects in type 2 diabetes that lead to glucose elevation are: decreased glucose transport and utilization in muscle and adipose tissue, increased glucose production by the liver, and decreased insulin secretion by the pancreas.Sulfonylureas and meglitinides (repaglinide) treat hyperglycemia by stimulating pancreatic insulin secretion.1 Administration of insulin is also a choice to increase circulating insulin levels in response to a failing beta-cell function. Biguanides increase the sensitivity of the liver to circulating insulin, thereby helping to reduce the level of excess glucose produced by that organ.2 Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) are PPAR- activators, which act at a number of sites to lower blood glucose levels.2,3 They also improve hepatic insulin sensitivity, thereby decreasing the excess glucose production by the liver. TZDs are more commonly recognized for their action in increasing insulin sensitivity in muscle and adipose tissue peripherally. This improves the utilization of glucose by these organs. Biguanides, in high doses, also have some mild effect on increasing peripheral glucose utilization. To decrease the rapid influx of carbohydrate from ingested food, alpha-glucosidase inhibitors are used to slow the digestion of starches and the absorption of glucose.2References: 1. Meltzer S, et al clinical practice guidelines for the management of diabetes in Canada. CMAJ 1998;159(Suppl):S Sheen AJ. Drug treatment of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in the 1990s. Drugs 1997;54: Sonnenberg GE, Kotchen TA. New therapeutic approaches to reversing insulin resistance. Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens 1998; 7:551-5.INSULIN SECRETIONSulfonylureasMeglitinidesInsulinINTESTINEGLUCOSE ABSORPTIONAlpha-glucosidase inhibitorsSonnenberg, Kotchen Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens 1998;7:551-5.
35Combination Antihyperglycemic Therapy Addition, rather than substitution recommendedAgents from other classes should be addedDiff sites of actionDiff MOACombination Antihyperglycemic TherapyIn general, when monotherapy is failing, addition and not substitution of another oral agent is usually required to improve metabolic control.1,2 Selecting an agent of a different class is recommended.Sulfonylurea and metformin: proven effective, this combination tends to be one of the most potent in terms of lowering glycosylated hemoglobin concentrations. Metformin will blunt the weight gain associated with a sulfonylureaSulfonylurea and acarbose: Used together these agents can reduce both fasting and postprandial glucose values. Acarbose will also blunt the weight gain.Metformin and acarbose: have been used together successfully without excessive GI side effects. Metformin significantly affects FBG values and acarbose will reduce postprandial values. These agents do not cause weight gain when used alone or in combination.Sulfonylurea, metformin and acarbose: This combination has been used in clinical practice in Europe. The mechanisms of action compliment each other to improve glucose control and avoid exogenous insulin therapy.Thiazolidinediones have been investigated in several combinations, which will be discussed later in the presentation.References: 1. Edelman SV. Type II diabetes mellitus. Adv Intern Med 1998;43: Meltzer S, et al clinical practice guidelines for the management of diabetes in Canada. CMAJ 1998;159(Suppl):S1-S29.
36Timeline for Therapy in Type 2 Diabetes Metformin/ThiazolidinedionesLifestyleInsulinSecretagoguesIGTDiabetesFasting Blood GlucosePostprandial Blood GlucoseInsulin ResistanceEndogenous InsulinAvg Dx6.5 yrsNormal Blood GlucoseNormal InsulinExplain each component (line) as it is animated.Type 2 diabetes begins with insulin resistance (impaired glucose tolerance), which is linked to macrovascular disease.Beta cell function accelerates to compensate, however, it eventually begins to deteriorate, resulting in insulin deficiency and elevated glucose.In response to deteriorating beta cell function and subsequent loss of first-phase insulin response, postprandial glucose increases, which is associated with the initiation of macrovascular complications.While fasting glucose levels remain normal during the initial stages of this cycle. They eventually rise, initiating the development of microvascular complications.Main Message(s)While physicians often look at fasting glucose as an indication of control, we can see that the postprandial glucose is the initial driver of hyperglycemia and microvascular complications.Because beta cell deterioration is progressive and persistent, all patients who live long enough will eventually need insulin therapy.With the increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes among younger adults, we will see many patients living with diabetes for many years.YearsModified from graphic developed by the IDC
37Canadian Diabetes Association 2003 Clinical Practice Guidelinesfor the Prevention and Managementof Diabetes in Canada
38Individualized Treatment Metformin for overweight patientsIf control not achieved add another agentIf A1c >9 start with 2 agentsConsider early insulin for hyperglycemiaBedtime intermediate insulin (NPH)
39Pharmacotherapy Treat the Predominant problem Each Drug will lower A1c 1-1.5% (Acarbose & Orlistat 0-5%)Start with Metformin in Obese or High FBSCombination therapy if A1c >9%Early Insulin if decompensatedConsider TZD
40antihyperglycemic agent Clinical assessment and initiation of nutrition and physical activityMild to moderate hyperglycemia (A1C <9.0%)Marked hyperglycemia (A1C 9.0%)Overweight(BMI 25 kg/m2)Non-overweight(BMI 25 kg/m2)2 antihyperglycemic agentsfrom different classes †Basal and/orpreprandial insulinbiguanideinsulin sensitizer*insulin secretagogueinsulinalpha-glucosidaseinhibitorL I F E S T Y L EBiguanide alone or incombination with 1 of:1 or 2† antihyperglycemicagents from differentclassesinsulin sensitizer*insulin secretagogueinsulinalpha-glucosidaseinhibitorbiguanideinsulin sensitizer*insulin secretagogueinsulinalpha-glucosidaseinhibitorIf not at targetIf not at targetIf not at targetIf not at targetAdd a drug from a different classorUse insulin alone or in combination with:Add an oralantihyperglycemic agentfrom a differentclass of insulin*Intensify insulinregimen or addbiguanideinsulin secretagogueinsulin sensitizer*alpha-glucosidase inhibitorbiguanideinsulinsecretagogue**insulin sensitizer*alpha-glucosidaseinhibitorTimely adjustments to and/or additions of oral antihyperglycemic agentsand/or insulin should be made to attain target A1C within 6 to 12 months
41L I F E S T Y L E Biguanide alone or in combination with 1 of: Mild to moderate hyperglycemia (A1C <9.0%)Overweight (BMI 25 kg/m2)Biguanide alone or in combination with 1 of:insulin sensitizer*insulin secretagogueinsulinalpha-glucosidase inhibitorIf not at targetL I F E S T Y L EAdd a drug from a different classorUse insulin alone or in combination with:biguanideinsulin secretagogueinsulin sensitizer*alpha-glucosidase inhibitorTimely adjustments to and/or additions of oral antihyperglycemic agentsand/or insulin should be made to attain target A1C within 6 to 12 months* When used in combination with insulin, insulin sensitizers may increase the risk of edema or CHF. The combination of an insulin sensitizer and insulin iscurrently not an approved indication in Canada.
42Expected A1C Lowering with Oral Monotherapy MetforminRepaglinide*#Sensitizers (pioglitazone, rosiglitazone)Sulfonylureas# (glyburide, gliclazide, glimepiride)1 – 1.5 %Acarbose*Nateglinide*#Orlistat0.5 – 0.8 %#oral insulin secretagogue *targets PPGAdapted from Table 1. CDA 2003 Clinical Practice Guidelines, Can J Diabetes 2003; 27(Suppl 2): S38.
43Insulin Secretagogues: Mechanisms of Action TreatmentInsulin Secretagogues: Mechanisms of Action1. Intestine: glucose absorption2. Muscle and adipose tissue: glucose uptakeInsulin resistanceBlood glucose4. Liver: hepatic glucose outputThe main mechanism by which the insulin secretagogues exert their therapeutic effect is to increase insulin production by stimulating the beta-cells of the pancreas in a similar way to glucose itself.3. Pancreas:Insulin secretion Sulfonylureas insulin secretionInsulin resistanceLebovitz HE. Joslin’s Diabetes Mellitus, Ch. 29,
44Antihyperglycemic Agents AcarboseNateglinide RepaglinideRapid-acting insulin analoguesPostprandial hyperglycemia12.510.0glucose (mmol/l)7.55.0MetforminSulfonylureas TZD’sBasal insulinIn order to achieve overall glycemic control, it is important to target both FPG and PPG. Pharmacological agents that target PPG more specifically are highlighted in red.Graph adapted from Riddle MC. Evening insulin strategy. Diabetes Care. 1990;13:The 24-hour plasma glycemic pattern typical of healthy individuals is indicated by the lower border of the blue area, and that of patients with mild type 2 diabetes is indicated by the upper border of the red area. The red area shows the part of the glycemic abnormality of diabetes accounted for by excessive postprandial hyperglycemia related to meals, while the blue area shows the part due to elevated basal glycemia.Basal hyperglycemia06001200180024000600hoursAdapted from Riddle et al. Diabetes Care. 1990;13:
45Attributes of Meglitinides Gluconorm (repaglinide) Starlix (nateglinide) Increases early-phase insulin releasePhysiologic response to meals (rapid onset and elimination)Significant improvement in key blood glucose parameters (PPG, FPG, and HbA1c)Low risk of hypoglycemiaWeight neutralSlide 43Speaker notes:GlucoNorm, the first of a new class of insulin secretagogues called meglitinides, works by increasing early insulin release. This is an important advantage for the control of PPG.Its rapid onset of action and elimination mimics the normal physiologic response to meals. Because its dosing is coupled to meals, it is compatible with variations in lifestyle.Key studies have shown that GlucoNorm significantly improves PPG, FPG and HbA1c.This agent is not associated with significant weight gain, and offers a lower risk of severe hypoglycemia than sulfonylureas—an attractive safety feature if a meal is missed, delayed or decreased in size.Finally, it should be noted that meglitinides such as GlucoNorm do not actually inhibit insulin synthesis. These compounds have minimal interaction with cardiac and smooth muscle potassium ATPase channels.
46Hypoglycemia: Why is it Important? Annually, about % of patients on oral agents have hypoglycemiaUnder-recognized and under-reportedSubstantial impact:Social embarrassmentEmotional toll – “found dead in bed”Work restrictions (e.g. operating machinery)Devastating to elderly patientsSlide 21Speaker notes:The information in the next few slides is based on the Canadian Diabetes Association’s upcoming guidelines on hypoglycemia.It has been estimated that each year, perhaps 5-20% of patients taking oral anti-hyperglycemic medications will experience a hypoglycemic episode. This is likely to be an underestimate, given that the condition is under-recognized and under-reported.Hypoglycemia has a huge social, occupational and emotional impact; it can be devastating to frail elderly patients.
47Adding Repaglinide to Restore Mealtime Insulin Secretion If A1C ≥8%1 mg or mgwith mealsIf repaglinide is 1st line or A1C <8%, start 0.5 mg with mealsDouble the dose every week until target achievedMaximum mealtime dose (4mg); Maximum daily dose (16mg)Mealtime dosing of repaglinide is simple; one meal, one dose. No meal, no dose. Adding repaglinide to metformin at mealtime or to rosiglitazone is convenient and easy to remember.REFERENCE:1. GlucoNorm® Product Monograph, Novo Nordisk Canada Inc., 2005.GlucoNorm® Product Monograph, Novo Nordisk Canada Inc., 2005.
48Basal/Bolus Treatment Program with Rapid-acting and Long-acting Analogs BreakfastLunchDinnerAspart Aspart AspartorororLispro Lispro LisproPlasma insulinGlargineorDetemir4:008:0012:0016:0020:0024:004:008:00Time