Conversion of food into nutrients: Recipe Calculation Nazma Shaheen, PhD Institute of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Dhaka.

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Conversion of food into nutrients: Recipe Calculation Nazma Shaheen, PhD Institute of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Dhaka

Steps for recipe calculations Collect recipes Decide on recipe calculation system Enter all necessary NVs of all ingredients into your system Run calculation programme Document

Yield and retention factors Yield factor (YF): % weight change in foods or recipes due to cooking. Nutrient retention factor (RF): % retention of nutrients, especially vitamins and minerals, in food or dish after, e.g. storage, preparation, processing, warm holding or reheating. Edible coefficient (ED): % weight loss when discarding inedible weight from a food Published ED, RFs and YF not available for all foods. Best to measure ED and YF

Recipe calculation systems 1. Summing of raw ingredients (not recommended) 2. Ingredient method 3. Total recipe method 4. Mixed method (yield at recipe level and nutrient retention at ingredient level)

Ingredient method Sum weight of each ingredient as in consumed recipe (edible, yield and retention factors applied at ingredient level) The nutrient values of the recipe will be calculated based on the weight of the relative proportion of each ingredient Check that yield factors are applied to fluids

Advantages need to know weight loss at ingredient level (what is also needed to calculate value of cooked food) no need to decide to which category recipe belongs unequal weight loss of ingredients taken into account Disadvantages only estimated weight loss of recipe (not measured for whole recipe)

Total recipe method Sum weight of each raw ingredient as in recipe Measure fat and water change Apply yield and retention factors at recipe level based on food group of main ingredient

Total recipe method Advantages weight loss is measured, therefore more precise Disadvantages more measurements needed need to decide to which category recipe belongs unequal weight loss of ingredients not taken into account

Calculation methods for recipes Ingredient Method Ingredient 1: NV x 1/YF x RF Ingredient 2: NV x 1/YF x RF Ingredient 3: NV x 1/YF x RF ------------------------------------------ Recipe: Sum of above Recipe Method Ingredient 1: NV Ingredient 2: NV Ingredient 3: NV ---------------------------------------------- Recipe: Sum of above x 1/YF x RF Mixed Method Ingredient 1: NV x RF Ingredient 2: NV x RF Ingredient 3: NV x RF ---------------------------------------- Recipe: Sum of above x 1/YF

Cooked foods are single ingredient recipes to calcualte NVs of cooked foods based on same food (raw or other cooked method) Concept: - NV of raw/cooked food derived from national FCT - apply yield factor linked to a specific cooking method (weight loss can be water and/or fat). - apply retention factors - for fatty meat and poultry (> 5% fat in raw food) used as foods, a fat loss (FL) coefficient will be applied as fat is leaking out of the food

Steps for recipe calculation Select or develop appropriate recipe Collect the weight and nutrient content data for each ingredient Correct the ingredient nutrient levels for weight of edible portions where appropriate Correct the ingredients for the effects of cooking either - if data for the cooked ingredients are not available, use yield factors to adjust from raw to cooked weight;

Cont………. or If data for the cooked ingredients are not available, use data for the uncooked ingredients and apply yield factors to adjust for weight changes and retention factors for nutrient losses or gains during cooking Sum the weight of the ingredients to obtain the weight of the recipe Sum the nutrient values of the ingredients to obtain the nutrient value of the recipe Adjust the recipe weight and nutrient levels to reflect changes in fat/water contents when the whole mixture is

Cont………. cooked; make any additional refuse adjustments; apply retention factors if available for the whole recipe. Determine the quantity of prepared food produced by the recipe. Determine the final values per weight (e.g. per 100g), volume(e.g. per cup) or serving portion, as described

Recipe Calculation Systems 1. Ingredient Method Sum weight of each ingredient as in consumed recipe ( edible, yield, retention factors applied at ingredient level). The nutrient values of the recipe will be calculated based on the weight of the relative proportion of each ingredient Check that yield factors are applied to fluids

Example for Ingredient method of recipe calculation Chicken Curry 200g raw chicken meat n.s.[xEDxRC]=138g curry chicken meat without inedible 200g Potato[xEdx RC]=132.72g curry potato without inedible 200g water[xRc]= 100g water left in cooked recipe Total weight: 371 g total recipe weight as consumed For 100g recipe : 371/3.71 => (138/3.71g+132.7/3.71g+100/3.71g) Vitamin Mineral Loss(VML) are applied at recipe level

Recipe calculation Systems 2.Total recipe method Sum weight of each raw ingredient as in recipe Measure water & fat change Apply yield & retention factors at recipe level based on food group of main ingredient

Example for Total recipe method Chicken Curry 200g raw chicken meat 200g raw potato 200g water Total: 600g raw recipe weight=> 400g cooked recipe weight Nutrients of raw ingredients For 100g recipe = --------------------------------- x 100 Weight of cooked recipe Vitamin Mineral Loss(VML) are applied at recipe level

Exercise Calculate the nutrient content of Pishpash Ingredients Vegetable oil 14g Rice 28g Cumin 1g Lentil 28g Turmeric 0.5g Potato 10g Onion 10g Carrot 10g Salt 2g Spinach 5g Water 350ml Potato, Carrots, Onion and Spinach are sliced into small pieces & then is mixed with all the other ingredients. Water is then added and allowed to cook till the grains and vegetables are very soft & semi solid. Weight of cooked pishpash = 120g

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