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Communication Basics The Essentials of Speaking and Listening.

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Presentation on theme: "Communication Basics The Essentials of Speaking and Listening."— Presentation transcript:

1 Communication Basics The Essentials of Speaking and Listening

2 Todays Objectives: Define communication Look at the processes of communication Learn the difference between conversation and public speaking Learn what is the ethical responsibility of a speaker and a listener Discuss how to listen effectively

3 Communication Basis of all we do. The communication process is made up of several elements.

4 THE COMMUNICATION PROCESS OPEN YOUR BOOKS TO PAGE 4 TO VIEW THE COMMUNICATION PROCESS MODEL. Knowing this model is important in understanding communication.


6 The Process (Steps) of Communication A. Speaker/sender B. Listener/receiver C. Message D. Channel E. Interferences F. Situation G. Feedback

7 Benefits of a Public Speaking Class As you organize your speech, your ideas will become more clear and cohesive. As you work on expressing your ideas accurately, your thinking will become more precise. As you learn about the role of reasoning and evidence in speeches, you will become better able to assess reasoning and evidence types of situations.

8 Speaker Speech communication begins with the speaker. The speaker is the person who presents the message. Successful speakers combine technical skill with personal enthusiasm.

9 Message Whatever a speaker communicates to someone. Goal of speaker is to have intended message be the message that is automatically communicated. Achieving this depends on what the speaker says (the verbal message) and how the speaker says it (the nonverbal message).

10 Channel The means by which a message is communicated. Public speakers may use one or more of several channels – microphone, radio, tv… In speech class, the channel is the most direct because listeners see and hear the speaker without any media or electronic devices.

11 Listener Receives the communicated message. Everything a speaker says is filtered through a listeners frame of reference. A listeners frame of reference is the sum total of his or her knowledge, experience, goals, values, and attitudes. Because a speaker and listener are different people, the can never have the exact same frame of reference. Because people have different frames of reference, a public speaker must take care to adapt the message to the particular audience being addressed.

12 Feedback Consists of messages sent from the listener to the speaker. Most communication situations involve two- way communication, in which the speaker can see how the audience is responding. Successful public speakers learn to interpret the feedback sent by listeners and to adjust their messages in response to the feedback.

13 Interference Anything that impedes the communication process. External or internal External – comes from outside the audience (ringing phone, noise of traffic, static in mic) Internal – comes from within the audience (poor listening skills or lack of concentration) Good speakers work to hold an audiences attention despite interference.

14 Situation Time and place in which speech communication occurs. Speech communication always takes place in a particular situation. Ex: Conversation – candlelight dinner or noisy restaurant A public speech may be presented in a small classroom, large auditorium, or outdoor ceremony. Successful speakers are alert to the situation and adjust their remarks to it.

15 Conversation vs. Public Speaking Share similar goals 1. Inform 2.Persuade 3.Entertain * Require similar skills – organize thoughts, tailored message to an audience, tell a story for impact, adapt to feedback, etc.

16 Differences between conversation and public speaking Public speaking is more highly structured (time limits, listeners dont interrupt) Public speaking requires more formal language Public speaking requires different methods of delivery (conversation has vocalized pauses) (public speaking avoids mannerisms that distract)

17 Ethical Responsibility of Speaker Goals should be ethically sound Be honest in what is said: Listeners wont trust a speaker who lies. Avoid name-calling or abusive language Should be fully prepared for each speech – Unprepared speakers waste the time of the audience. – Unprepared speakers may give wrong or faulty information to listeners.

18 Ethical Principles in Practice Plagiarism – giving a speech of someone elses ideas A. Global – taking an entire speech B. Patchwork – patches a speech together from 2-3 sources. C. Incremental – not giving credit for specific parts borrowed from others. (Do your own work and acknowledge your sources!)

19 Ethical Obligations of Listeners Be courteous and attentive Avoid prejudging the speaker Maintain a free and open expression of ideas

20 TODAY Weve… Defined communication Put it into perspective through the model of communication Looked at the differences between conversation and public speaking as well as the responsibility of both speakers and listeners..

21 SOURCE A Pocket Guide to Public Speaking 2 nd ed. By Dan OHair, Hannah Rubenstein, and Rob Stewart

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