Presentation on theme: "Digital World, Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI) and a Need for Digital Learners Amin Dehghan Azad University of Khorasgan Ahmad Reza Lotfi Azad University."— Presentation transcript:
Digital World, Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI) and a Need for Digital Learners Amin Dehghan Azad University of Khorasgan Ahmad Reza Lotfi Azad University of Khorasgan Hamideh Dehghan Alzahra University
Overview Technology and L2 Reading Instruction Statement of the Problem The Importance of Reading on Screen The Emergence of Digital Assessments Digital Assessments (Merits) Participants and Procedure Results at a Glance Results and Discussion Conclusion
Technology and L2 Reading Instruction Computers provide immediate individual feedback 1 Computers allow students to control the pace and learning 2 Computers relieve teachers from some of the burden 3 Computers strengthen students motivation 4 Computers give students more opportunities to learn independently 5
Statement of the Problem Iranian EFL learners are not fully prepared to accept and use the new technologies such as efficient use of software. Computerized tests seem to need more practice on computer. Traditional instruction in the third millennium in which mobility, time, and accessibility are of great importance would not suffice and can not be considered as the only way of instruction. According to Educational Testing Service (ETS), Test and Score Data Summary for TOEFL® Internet-Based Test (2007), 2,937 Iranians have taken TOEFL iBT between the years 2005 to 2006. It is worth noting that their mean in reading comprehension skill is 18 out of 30, which is the lowest mean among the other skills.
The Importance of Reading on Screen According to Wilson and Landont (2002), Electronic texts are playing an increasing role in education, and teaching and learning are moving in the direction of digital formats. As a result, students are reading more from screen. Yet, many of these students find reading on screen more difficult than reading on paper, even in their native language (O'Hara & Sellen, 1997 cited in Schcolnik and Kol, 2006).
The Emergence of Digital Assessments In the fall of 2005, Next Generation TOEFL, also known as the internet-Based TOEFL (iBT), was implemented in certain regions of the world. Changing the mode of delivery of a standardized test such as the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) from a paper-and-pencil format to a computerized format brings with it both "promises and threats" (Canale, 1986).
Digital Assessments More organized assessment New item type questions Use of pictures and graphics Immediate feedback Flexible scheduling MeritsMerits Faster score reports
Participants and Procedure 31 Male Iranian Advanced Learners of English Received 16 sessions of TOEFL iBT reading comprehension instruction based on paper and pencil (Traditional) 33 Male Iranian Advanced Learners of English Provided with electronic materials (the same as CAI group) for TOEFL iBT reading comprehension (No instructor) 18 Male Iranian Advanced Learners of English Received 16 sessions of TOEFL iBT reading comprehension instruction through Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI) Traditional Group Traditional Group CAI Group Independent Group Independent Group
Results and Discussion The result of instruction was significant (p<.05) in two groups (Traditional and CAI groups). CAI outperformed the two other groups significantly. Independent group scores did not change significantly.
Results and Discussion CAI seems vital for computerized test takers. Reading on screen familiarity is essential. New item type questions demand training on computer. Iranian English learners are not able to learn independently and a need for instruction seems imperative.
Conclusion Sooner or later, paper and pencil assessments will be replaced by digital, computerized assessments. Computer- assisted instruction is indispensable for such assessments. Iranian EFL Learners need computer- assisted instruction to cope with the new technologies in EFL/ESL instruction and assessment. The role of teacher is significant in any types of instruction for Iranian EFL learners.