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Closed-Loop System

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**Closed-Loop Control System**

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**Amplifier with Feedback**

Open-Loop Amplifier Amplifier with Feedback

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**Block diagram model of feedback amplifier assuming Rp>>R0 of the amplifier.**

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**Transient Response of Control Systems**

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**Open-loop speed control system (without feedback).**

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**Closed-loop speed control system.**

(b) Transistorized closed-loop speed control system.

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The response of the open-loop and closed-loop speed control system when τ 5 10 and K1. Ka. Kt =100. The time to reach 98% of the final value for the open-loop and closed- loop system is 40 seconds and 0.4 second,respectively.

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**Disturbance in Feedback Control System**

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Steel rolling mill.

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**Open-loop speed control system (without external feedback).**

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**Closed-loop speed tachometer control system**

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**Closed-loop system. (a) Block diagram model.**

(b) Signal-flow graph model.

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**Closed-loop control system with measurement noise.**

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**A block diagram model of a boring machine control system**

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**The response y(t) to (a) a unit input step r(t) and **

(b) a unit disturbance step input D(s) 5 1/s for K=100.

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The response y(t) for a unit step input (solid line) and for a unit step disturbance (dashed line) for K=20.

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The solar-powered Mars rover,named Sojourner,landed on Mars on July 4,1997 andwas deployed on its journey on July 5,1997. The 23-pound rover is controlled by anoperator on Earth using controls on the rover [21,22]. (Photo courtesy of NASA.)

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Control system for rover; (a) open-loop (without feedback) and (b) closed-loop with feedback. The input is R(s)=1/s.

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**The magnitude of the sensitivity of the closed-loop system for the Mars rover vehicle.**

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**Control system for disk drive head reader.**

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**Disk drive head control system with the typical parameters of Table 2**

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Closed-loop response. MATLABscript. (b) Step response for Ka=10 and Ka=80.

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**Disturbance step response. (a) MATLABscript. **

(b) Disturbance response for Ka=80.

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**A single-loop feedback control system. **

(b) The error response for a unit step disturbance when R(s) 0

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