Presentation on theme: "Feedback Mechanisms Response to Environmental Changes."— Presentation transcript:
Feedback Mechanisms Response to Environmental Changes
Dynamic Homeostasis Living things maintain stable internal conditions Examples in humans: Temperature pH Solute concentrations (Ca, Fe, Salt, Glucose etc.) Heart rate/blood pressure/Breathing rates Oxygen/CO 2 concentrations
Feedback Mechanisms Responses to environment to maintain homeostasis
Negative Feedback Return body to normal conditions I.e. when its hot, we cool ourselves down When its cold, we heat ourselves up
Negative Feedback - Hot It is warm out You sweat Sweat evaporates, removing heat You are more lethargic Blood flows to your skin to release heat You cool down!
Negative Feedback - Cold It is cold, you are losing heat You shiver/shake to generate heat Your body goes through cellular respiration to convert sugar/fat heat Your blood is diverted from the skin You stop losing heat
Body Example: Glucose Your blood sugar level is extremely important High blood sugar levels long term cause cell/organ damage Low blood sugar leads to fatigue, impaired functioning, fainting, brain damage etc.
Pancreatic Regulation Insulin Hormone that causes cells to take in glucose Lowers blood glucose levels Triggered by high blood glucose levels Glucagon Hormone that raises blood sugar levels (breaks down glycogen into glucose) Triggered by low blood sugar
Insulin/Glucagon System Blood sugar high Insulin release Blood sugar low Glucagon release After you eat- more insulin release Between meals – more glucagon release
When Feedback Goes Wrong… Bad things happen!
Type 2 Diabetes Individuals who eat a lot of sugar have very high levels of insulin in the blood Over time cells stop responding to insulin (perhaps an evolutionary mechanism?) Leads to excess sugar in the blood- sugar gets into eye, damages blood vessels, damages kidney etc.
Body Example: Water When you have too much water, you pee it out (ANF) When you need to conserve water anti- diuretic hormone (ADH) is released Concentrates urine, decreases sweating, inhibits water loss, increases water absorption
Positive Feedback Response to the stimulus is amplified i.e. you eat an appetizer, that makes you more hungry so you eat more food
I.e. Birth Contractions start More contractions lead to more release of oxytocin More oxytocin leads to more contractions (more frequent and stronger) Leads to more oxytocin Stronger contractions Birth