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Homeostasis & Immune System Negative Feedback Homeostasis & disease Immune System: Inflammatory response Antibody response Cell mediated response Allergies,

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Presentation on theme: "Homeostasis & Immune System Negative Feedback Homeostasis & disease Immune System: Inflammatory response Antibody response Cell mediated response Allergies,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Homeostasis & Immune System Negative Feedback Homeostasis & disease Immune System: Inflammatory response Antibody response Cell mediated response Allergies, AIDS, vaccination, antibiotics Objective: Understand How a Negative Feedback Mechanism Works Key Words: Homeostasis, Feedback, Mechanism, Thermostat

2 1.Temperature _______ outdoors. 2. Thermometer registers temperature decrease inside 3. Thermostat ____ the furnace for ____ 4. Furnace generates _____ 5. Temperature ______ inside 6. Temperature _______ the thermostat setting 7. Thermostat ________ the furnace for heat 8. Furnace _____ generating heat 9. Temperature _______ inside 1.Temperature decreases outdoors. 2. Thermometer registers temperature decrease inside 3. Thermostat calls the furnace for heat 4. Furnace generates heat 5. Temperature increases inside 6. Temperature reaches the thermostat setting 7. Thermostat does not call the furnace for heat 8. Furnace stops generating heat 9. Temperature decreases inside Do Now: It is winter and the temperature in your classroom has dropped to 60ºF, low below 70ºF to which the thermostat is set. The electrician advised you that the thermostat was not working. Explain how does the thermostat work to regulate the temperature of the room Objective: Understand How a Negative Feedback Mechanism Works Key Words: Homeostasis, Feedback, Mechanism, Thermostat

3 1.Temperature __________ outdoors. 2. ________ registers body temperature 3. ________ calls the __________ for heat 4. _________ shiver and generate heat 5. Body temperature ___________ 6. Body temperature reaches the ______ 7. ______ does not call the________ for heat 8. Muscles stop ____________________ 9. Body temperature ________________ decreases Skin Brainmuscles increases setting Brain shivering decreases Muscles muscles Your body´s “thermostat” is set at 98ºF (37ºC). How is this temperature maintained when you are in very hot or cold environment. Objective: Understand How a Negative Feedback Mechanism Works Key Words: Homeostasis, Feedback, Mechanism, Thermostat

4 1.During exercise the CO2 level increases. 2. Heart registers CO2 increase in blood 3. Brain calls the respiratory muscles to speed up 4. Respiration rate increases 5. CO2 level decreases in blood 6. Heart detects CO2 decrease 7. Brain call the respiratory muscles to slow down 8. Respiratory rate decreases 9. CO2 increases in blood Objective: Understand How a Negative Feedback Mechanism Works Key Words: Homeostasis, Feedback, Mechanism

5 How Does Homeostasis Work in Plants? Plants keep their stomata open just enough to allow photosynthesis to take place but not so much that they lose an excessive amount of water. Objective: Understand How a Negative Feedback Mechanism Works Key Words: Homeostasis, Feedback, Mechanism, Stoma, Guard Cells

6 1. Which gases do get into stomata? 2. Which gases do get out from stomata? 3. What requirements does a plant need to carry out photosynthesis? 4. How are leaf pores when plant carries out photosynthesis? Why? 5. How are leaf pores when plant doesn’t carry out photosynthesis? Why? 6. State one problem for plant that would result from a malfunction of its stomata. 7. When the guard cells lose water, the stomata are 8. When the guard cells are swollen with water the stomata are Carbon Dioxide CO2 Oxygen O2, Water Vapor H2O(v) Carbon dioxide, water, and sunlight Leaf pores are open. Guard cells are filled up with water Leaf pores are closed. Guard cells shrink because the lack of water The plant would not carry out photosynthesis and eventually would die closed open Objective: Understand How a Negative Feedback Mechanism Works Key Words: Homeostasis, Feedback, Mechanism, Stoma, Guard Cells How Does Homeostasis Work in Plants?

7 9. How are leaf pores of stomata when the sun is shining and water is available in the soil: 10. How are leaf pores of stomata when photosynthesis is carrying out and the air is warm: 11. Which picture represents how are leaf pores of stomata a) when air is hot and dry: b) when photosynthesis slows down: c) when little water is available from the soil: d) when photosynthesis is active: e) at night: 12. What factor regulates the opening and closing of stomata? 13. Why do plants regulate the opening and closing of their stomata? Which is the function of stomata? open closed open closed The presence of water To control the exchange of gases and the performance of photosynthesis Objective: Understand How a Negative Feedback Mechanism Works Key Words: Homeostasis, Feedback, Mechanism, Stoma How Does Homeostasis Work in Plants?

8 Objective: Understand What a Negative Feedback Look Like Key Words: Homeostasis, Negative Feedback, Insulin, Glucagon, Dynamic Equilibrium

9 1. The role of insulin is 2. The role of glucagon is 3. The line graph is an example of 4. Both, glucagon and insulin, are hormones that work together to To promote the breakdown of glycogen into glucose. To increase the glucose level in blood. To take glucose out of the bloodstream and store it in the liver an muscles. To decrease the glucose level in blood. Homeostasis Negative feedback Dynamic Equilibrium To maintain a constant glucose level in blood Objective: Understand What a Negative Feedback Look Like Key Words: Homeostasis, Negative Feedback, Insulin, Glucagon, Dynamic Equilibrium

10 The results of blood tests for two individuals are shown in the data table below. The blood glucose level before breakfast is normally 80–90 mg/100 mL of blood. A blood glucose level above 110 mg/100 mL of blood indicates a failure in a feedback mechanism. Injection of chemical X, a chemical normally produced in the body, may be required to correct this problem. Objective: Understand What a Negative Feedback Look Like Key Words: Homeostasis, Negative Feedback, Insulin, Glucagon, Dynamic Equilibrium

11 1.State a title for the graph: 2.Identify chemical X. 3. Which individuals will most likely need injections of chemical X? Explain your answer 4.State one reason for the change in blood glucose level between 7:00 a.m. and 8:00 a.m. 5.What term refers to the relatively constant level of blood glucose of individual 1 between 9:00 a.m. and 11:00 a.m.? Homeostasis Dynamic equilibrium. They had breakfast. Insulin Glucose level in blood between 7 am to 11 am Individual #2 because he/she does not produce insulin Objective: Understand What a Negative Feedback Look Like Key Words: Homeostasis, Negative Feedback, Insulin, Glucagon, Dynamic Equilibrium

12 1. How do you explain what a negative feedback is? 2. You are doing some exercise. Explain how your body maintains the balance of CO2 level in blood. 3. Give a few examples of negative feedback in living things A negative feedback is a process that control and maintain stable the vital signs During exercise CO2 level increases in blood. The body speed up the respiration rate in order to release more CO2 and decreases the CO2 level Keeping body temperature near 98 F Balance CO2 level in blood Exchange of gases and photosynthesis in plants Maintenance of glucose level in blood Maintenance of calcium level in blood Objective: Understand What a Negative Feedback Look Like Key Words: Homeostasis, Negative Feedback, Insulin, Glucagon, Dynamic Equilibrium

13 Glucose, glucagon,fat, increase, skeletal muscles, decrease, insulin, liver, For those who ate breakfast or lunch today, blood glucose levels _____________after eating. The pancreas releases ______________. Insulin stimulates cells throughout the body to take ________ out of the bloodstream. Glucose taken out of the circulation is stored in __________ and ____________________, or converted to _______. Within one or two hours after eating, the level of blood glucose ______________ Then, pancreas releases ______________. Glucagon stimulates the cells of the _________ and skeletal muscles to break down complex sugar and increase ____________ levels in the blood. Glucagon also causes fat cells to break down fats so that they can be used for the production of ________________. Fill in the blanks of the following paragraph. Use the words on the list. The same word can be use more than once. increases insulin glucose liverskeletal muscles fat decreases liver glucose glucagon Objective: Understand What a Negative Feedback Look Like Key Words: Homeostasis, Negative Feedback, Insulin, Glucagon, Dynamic Equilibrium

14 When blood calcium levels are too high, the (gland) _________ secretes (hormone) _________. (Hormone) _______________ stimulates calcium deposition in the bones. Therefore, calcium leves in blood (increases /decreases) ______________. If calcium levels drop too low, the (gland) ________________ secretes (hormone) _____________. (Hormone) ________________ stimulates bone cells to release some of the calcium store in bone into the bloodstream. Then, calcium level in blood (increases /decreases) _____________. thyroid calcitonin decreases parathyroid PTH increases Objective: Understand How a Negative Feedback Mechanism Works Key Words: Homeostasis, Feedback, Parathyroid, Thyroid, PTH, Calcitonin

15 1.- What is homeostasis? 2.- What is another word for “homeostasis”? 3.- Why is homeostasis constantly threatened? 4.- Explain how does an organism maintain homeostasis? 5.- As an example of maintaining homeostasis, how do organisms readjust body temperature? 6.- Draw a graph that shows a regular pattern of body temperature. Explain what that graph means related to homeostasis. 7.- Describe what is “dynamic equilibrium”. 8.- What can interfere with homeostasis or dynamic equilibrium? Homeostasis is a state of balance in the body. Dynamic equilibrium Because the organism’s external an internal environment is constantly changing The organism detects changes in the environment and respond with an action that return the organism’s system to normal If temperature is above normal the body sweats, if temperature is below normal the muscles shake The constant small corrections that keep the internal environment within the limits needed for survival Microorganism and diseases Objective: Understand What a Negative Feedback is Key Words: Homeostasis, Feedback, Mechanism, Dynamic Equilibrium

16 Examples of Feedback Mechanisms to Maintain Homeostasis Objective: Understand What a Negative Feedback is Key Words: Homeostasis, Feedback, Mechanism, Dynamic Equilibrium

17 Do Now: List 3 examples of negative feedbacks in living things How our body regulates a steady body temperature How stomata regulate photosynthesis How our body regulates CO2 levels in blood How a thermostat regulates temperature in a building Objective: Understand How a Negative Feedback Mechanism works Key Words: Feedback, Mechanism, Dynamic Equilibrium, Homeostasis

18 Read pages 895 and 896 on the Biology book and answer the questions below. 1.What is homeostasis: 2. The process in which a stimulus produces a response that opposes the original stimulus is referred to as 3. Fill in the missing label in the diagram to show how a thermostat uses feedback inhibition to maintain a stable temperature in a house The process by which organisms keep internal conditions relatively constant despite change in the external environment. Negative feedback Thermostat senses temperature change and switches off heating system Thermostat senses temperature change and switches on heating system Objective: Understand How a Negative Feedback Mechanism works Key Words: Feedback, Mechanism, Dynamic Equilibrium, Homeostasis What Is Homeostasis? Biology, pages 895-896

19 4. Is the following sentence true or false? The part of the brain that monitors and controls body temperature is the hypothalamus. 5. The process of maintaining a controlled, stable internal environment is called 6. What happens if nerve cells sense that the core body temperature has dropped below 37 C? 7. What happens if the body temperature rises too far above 37 C? True Homeostasis or dynamic equilibrium The hypothalamus produces chemicals that signal cells throughout the body to speed up their activities and produce heat The hypothalamus slow down cellular activities, minimizing the production of heat Objective: Understand How a Negative Feedback Mechanism works Key Words: Feedback, Mechanism, Dynamic Equilibrium, Homeostasis


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