Presentation on theme: "Homeostasis & Immune System"— Presentation transcript:
1Homeostasis & Immune System Objective: Understand How a Negative Feedback Mechanism Works Key Words: Homeostasis, Feedback, Mechanism, ThermostatHomeostasis & Immune SystemNegative FeedbackHomeostasis & diseaseImmune System:Inflammatory responseAntibody responseCell mediated responseAllergies, AIDS, vaccination, antibiotics
2Objective: Understand How a Negative Feedback Mechanism Works Key Words: Homeostasis, Feedback, Mechanism, ThermostatDo Now:It is winter and the temperature in your classroom has dropped to 60ºF, low below 70ºF to which thethermostat is set. The electrician advised you that the thermostat was not working.Explain how does the thermostat work to regulatethe temperature of the roomTemperature decreases outdoors.2. Thermometer registers temperaturedecrease inside3. Thermostat calls the furnace for heat4. Furnace generates heat5. Temperature increases inside6. Temperature reaches the thermostatsetting7. Thermostat does not call the furnacefor heat8. Furnace stops generating heat9. Temperature decreases insideTemperature _______ outdoors.2. Thermometer registers temperaturedecrease inside3. Thermostat ____ the furnace for ____4. Furnace generates _____5. Temperature ______ inside6. Temperature _______ the thermostatsetting7. Thermostat ________ the furnacefor heat8. Furnace _____ generating heat9. Temperature _______ inside
3Objective: Understand How a Negative Feedback Mechanism Works Key Words: Homeostasis, Feedback, Mechanism, ThermostatYour body´s “thermostat” is set at 98ºF (37ºC).How is this temperature maintained when you are in very hot or cold environment.Temperature __________ outdoors.2. ________ registers body temperature3. ________ calls the __________ for heat4. _________ shiver and generate heat5. Body temperature ___________6. Body temperature reaches the ______7. ______ does not call the________ for heat8. Muscles stop ____________________9. Body temperature ________________decreasesSkinBrainmusclesMusclesincreasessettingBrainmusclesshiveringdecreases
4Objective: Understand How a Negative Feedback Mechanism Works Key Words: Homeostasis, Feedback, MechanismDuring exercise the CO2 level increases.2. Heart registers CO2 increase in blood3. Brain calls the respiratory muscles to speed up4. Respiration rate increases5. CO2 level decreases in blood6. Heart detects CO2 decrease7. Brain call the respiratory muscles to slow down8. Respiratory rate decreases9. CO2 increases in blood
5How Does Homeostasis Work in Plants? Objective: Understand How a Negative Feedback Mechanism Works Key Words: Homeostasis, Feedback, Mechanism, Stoma, Guard CellsHow Does Homeostasis Work in Plants?Plants keep their stomata open just enough to allow photosynthesis to take place but not so much that they lose an excessive amount of water.
6How Does Homeostasis Work in Plants? Objective: Understand How a Negative Feedback Mechanism Works Key Words: Homeostasis, Feedback, Mechanism, Stoma, Guard CellsHow Does Homeostasis Work in Plants?1. Which gases do get into stomata?2. Which gases do get out from stomata?3. What requirements does a plant need to carry out photosynthesis?4. How are leaf pores when plant carries out photosynthesis? Why?5. How are leaf pores when plant doesn’t carry out photosynthesis? Why?6. State one problem for plant that would result from a malfunction ofits stomata.7. When the guard cells lose water, the stomata are8. When the guard cells are swollen with water the stomata areCarbon Dioxide CO2Oxygen O2, Water Vapor H2O(v)Carbon dioxide, water, and sunlightLeaf pores are open. Guard cells are filled up with waterLeaf pores are closed. Guard cells shrink because the lack of waterThe plant would not carry out photosynthesis and eventually would dieclosedopen
7How Does Homeostasis Work in Plants? Objective: Understand How a Negative Feedback Mechanism Works Key Words: Homeostasis, Feedback, Mechanism, StomaHow Does Homeostasis Work in Plants?9. How are leaf pores of stomata when the sun is shining and water is available in the soil:10. How are leaf pores of stomata when photosynthesis is carrying out and the air is warm:11. Which picture represents how are leaf pores of stomataa) when air is hot and dry:b) when photosynthesis slows down:c) when little water is available from the soil:d) when photosynthesis is active:e) at night:12. What factor regulates the opening and closing of stomata?13. Why do plants regulate the opening and closing of their stomata? Which is the function of stomata?openopenclosedclosedopenopenclosedThe presence of waterTo control the exchange of gases and the performance of photosynthesis
8Objective: Understand What a Negative Feedback Look Like Key Words: Homeostasis, Negative Feedback, Insulin, Glucagon, Dynamic Equilibrium
9Objective: Understand What a Negative Feedback Look Like Key Words: Homeostasis, Negative Feedback, Insulin, Glucagon, Dynamic Equilibrium 1. The role of insulin is2. The role of glucagon is 3. The line graph is an example of 4. Both, glucagon and insulin, are hormones that work together toTo take glucose out of the bloodstream and store it in the liver an muscles.To decrease the glucose level in blood.To promote the breakdown of glycogen into glucose.To increase the glucose level in blood.HomeostasisNegative feedbackDynamic EquilibriumTo maintain a constant glucose level in blood
10Objective: Understand What a Negative Feedback Look Like Key Words: Homeostasis, Negative Feedback, Insulin, Glucagon, Dynamic EquilibriumThe results of blood tests for two individuals are shown in the data table below. The blood glucose level before breakfast is normally 80–90 mg/100 mL of blood. A blood glucose level above 110 mg/100 mL of blood indicates a failure in a feedback mechanism.Injection of chemical X, a chemical normally produced in the body, may be required to correct this problem.
11Objective: Understand What a Negative Feedback Look Like Key Words: Homeostasis, Negative Feedback, Insulin, Glucagon, Dynamic EquilibriumState a title for the graph:Identify chemical X.Which individuals will most likely need injections of chemical X?Explain your answerState one reason for the change in blood glucose level between 7:00 a.m. and 8:00 a.m.What term refers to the relatively constant level of blood glucose of individual 1 between 9:00 a.m. and 11:00 a.m.?Glucose level in blood between 7 am to 11 amInsulinIndividual #2 because he/she does not produce insulinThey had breakfast.HomeostasisDynamic equilibrium.
12Objective: Understand What a Negative Feedback Look Like Key Words: Homeostasis, Negative Feedback, Insulin, Glucagon, Dynamic Equilibrium1. How do you explain what a negative feedback is?2. You are doing some exercise. Explain how your body maintains the balance ofCO2 level in blood.3. Give a few examples of negative feedback in living thingsA negative feedback is a process that control and maintain stable the vital signsDuring exercise CO2 level increases in blood. The body speed up the respiration rate in order to release more CO2 and decreases the CO2 levelKeeping body temperature near 98 FBalance CO2 level in bloodExchange of gases and photosynthesis in plantsMaintenance of glucose level in bloodMaintenance of calcium level in blood
13Objective: Understand What a Negative Feedback Look Like Key Words: Homeostasis, Negative Feedback, Insulin, Glucagon, Dynamic EquilibriumFill in the blanks of the following paragraph. Use the words on the list. The same word can be use more than once. Glucose, glucagon ,fat, increase, skeletal muscles, decrease, insulin, liver,For those who ate breakfast or lunch today, blood glucose levels _____________after eating.The pancreas releases ______________.Insulin stimulates cells throughout the body to take ________ out of the bloodstream.Glucose taken out of the circulation is stored in __________ and ____________________, or converted to _______.Within one or two hours after eating, the level of blood glucose ______________Then, pancreas releases ______________.Glucagon stimulates the cells of the _________ and skeletal muscles to break down complex sugar and increase ____________ levels in the blood.Glucagon also causes fat cells to break down fats so that they can be used for the production of ________________.increasesinsulinglucoseliverskeletal musclesfatdecreasesglucagonliverglucoseglucose
14Objective: Understand How a Negative Feedback Mechanism Works Key Words: Homeostasis, Feedback, Parathyroid, Thyroid, PTH, CalcitoninWhen blood calcium levels are too high, the (gland) _________ secretes (hormone) _________.(Hormone) _______________ stimulates calcium deposition in the bones. Therefore, calcium leves in blood (increases /decreases) ______________.If calcium levels drop too low, the (gland) ________________ secretes (hormone) _____________.(Hormone) ________________ stimulates bone cells to release some of the calcium store in bone into the bloodstream.Then, calcium level in blood (increases /decreases) _____________.thyroidcalcitonincalcitonindecreasesparathyroidPTHPTHincreases
15Objective: Understand What a Negative Feedback is Key Words: Homeostasis, Feedback, Mechanism, Dynamic Equilibrium1.- What is homeostasis?2.- What is another word for “homeostasis”? 3.- Why is homeostasis constantly threatened?4.- Explain how does an organism maintain homeostasis?5.- As an example of maintaining homeostasis, how do organisms readjust body temperature?6.- Draw a graph that shows a regular pattern of body temperature. Explain what that graph means related to homeostasis.7.- Describe what is “dynamic equilibrium”.8.- What can interfere with homeostasis or dynamic equilibrium?Homeostasis is a state of balance in the body.Dynamic equilibriumBecause the organism’s external an internal environment is constantly changingThe organism detects changes in the environment and respond with an actionthat return the organism’s system to normalIf temperature is above normal the body sweats,if temperature is below normal the muscles shakeThe constant small corrections that keep the internal environment within the limits needed for survivalMicroorganism and diseases
16Examples of Feedback Mechanisms to Maintain Homeostasis Objective: Understand What a Negative Feedback is Key Words: Homeostasis, Feedback, Mechanism, Dynamic EquilibriumExamples of Feedback Mechanisms to Maintain Homeostasis
17List 3 examples of negative feedbacks in living things Objective: Understand How a Negative Feedback Mechanism works Key Words: Feedback, Mechanism, Dynamic Equilibrium, HomeostasisDo Now:List 3 examples of negative feedbacks in living thingsHow stomata regulate photosynthesisHow our body regulates CO2 levels in bloodHow our body regulates a steady body temperatureHow a thermostat regulates temperature in a building
18What Is Homeostasis? Biology, pages 895-896 Objective: Understand How a Negative Feedback Mechanism works Key Words: Feedback, Mechanism, Dynamic Equilibrium, HomeostasisWhat Is Homeostasis? Biology, pagesRead pages 895 and 896 on the Biology book and answer the questions below.What is homeostasis:2. The process in which a stimulus produces a response that opposes the original stimulus is referred to as3. Fill in the missing label in the diagram to show how a thermostat uses feedback inhibition to maintain a stable temperature in a houseThe process by which organisms keep internal conditions relatively constantdespite change in the external environment.Negative feedbackThermostat senses temperature change and switches off heating systemThermostat senses temperature change and switches on heating system
19Objective: Understand How a Negative Feedback Mechanism works Key Words: Feedback, Mechanism, Dynamic Equilibrium, Homeostasis4. Is the following sentence true or false? The part of the brain that monitors and controls body temperature is the hypothalamus.5. The process of maintaining a controlled, stable internal environment is called6. What happens if nerve cells sense that the core body temperature has dropped below 37 C?7. What happens if the body temperature rises too far above 37 C?TrueHomeostasis or dynamic equilibriumThe hypothalamus produces chemicals that signal cells throughout the bodyto speed up their activities and produce heatThe hypothalamus slow down cellular activities, minimizing the production of heat