Presentation on theme: "Assessing Teacher Practice using the Framework for Teaching"— Presentation transcript:
1Assessing Teacher Practice using the Framework for Teaching Day 3-ObservationAssessing Teacher Practice using the Framework for TeachingWelcome
2Our Norms Be Present & Engaged Cell Phone/Computer Etiquette Rule of Two FeetBe Present & EngagedPlease remember our norms – read through quickly.Cell Phone/Computer Etiquette
3Parking LotRemind participants that we have a parking lot for their questions
4Learning TargetsI can collect evidence free of bias, based on facts, and aligned with the Framework for Teaching.I can make professional judgments about teacher practice using the Framework for Teaching.I can explain the three step systematic observation process and my role.I can explain the differences between traditional and learning focused supervision.1 – background of knowledge2 – analyze and assess practice
5Bias & Personal Preference “COULD HAVE”“SHOULD HAVE”Bias & Personal Preference“WOULD HAVE”Bias is the #1 factor that influences performance evaluations. As a result, it’s important for observers and evaluators to be aware of potential bias.
7BIAS: a strong opinion or feeling toward a group or behavior PERSONAL PREFERENCE: strong leanings toward some behavior or thing that suits or “works for” the individual observerA bias is a strong opinion or feeling about a group or a behavior.For example: you may feel that a first year teacher cannot possibly be accomplished in any domain because of their lack of experience.A personal preference is a strong leaning towards some behavior or thing that suits or “works for” the individual observer.For example: you may feel that effective teachers dress professionally - so wearing jeans would interfere with a teacher’s effectiveness.
8BIAS Example: Your opinion of a person with a certain accent may vary based on your previous experience. If you have previously only encountered a few smart people with this accent, you may assume when meeting someone new with that same accent that this person is also likely to be smart.Let’s think about this bias example together.
9PERSONAL PREFERENCE Example Your preference for classroom structure is one of quiet students working independently. You believe that this format avoids the opportunity for some students to "coast" on the efforts of others, and it also prevents any special needs of students from being masked by the work of others in a group setting. You believe your preferred classroom structure also serves to keep student conversations on-task.Let’s look at this example of a personal preference bias.
10Considering Bias & Personal Preference AppearanceQuiet ClassroomEffort/Work EthicHygieneGenderAgePersonalityClassroom AppearanceOrganization of InstructionRace/EthnicityProvide handout. Take 5 minutes and rate these items from 1-10, #1 being your hot button. (ie: the characteristic that most influences - either positively or negatively - your perception of a teacher.Next slide sets stage for whole group discussion.
11Discuss your prioritized list with your elbow partner and share your rationale to the extent that you are comfortable.Share one item from your lists with the wholetable.You probably noted that some of the items on the list represent real “bias” on your part, while others are only “personal preferences”.In either case, it is critical to avoid both bias and personal preferences when conducting classroom observations. It’s about being aware of our biases as we enter a classroom to observe.The next slide gets at the heart of what should drive the observation process.
13EVIDENCE “Facts” ”Artifacts” “Observations” What do you think about when you hear the word “evidence”?The evidence of a teacher’s performance should be free of bias and personal preferences, and based on facts and artifacts: what you see and hear during observations.
14Types of Observation Evidence FACTS:Statements by Teacher or Students -“Could one person from each table collect materials?”Actions by Teacher or Students -The teacher stood by the door, greeting students asthey entered.Three of the eighteen students offered nearly all of thecomments during discussion.ARTIFACTS:ResourcesPrimary documents used by students during the lessonFeatures of the ClassroomStudent work is posted in the room or hallwaysFacts may be seen or heard, and should reflect actual words/actions as closely as possible.Artifacts are generally “products” created by the teacher for use during instruction or by students to demonstrate their learning.
15EvidenceorOpinion?You have been given a handout with five examples that either represent evidence or opinion.At your table:Read through the examples and determine whether each is an example of evidence or opinion.If it is an opinion, think about how it could be revised to become evidence.Determine when this evidence would fit in the Framework.
16The Framework for Teaching Domain 2: The Classroom EnvironmentCreating an Environment of Respect and RapportEstablishing a Culture for LearningManaging Classroom ProceduresManaging Student BehaviorOrganizing Physical SpaceDomain 3: InstructionCommunicating With StudentsUsing Questioning and DiscussionTechniquesEngaging Students in LearningUsing Assessment in InstructionDemonstrating Flexibility and ResponsivenessDomain 2 and 3 are the relevant observation domains.
17Using the handout titled “Evidence or Opinion”, complete the following steps. Try to complete the task independently, but feel free to consult with an elbow partner if needed.Read each statement and circle whether you believe it to be an example of Evidence or Opinion.Reference Domains 2 and 3 of the Framework for Teaching and determine with which domain and component each statement best fits.For statements that you believe to be opinions, rewrite each one so that it would be an example of actual evidence.Be prepared to share with the large group.
18The students in Mr. T’s biology class don’t seem to like him. Opinion2A – Creating an Environment of Respect and RapportRewrite: ____________________________Ask for sample of rewritten statement to reflect EVIDENCE.
19Mr. J said, “Boys shouldn’t take family and consumer science.” Evidence2B – Establishing a Culture for LearningSome participants may say that this statement is an opinion.While that is true, for the purposes of collecting evidence during the observation process the statement is EVIDENCE because it is a direct quote of what the teacher said.Any conversation during the post-observation conference should address that issue of this “statement of evidence” being an example of the teacher’s bias and personal preferences.
20The teacher took too long to take attendance. Opinion2C – Managing Classroom ProceduresRewrite: _____________________________Ask for sample of rewritten statement to reflect EVIDENCE.
21The teacher asked five yes/no questions in rapid succession. Opinion (with some factual information)3B – Using Questioning and Discussion TechniquesRewrite: _____________________________Ask for sample of rewritten statement to reflect EVIDENCE.While the inclusion of “5 yes/no questions” may be factual, the overall statement is an opinion because of the observer’s personal preferences to what it means for questions to be asked in rapid succession.
22The last activity, discussion of the key scene, was rushed. Opinion3C – Engaging Students in Learning(Structure and Pacing)Rewrite: _____________________________Ask for sample of rewritten statement to reflect EVIDENCE.
23Observe, Record, Interpret DATAEVIDENCEFOR ACOMPONENTA Systematic Observation, regardless of whether it is formal or a mini-observation, follows three primary steps.Observe in an instructional settingRecord evidence that is seen, heard, or available through teacher/student artifactsInterpret the evidence through the filters of the Framework for Teaching domains and components before making professional judgments about current performance levels.INTERPRETATIONJUDGMENT
24Actions & Statements/questions by Teacher & Students Observe and RecordNotes from the observationTimeActions & Statements/questions by Teacher & StudentsComponent8:05T greets SS at the doorT “Brandon, how did you do on your driver’s test?”Ss not sure what to do when materials handed outSs asks “What are we supposed to be doing?” T ignores questionT refers to students by nameT “Have any of you ever worked in a pen factory?” … “Do any of you feel you have some kind of expertise that exceeds regular 9th grade expertise on pens?” “No, so you’re qualified to do this?” No smile.Evidence is recorded during the observation period. It is here that the observer must be mindful of avoiding bias and personal preferences in lieu of simply recording what is actually seen, heard, or available through artifacts.
25Observer should stay in seat for 5 minutes following the lesson Remain, Reflect, RecordObserver should stay in seat for 5 minutes following the lessonReflect on the lessonRecord any evidence you didn’t have time to captureRecord any questions you haveIn order to effectively capture evidence, the following best practices are recommended:Remain: This allows the observer to record evidence related to end-of-lesson and transition activities.Reflect: Reflecting on the notes, the observer can clarify any statements of evidence and restate them as facts while still fresh in the memory.Record: In addition to making sure notes reflect statements of fact/evidence, the observer should record any questions he/she might have for the post-observation conference, or ideas about feedback for the teacher.
26Actions & Statements/questions by Teacher & Students Observe and RecordNotes from the observationTimeActions & Statements/questions by Teacher & StudentsComponent8:05T greets SS at the doorT makes SS feel like she cares about them personallyT “Brandon, how did you do on your driver’s test?”Ss not sure what to do when materials handed outSs ask people around them “What are we doing? What is this for?”Ss asks “What are we supposed to be doing?” T ignores questionT refers to students by nameT “Have any of you ever worked in a pen factory?” … “Do any of you feel you have some kind of expertise that exceeds regular 9th grade expertise on pens?” “No, so you’re qualified to do this?” No smile.2a2c3aThis change reflects actual factual evidence - rather than opinions.
27Record & Interpret Teaching is a performance. Performances are measured using rubrics.Domain 2: The Classroom Environment2a: Creating an environment of respect and rapportElementIneffectiveDevelopingAccomplishedDistinguishedTeacher interactions with studentsStudent interactions with other students• Patterns of classroom interactions, both between the teacher and students and among students, are mostly negative, inappropriate, or insensitive to students' ages, cultural backgrounds, and developmental levels. Interactions are characterized by sarcasm, put-downs, or conflict.• Teacher does not deal with disrespectful behavior.• Patterns of classroom interactions, both between the teacher and students and among students, are generally appropriate but may reflect occasional inconsistencies, favoritism, and disregard for students' ages, cultures, and developmental levels.• Students rarely demonstrate disrespect for one another.• Teacher attempts to respond to disrespectful behavior, with uneven results. The net result of the interactions is neutral, conveying neither warmth nor conflict.• Teacher-student interactions are friendly and demonstrate general caring and respect. Such interactions are appropriate to the ages of the students.• Students exhibit respect for the teacher. Interactions among students are generally polite and respectful.• Teacher responds successfully to disrespectful behavior among students. The net result of the interactions is polite and respectful, but impersonal.• Classroom interactions among the teacher and individual students are highly respectful, reflecting genuine warmth and caring and sensitivity to students as individuals.• Students exhibit respect for the teacher and contribute to high levels of civil interaction between all members of the class. The net result of interactions is that of connections with students as individuals.Evidence:T greets Ss at door . “Brandon, how did you do on your driver’s test?”T “Have any of you ever worked in a pen factory?” … “Do any of you feel you have some kind of expertise that exceeds regular 9th grade expertise on pens?” “No, so you’re qualified to do this?” No smile.T “Thank you, group, you may have a seat.”T “So…there’s this guy, Eli Whitney…”S answers questions from T incorrectly. Another S gives correct answer. S who answered incorrectly and other students exchange smiles.T gives directions, “obviously include the word” and T rolls eyes.T says “When I was in the 7th grade, I broke 4 pairs of glasses.”T gives directions, “When you get to the stop sign, predict. What are you going to do?” “STOP,” T rolls eyesSs do not talk or make facial expressions when other ss are speaking.T “Very nice, thank you.”T “Nice job. I think you are starting to get it.”T stands outside of classroom collecting exit card. “Thank you, you guys are great…have a good day.“ Comments rattled off quickly with no expression.When looking at the evidence from the observation script, the observer interprets the evidence, determining which domain(s) it supports.Then, using the rubric for that/those domain(s), the evidence is recorded on the observation form.A professional judgment is made about the connection of the evidence to a particular performance level, and the corresponding indicators are highlighted.This example shows some evidence in the Developing level, and other evidence falling in the Accomplished level.If this were a summative judgment, the determination of performance level would be based on the preponderance of evidence.
28Administrator’s Role Peer Observer’s Role Arrange pre-observation conferenceArrange observation time with peer being observedHold pre-observation conferenceHold pre-observation conferenceConduct observationConduct observationThere are some primary differences between the role of the administrator and peer observer in the observation process:The administrator is responsible for pre and post-observation conferences and all documentation.The administrator’s feedback is initially formative but culminates in a summative rating.The peer observer’s arrangements with the teacher prior to the observation are informal.The peer observer’s feedback is shared only with the teacher observed and is strictly formative.Complete observation form and send copy to teacher with post-conference date/timeComplete observation form and send copy to teacher with post-conference date/timeHold post-observation conference and complete appropriate formsMeet with teacher to provide formative feedback
30Traditional Learning Focused Review the chart and take two minutes to turn and talk to your elbow partner. Note that the traditional observation process set the stage for these outcomes, but this may not be how it looked in your schools. You may think of this activity as a way to reflect on how observation was effective or ineffective in your school or district.What are the primary differences between the traditional and learning focused supervision?The shift in perspective to learning focused supervision that fosters teacher growth is consistent with our focus on formative assessments that support student learning and student growth.
31Traditional Observation Process Administrator initiates formal observation.Pre-observation conference heldAdministrator takes the leadFormal observation conductedAdministrator collects evidencePost-observation evaluation completed by AdministratorPost-observation conference held152Who is doing all of the work here?43
32“Learning is done by the learner” Charlotte Danielson Nature of Learning“Learning is done by the learner” Charlotte DanielsonThe person who does the analyzing and judging about the lesson is the person who is learning.What do teachers DO in the evaluation process that causes them to learn?If teachers are going to grow, they must be involved in the process of analyzing their own performance.
33Learning Focused Observation Process 1Administrator initiates formal observationTeacher completes planning formPre-observation conference heldTeacher takes the leadFormal observation conductedAdministrator collects evidencePost-observation form (rubric) completed by Administrator and Teacher separatelyPost-observation conference held52Notice the collaborative role of the administrator and the teacher in the systemic observation process.Take 5 min. to talk with others at your table and identify what principals will need to know for this process to be effective. Be prepared to share the one skill you consider of primary importance.43
34professional conversation.” “Of all the approaches available to educators to promote teacher learning, the most powerful is that ofprofessional conversation.”Talk About Teaching!Charlotte Danielson2009, Corwin PressAs educators practice this process, both teachers and administrators will become more skilled. The ultimate impact of actionable feedback and self-reflective analysis will be student growth and learning. Ask, what is it about the professional conversations that make it powerful? The teacher’s reflection and involvement in the conversation.
35Learning TargetsI can collect evidence free of bias, based on facts, and aligned with the Framework for Teaching.I can make professional judgments about teacher practice using the Framework for Teaching.I can explain the three step systematic observation process and my role.I can explain the differences between traditional and learning focused supervision.1 – background of knowledge2 – analyze and assess practice
37Learning Targets I can identify characteristics of effective feedback. I can analyze feedback to determine the level of effectiveness and offer justification.I can apply the Tips for Effective Feedback to observation feedback.
38Your Experience with Feedback Think about a time when you received feedback that you feel helped move your learning forward. Share this experience at your table, explaining why you feel the feedback helped you.How and when was the feedback delivered?This activity is designed to activate their prior experiences with feedback. Invite them to think outside of the box of education: a coach, mentor, pastor, etc. Really ask participants to think about how the feedback was delivered, in person, , on paper, etc. and how soon after the experience did the participants receive feedback. After the discussion at the tables begin to die town, approximately 10 minutes, invite participants to share with the whole group what they feed made the feedback effective. (This activity will lead participants to discuss the characteristics of feedback that will be introduced later in the presentation).
39How Do You Give Feedback? What phrases, symbols, etc. do you use when giving students feedback?What is the purpose of your feedback?Do you feel your feedback is effective? Why or why not?This activity is designed to bring the concept of feedback to a more personal level and allow the participants to reflect upon their own feedback practice. After the activity where participants discuss personal experiences of effective feedback, this will allow students to really reflect upon the effectiveness of their own feedback practices. Again, after about 10 minutes of table discussion, ask participants to share out insights or practices they feel are effective or ineffective. (Again, we are making personal connections to the characteristics and best practices of feedback coming up in the presentation).
40“In a national survey conducted by Education Sector, 73 percent of teachers dismissed evaluations either as “just a formality” or as “well-intentioned but not particularly helpful to [my] teaching practice.” -Ensuring Accurate Feedback from ObservationsTalk about the importance of changing this statistic because of the research behind effective observations and feedback.
41Funny clip - in the world of evaluation, this is what many report as the reality of feedback. Does anything in this video look familiar to you?
42Jig-Saw ActivityPlease number off 1, 2, 3, 4. (Principals Articles: 1 & 2, Peer Observers/Principals: 3 & 4)Read your assigned article and highlight key points.When prompted, move to expert groups 1, 2, 3 or 4 to discuss article highlights. Use your organizer to note group discussion/highlights.Take notes back to your core group and present each article’s highlights. Notes on each article should be recorded on the organizer.Articles 1 and 2 are more appropriate for principals, while articles 3 and 4 are more appropriate for peer observers. However, all of the articles are relevant to all.Article One:Article Two:Article Three:Article Four:
43When feedback is corrective in nature—that is, it explains where and why learners have made errors--significant increases in learner learning occur (Lysakowski & Walberg, 1981, 1982; Walberg, 1999; Tennenbaum & Goldring, 1989).Feedback has been shown to be one of the most significant activities a teacher can engage in to improve learner achievement (Hattie, 1992)Asking learners to continue working on a task until it is completed and accurate (until the standard is met) enhances learner achievement (Marzano, Pickering, & Pollock, 2001).Effective feedback is timely. Delay in providing learners feedback diminishes its value for learning (Banger-Drowns, Kulik, Kulik, & Morgan, 1991).What does the research say regarding feedback to teachers?Effective learning results from learners providing their own feedback, monitoring their work against established criteria (Trammel, Schloss, & Alper, 1994; Wiggins, 1993).
44Purposes of Feedback correct errors develop understanding through explanationsgenerate additional learningguide learners to correct concepts and away from incorrect onesidentify strengths that can be built onbuild confidence, etc.Although we all probably look at feedback as having a primary purpose: to move someone forward and improve instruction and student achievement, the purposes above all align with this purpose. We should look at these purposes and our knowledge of teachers to determine what the teacher needs most.
45Best Practice Strategies for Providing Feedback Increase the value of the assessment. Make feedback count. Don't delay feedback. Help learners get it right. Ask teachers to provide their own feedback before giving them your feedback.Increase the value of the assessment. Providing only a rating or number leaves out critical information for teachers. Take time to write comments, point out omissions, and explain your thinking when reviewing learner work.Make feedback count. Feedback is best when it is corrective in nature. Help teachers see their errors and learn how to correct them by providing explicit and informative feedback when discussing their use of learner-centered practices and of technology. Make feedback another part of the learning process.Don't delay feedback. The longer teachers have to wait for feedback, the weaker the connection to their effort becomes, and the less likely they are to benefit.Help learners get it right. If teachers know you want to see them succeed, and you're willing to help explain how, their learning improves. Give them opportunities to improve, try again, and get it right.Ask teachers to provide their own feedback before giving them your feedback. In this system, the observer will script their notes, share these notes with the teacher, and allow the teacher to share their reflection of the observer’s notes before the observer gives feedback on observation. Teachers can monitor and provide feedback to other teachers, as well as compare their work to criteria. Engage teachers in review of their own work and others’ work.
46Characteristics of Effective Feedback Prioritize your ideas and understand their value.Concentrate on the behavior, not the person.Balance the content.Own the feedback.Be timely and ongoing.Offer continuing support.Be specific.Be realistic.Prioritize your ideas and understand their value. Limit your feedback to the most important issues. Consider the potential value of the feedback to the receiver, how you yourself would respond to such feedback (would you be able to act on it?). Remember also that receiving too much feedback at one time can be overwhelming for the recipient.• Concentrate on the behavior, not the person. Stick to the facts and avoid making judgments. One strategy is to open by stating the behavior in question, then to describe how you feel about it, and to end by stating what you want. This model enables you to avoid sounding accusatory and to focus on behaviors rather than on your assumptions about or interpretations of the behaviors.• Balance the content. Use the “sandwich approach”. Begin by providing comments on specific strengths, to give reinforcement and identify things the recipient should keep doing. Then identify specific areas for improvement and ways to make changes. Conclude with a positive comment.Be specific. Avoid general comments that may be of limited use to the receiver. Try to include examples to illustrate your statements. Remember, too, that offering alternatives rather than just giving advice allows the receiver to decide what to do with your feedback.• Be realistic. Feedback should focus on what can be changed. It is frustrating for recipients to get comments on things over which they have no control. Also, remember to avoid using the words “always” and “never”. People’s behavior is rarely that consistent.• Own the feedback. When offering evaluative comments, use the pronoun “I” rather than “they” or “one”, which would imply that your opinion is universally agreed on. Remember that the feedback you provide is merely your opinion.• Be timely. Find an appropriate time to communicate your feedback. Being prompt is key because feedback loses its impact if it is delayed too long. Delayed feedback can also cause feelings of guilt and resentment in the recipient, if the opportunity for improvement has passed. Also, if your feedback is primarily negative, take time to prepare what you will say or write.• Offer continuing support. Feedback should be a continuous process, not a one-time event. After offering feedback, make a conscious effort to follow up. Let recipients know you are available if they have questions and, if appropriate, ask for another opportunity to provide more feedback in the future.
47Receiving Feedback Listen to the feedback given. Be aware of your non-verbal responses.Be open.Understand the message.Reflect and decide what to do.Follow up.Listen to the feedback given. This means not interrupting. Hear the person out, and listen to what they are really saying, not what you assume they are going say. You can absorb more information if you are concentrating on listening and understanding than if you are being defensive and focusing on your response.• Be aware of your non-verbal responses. Your body language and tone of voice can speak louder than words. Looking distracted and bored sends a negative message and can create unnecessary barriers. Attentiveness, on the other hand, indicates that you value what someone has to say, and puts both of you at ease.• Be open. This means being receptive to new ideas and different opinions. Often, there is more than one way of doing something, and other people may have a completely different viewpoint on a topic. Remain open, and you may learn something worthwhile.• Understand the message. Make sure you understand what is being said to you,especially before responding to the feedback. Ask questions for clarification, if necessary. Listen actively by repeating key points so that you know you have interpreted the feedback correctly. In a group environment, ask for others’ feedback before responding. As well, when possible, be explicit beforehand about the kind of feedback you are seeking, so you are not taken by surprise.• Reflect and decide what to do. Assess the value of the feedback and the Consequences of using it or ignoring it, and then decide what you want to do. Your response is your choice. If, after careful consideration, you decide that you disagree with the feedback, you might ask for a second opinion from someone else.• Follow up. There are many ways to follow up on feedback. Sometimes, your follow-up will simply be to implement the suggestions you‘ve been given. In other situations, you might want to set up another meeting to discuss the feedback or to submit revised work.
48Feedback Sorting Activity Divide into groups of three or four participants.Each group will need “Tips for Effective Feedback,” two columned feedback chart, and an envelope with feedback samples.Pull one card out at a time from the envelope. As a group, discuss the effectiveness of the feedback statement using the tip sheet and sort the feedback statement.Continue this process until all statements in the envelope are sorted.Each group of 3-4 people will need the 2 columned feedback chart, the feedback tipsheet, and an envelope with cut up feedback examples. Encourage participants to discuss each example and determine if the feedback is effective and ineffective and why or why not. For example, there is one feedback sample where the principal does suggest an area of growth. This might be ineffective to some, while others believe it is not a necessity to provide an area of need on observation feedback.Because many participants might think that all of the tips on the feedback card must be met to make the feedback effective, there may not be consensus. However, it is important that participants have deep discussions and think about how the context of the feedback.There will need to be discussion at the end of this activity. If time allows, go over all of the feedback statements. However, if time is short, ask participants to share the statements that produced debate at the tables.
49Taking a Look at Feedback Within Observer Roles Peer ObserverPrincipalFormative feedbackNo unannounced observationsCould focus on problem of practice, if requested by teacherFormative feedback that leads to summative feedbackCan be announced and unannouncedScripting all behaviors of practice
50Revisiting Our Learning Targets I can identify characteristics of effective feedback.I can analyze feedback to determine the level of effectiveness and offer justification.I can apply the Tips for Effective Feedback to observation feedback.
51Expectations for Field Test Participants are expected to use the feedback information to provide effective feedback to move teachers forward in their professional growth, which will improve student achievement.