Presentation on theme: "Health Education Li Xiaohan School of Nursing China Medical University."— Presentation transcript:
Health Education Li Xiaohan School of Nursing China Medical University
Health Education 1. Introduction to healthIntroduction to health education 2. Behaviors relevant to healthBehaviors relevant to health 3. Teaching methods and cautions
(1) Definition of health educationDefinition of health education (2) Purpose and tasks of health educationPurpose and tasks of health education (3) Principles of health educationPrinciples of health education (4) Process of health educationProcess of health education (5) The roles and functions of nurses inThe roles and functions of nurses in the health education Introduction to health education
Definition of health education Health education is a systematic social educational activity which has plan, organization, and evaluation. It spreads the knowledge related to health care to people. It assists people to understand themselves heath status, recognize the factors harming health. It makes people change their ill life habits and behaviors, and adopt the behaviors and life styles conducive to health actively, and reduce and eliminate the health risk factors in order to prevent illness, promote health and increase the quality of life.
Purpose and tasks of health education (a) Purpose of health education (b) Tasks of health education
Purpose of health education To teach the clients to build up a correct awareness on health To change the clients ill (unhealthy) life habits To nurture well (healthy) behaviors and life style
To reduce or eliminate health risk factors To prevent illness, promote health and enhance the health level of whole nationality
Tasks of health education To assist the clients to build up a feeling of responsibility on preventing illness and maintaining oneself health status
To create an environment that helps to individuals behavior change; to promote the individual to adopt the advisable decision-making and select the behaviors that help to health.
To instruct the client to master the knowledge related to the care of illness and healing in order to enhance the abilities of self -health care and self- care. In this way, the client will become a healthy person and a person with high quality of life.
Principles of health education (1) Principle of meeting patients needs first. (2) Principle of implementing teaching individually (3) Principle of practicality
(5) Principle of participation of clients and their family members (6) Principle of teaching and learning step by step (4) Principle of realism of objective
(7) Principle of teaching by stages (8) Principle of intuition (9) Principle of popularization (10) Principle of prompting
Process of health education (A) To assess the patients learning needsTo assess the patients learning needs (C) To constitute the teaching planTo constitute the teaching plan (D) To implement the teaching planTo implement the teaching plan (E) To evaluate the teaching and learningTo evaluate the teaching and learning (B) To establish the teaching and learningTo establish the teaching and learning objectives
To assess the patients learning needs To assess leaning ability To assess psychological status To assess social-cultural background
To assess leaning attitude To assess prevenient learning experiences To assess learning preparation To assess the learning needs
To establish the behavior objectives (A) The classification and statement of teaching and learning objectivesThe classification and statement (B) The functions of teaching and learning objectivesThe functions of teaching and (C) The principles of establishing the teaching and learning objectivesThe principles of establishing the
The classification and statement of teaching and learning objectives Teaching objectives Learning objectives
Teaching objectives Teaching objectives for the patients at the entrance to hospital Teaching objectives for the pre- operational patients Teaching objectives for the post- operational patients
Teaching objectives for the hospitalized patients Teaching objectives Teaching objectives for the patients with special examinations and treatments Teaching objectives for the patients who will be discharged from the hospital
Learning objectives Objectives in cognitive domain Objectives in affective domain Objectives in psychomotor domain
The functions of teaching and learning objectives The function of teaching objectives The function of learning objectives
The functions of teaching objectives (a) To make the nurse identify what is the aim that the teaching wish to achieve and what is the content that the nurse should teach
(b) To instruct the nurse to assess patients learning needs according to the teaching objectives (c) To point out the direction for the nurse to assist the patient to establish the learning objectives
(d) To instruct the nurse to select adequate teaching content and teaching methods (e) To provide a base for the nurse to evaluate the learning outcomes of the patients
The functions of learning objectives (a) To assist the patients to identify the content that they need to learn and master in the period of hospitalization, and let the patients and their family members to make preparations in psychological aspect for learning.
(b) To make the patients understand the aims that the learning need to reach, and the benefits from the aims to their health in order that the nurse may spirit up the patients and their family members to take part in the learning activities actively.
(c) To contribute to assist the nurse and patient to judge whether they have achieved the objectives through the teaching and learning activities.
The principles of establishing the teaching and learning objectives The principles of establishing the teaching objectives The principles of establishing the learning objectives
The principles of establishing the teaching objectives Principle of teaching by stages Principle of objectivity Principle of consistency
The principles of establishing the learning objectives Principle of realistic thought Principle of identity Principle of synthesis Principle of being able to measured
To constitute the teaching plan (a)The structure of the plan forThe structure of the plan for health education (b) Teaching contentTeaching content (c) Cautions on selecting teachingCautions on selecting teaching content
The structure of the plan for health education Teaching objectives Learning objectives Teaching content Teaching methods Evaluation of teaching and learning
Teaching content 1) General healthful knowledge 2) Knowledge of the prevention and treatment of illness 3) Knowledge of various examinations and treatments
4) Knowledge of administering reasonable medication 5) Knowledge of mental health 6) Knowledge of seeing a physician
7) Knowledge of behavior instruction and training conducive to health 8) Knowledge of teaching on each disease
1) The content, or what is to be taught, is determined by learning objectives. Nurses can select among many sources of information including books, nursing journals and other nurses and physicians. Cautions on selecting teaching content
Accurate Current Based on learning objectives Whatever sources the nurse chooses, content should be:
2) Adjusted for the learners age, culture, and ability 3) Consistent with information the nurse is teaching 4) Selected with consideration of how much time and what resources are available for teaching
To implement the teaching plan Guidelines for teaching Guidelines for teaching Influencing factors on patients Influencing factors on patients learning
Guidelines for teaching 1) The optimal time for each session depends largely on the learner. 2) The pace of each teaching session also affects learning. 3) An environment can detract from or assist learning
4) Teaching aids can foster learning and help focus a learners attention. 5) Learning is more effective when the learners discover the content for themselves.
Ways to increase learning include stimulating motivation and stimulating self-direction: By providing specific, realistic, achievable objectives By giving feedback By helping the learner derive satisfaction from learning
6) Repetition reinforces learning Ways of repeating and clarifying content: Summarizing content Rephrasing------using other words Approaching the material from another point of view
7) It is helpful to employ organizers to introduce material to be learned 8) Using a laypersons vocabulary enhances communication
Influencing factors on patients learning Factors related to the educator (nurse) Factors related to the learner (client)
Factors related to the educator (nurse) Awareness on client teaching Knowledge and skills on client teaching Communication techniques Interpersonal relationship
Factors related to the learner (client) Factors facilitating learning Factors inhibiting learning
To evaluate the teaching and learning 1) Evaluating teaching 2) Evaluating learning 3) Evaluating the quality of health education
Evaluating teaching Evaluation of learning needs Evaluation of the teaching and learning objectives Evaluation of the teaching content Evaluation of the teaching methods (strategies)
Evaluating learning Knowledge: essential for changing behavior Attitude: precondition for changing behavior Behavior: predetermined outcome of health education
Evaluating the quality of health education The rate of popularization The rate of eligibility The decrease of complications
The shortened period of hospitalization The effect of treatment The economic benefits
The roles and functions of nurses in the health education (1) To provide much information related to health to the client (2) To assist the client to recognize the factors influencing health
(3) To assist the client to identity the actual and potential health problems (4) To instruct the client to adopt healthy behavior
Behavior relevant to health 1.Introduction of behaviorIntroduction of behavior 2.Behavior relevant to healthBehavior relevant to health 3.Model of changing behaviors relevant to healthModel of changing behaviors relevant to health 4. Intervention and modification of behavior relevant to healthIntervention and modification of behavior relevant to health
Introduction of behavior (1) Concept of behaviorConcept of behavior (2) Classification of behaviorClassification of behavior (3) Behavior and healthBehavior and health
Concept of behavior 1) Definition of behavior 2) Representation of behavior
A behavior is a reaction of human being and other animals to internal and external stimulus that work on them. Definition of behavior
A behavior is a reaction of organisms in physiological and psychological dimensions when they are in the face of the changes of internal and external environment.
Stimulus Organism Reaction Representation of behavior
Classification of behavior 1) Instinctive behaviors 2) Social behaviors
Instinctive behaviors Feeding behavior Sleep behavior Sexual behavior Attack and self-protective behavior Exploration behavior Stimulation-Seeking behavior
Social behaviors Social role behavior Occupational skills Entertainment behavior
Behavior and health Well behavior can promote health Ill behavior can harm health
Behavior relevant to health (1) Healthy behaviorHealthy behavior (2) Behavior relevant to healthBehavior relevant to health
Healthy behavior 1) Definition of healthy behavior 2) Classification of healthy behavior
The healthy behavior is a behavior performance when a individual is on a well state in physiological, psychological and social aspects. (e.g. to receive examinations related to health; vaccination) Definition of healthy behavior
Group healthy behavior Individual healthy behavior Classification of healthy behavior
Behavior relevant to health 1) Definition 2) Classification
Definition of behavior relevant to health It is the behavior of individual or group, which is relevant to health and illness.
Classification of behavior relevant to health Health-promoted behavior Health-risky behavior
Health-promoted behavior Definition of health-promoted behavior Types of health-promoted behavior
Definition of health-promoted behavior It is a group of behaviors, which behaved by the individual or colony and it is favorable to the health of himself and other people objectively.
Types of health-promoted behavior Preventive and protective behaviors Suffering behaviors Disease role behavior
Preventive and protective behaviors Daily healthy behavior Health care behavior Behavior that avoiding harmful environment Behavior that refraining from ill habit Presentiment behavior
Suffering behaviors To see a physician actively To provide their history and symptoms in truth To cooperate cure and care actively To maintain a optimistic and antrorse emotion
Disease role behavior Compliant behavior Patient role behavior
Definition of healthy-risky behavior It is a group of behaviors, which behaved by the individual and colony in the direction of deflecting from the expectation of individual, other people and the society.
Classification of health-risky behaviors Daily health-risky behaviors Behavior model which produces disease Ill disease behaviors
Daily health-risky behaviors Smoking Alcoholism (Drink too much) Drug abuse Sexual disorder
Behavior model of producing disease Type A behavior: easy to suffer from coronary heart disease Type C behavior: easy to suffer from tumor
Ill disease behaviors Keep from disease Fear Abandonment Leading role behaviors Lack of role behaviors Psychological conflict of role Pessimism and despair Superstition behavior
Changing model of behavior relevant to health (1) KABP modelKABP model (2) HBM modelHBM model
KABP model Meaning: K: Knowledge A: Attitude B: Belief P: Practice
1)To enhance the authority and transmit efficiency of information 2) To advise others by using one's own experience Methods that promote attitude changing
3) To strengthen behavioral interventions 4) To use the stage theory of attitude change: obedience, assimilation, and internalization
Health Belief Model 1) The development of HBM 2) Components of HBMComponents of HBM 3) StepsSteps
Components of HBM: Health belief Cue to action Modifying factor
Health belief a) How to look on health and disease b) How to cognize the degree of severity and susceptibility of disease
3) How to understand the effect after adopting preventive interventions and the obstacle that one may encounter while adopting interventions
Ones health belief is restricted by follow four cognitive degrees: Cognition to the susceptibility of disease Cognition to the degree of severity of disease
Cognition to the effect brought by preventive interventions Cognition to the obstacle of preventive interventions
Cue to action The promoting factors that bring a person to adopt preventive interventions Disseminate of public transmitting medium Advice from other people Reminding from health care professional Introduction on newspapers and magazines Family members or friends once suffered from this disease
Steps : (1) To let people fear to their ill behavior style at present
(2) To let people convince that once they change their ill behavior they will get valuable outcomes. At the same time, let people cognize possible difficulties during the behavior change
(3)To make people feel confident and competent in changing ill behavior by long-term effort.
Intervention and modification of behavior relevant to health (1) Definition of behavior modification (2) Purpose of behavior modification
Definition of behavior modification Behavior modification is a process of behavior intervention. It promotes the targets of behavior modification to change their special behaviors by adopting certain interventions according to certain expectation, and in definite conditions.
Purpose of behavior modification To help people to change ill behavior and life habit nurtured by them, adopt behaviors that promote health consciously, and culture good life style.
Teaching methods and cautions 1. Teaching methods 2. Cautions
Teaching methods 1) Lecture 2) Group discussion 3) Role playing 4) Field visit 5) instruction