2 Lesson Observation-Feedback Cycle Briefing OverviewIntroductionTenets of PracticumWhat’s NewWhat? Why? Who?Generic Roles and Responsibilities of NIES, SCM & CTPracticums in 2014Lesson Observation-Feedback CycleAPT FormGrading Guidelines for AssessorsSupervisionFinal PracticumsNon-final PracticumsSubmission of reports
3 Documents for CTs from their student teachers Briefing OverviewDocuments for CTs from their student teachersPracticum Briefing for Student TeachersPGDE PracticumsPracticum WebsitePracticum Office
4 Introduction Tenets of Practicum What’s New What? Why? Who? Generic Roles and Responsibilities of SCM, CT & NIESPracticums in 2014
5 Practicum – The Spine of the Programmes 1.1 Tenets of PracticumPracticum – The Spine of the ProgrammesPracticum as an integrated part of a coherent program.Practicum provides opportunities for purposeful mentoring from experienced teachers and university supervisors.Practicum allows student teachers to develop their teacher competency through graduated responsibilities and opportunities for practice.Practicum is assessed through clearly defined standards, not bounded by mere content knowledge.Practicum strives to develop thinking teachers with the use of planned and structured reflection, and focused professional conversations.
6 1.2 What’s New Gold Medals for Practicum With effect from July 2013, three book prizes valued at $500 each will be awarded by cohort to the best student teacher in Practicum in the programme leading to PGDE (Pri) and PGDE (Sec/JC).Civil servants can call in sick without MC on two non-consecutive daysApplies to NIE student teachers , excluding full-fee paying student teachers.Student teachers have to the SCM, cc NIES, before the start of school for that day and obtain the SCM’s written support.Student teachers have to attach the written support to the completed NIE Urgent Private Affair (UPA) Leave Form, downloadable from NIE Portal and submit it to the Office of Academic Administration Services (OAAS), NIE for onward transmission to MOE.
7 1.3 What? Why? Who?Practicum, or field experience, is linked to the student teachers’ courses and is critical to their growth and development as teachers.It provides the opportunity to make critical connections between theory and practice.It is possible only through the strong three-way partnerships between NIE, MOE and schools, as well as between supervisor, student and cooperating teacher.
9 Cooperating Teachers (CTs) and Student Teachers 1.4 Roles of SCM, CT and NIESSchool Coordinating Mentor (SCM)CooperatingTeachers (CTs)andStudent TeachersNIE Supervisor (NIES)NIE Moderator / External ExaminerSchool PrincipalPeople involve in practicum
10 Instructional support 1.4 Roles of SCM, CT and NIESTypes of SupportInstructional supportincludes assisting the novice with the knowledge, skills, and strategies necessary to be successful in the classroom and schoolPsychological supportto build the protégé's sense of self through confidence building, developing feelings of effectiveness, encourage positive self-esteem, enhancing self-reliance, and learning to handle stress that is a large part of transition(Gold, 1996)Krull (2005)
11 A model and instructor of students’ teaching 1.4 Roles of SCM, CT and NIESMentor RolesA co-enquirer who stimulates students’ reflections on their own lessonsA model and instructor of students’ teachingAn information source for tips and adviceA provider of an introduction to the teaching worldA coach or a supporterA challengerAn evaluatorZanting, Verloop & Vermunt (2001)
12 1.4.1 Role of SCMOverall in charge of the practicumMain liaison person with the NIESConduct briefing for induction of student teachersConduct briefing for induction of CTsOversee work of CTs & student teachersFacilitate observation of other teachers’ lessonsFacilitate Focused Conversations (All PGDE)Evaluate student teachers’ practicum performanceVerify and confirm with NIES the potential DISTINCTION and FAIL cases before the moderation deadlineProvides support for STs who call in sick without MC
13 1.4.2 Role of CT Helps settle student teacher* Acquaints the student teacher with school set-up*Assists the student teacher in preparing for classroom teachingMentor the student teacher in his/her professional developmentGuides the student teacher in classroom teaching & managementObserves lessons conducted by student teacher#Evaluates student teacher’s teaching performanceMeet with NIES and SCM towards the end of Practicum to discuss summative grades* Probably done by the SCM who is overall in charge of the practicum in the school. But CTs need to reinforce messages.# Goes through the whole lesson observation-feedback cycle
14 1.4.3 Role of NIES Official representative of NIE Conduct pre- and post-practicum conferencesGive feedback to student teacher on portfolio presentation during pre- practicum conference (All PGDE)Oversee work of student teacherTake care of all the student teachers in schools under his/her chargeConduct lesson observations (for relevant practicum)Liaise with school via SCM (and CTs if necessary)Moderate student teachers’ performance across schools under his/her chargeProvide an NIE moderator for ALL potential DISTINCTION and FAIL casesInform student teacher of moderation for potential DISTINCTION / FAILCollaborate and decide with school on final grade to be awarded to student teacherListen to student teacher’s final portfolio presentation and help him/her consolidate learning during post-practicum conference (All PGDE)
19 2. Lesson Observation-Feedback Cycle The process comprises a 3-stage cycle:Pre-Observation ConferenceLesson Observation- APT formFeedback Conference
20 2. Lesson Observation-Feedback Cycle Pre-Observation ConferenceCheck to see that the lesson plan (~5 pages)Has definite, meaningful goals/objectives,Is relevant to the topic/subject,Is appropriate for the class/level,Is workable in terms of methods/time given.Suggest modifications, only if it is really necessary*Agree on points of focus for the observationDecide the time for the Feedback Conference (SAME day)2. Lesson Observation – APT Form* for example, against school rules, endanger pupils. Student teacher need to have a sense of ownership.
21 2. Lesson Observation-Feedback Cycle 3. Feedback ConferenceHold the conference asap after the lesson observationOral feedback preferably within the same dayWritten feedback within a week (original copy of the APT for CT/NIES, and a photocopy for the student teacher’s Practicum File)What to remember during feedback conferencing:Examine those aspects of teaching that was jointly agreed upon as the observational focus during the pre-observation conferenceMay need to use counseling skillsMay take the lead in analysis and interpretation, and may also play the more direct role of instructor, providing specific suggestions. Encourage student teacher to see both his/her strengths and weaknesses
22 2.1 APT Form Part A: Teaching Processes 1. Lesson preparation 2. Lesson implementation3. Feedback & evaluation4. Classroom managementPart B: Professional Attributes & AttitudesLearner-centered ValuesTeacher IdentityService to School
23 APT Form Part A: Teaching Process 1 PART A: TEACHING PROCESSES PROCESSESCOMPETENCIESLESSON PREPARATIONDelineates appropriate learning objectivesSelects appropriate sequence and contentSelects appropriate teaching strategies, learning activities and resources/equipmentCaters to pupils’ diverse needs and abilitiesDevelops a workable/appropriate time scheduleSelects appropriate venue and set up (# PE only)# PE only – where environment is safe and space is maximised for effective teaching and learning.
24 APT Form Part A: Teaching Process 2 PART A: TEACHING PROCESSESPROCESSESCOMPETENCIESLESSON IMPLEMENTATIONIntroduces and concludes lesson appropriatelyArouses and sustains pupil interestEncourages pupil participationGives clear explanations/demonstrationsQuestions and responds appropriatelyStimulates higher-order thinkingUses voice and language appropriatelyOrganises and facilitates individual/group learning effectivelyIntegrates IT/media/resources effectively and/or creativelyPaces lesson appropriately
25 APT Form Part A: Teaching Process 3 PART A: TEACHING PROCESSESPROCESSESCOMPETENCIESFEEDBACK and ASSESSMENTGives appropriate and timely feedback to pupilsMonitors and addresses pupil understandingGives meaningful tasks/homework
26 APT Form Part A: Teaching Process 4 PART A: TEACHING PROCESSESPROCESSESCOMPETENCIESCLASSROOM MANAGEMENTEstablishes interaction and rapport with pupilsSets and enforces classroom rules/routines effectivelyMaintains discipline in a positive wayCreates a secure environment which engenders trust and respectCreates an environment that empowers pupils
27 APT Form Part A: Grading for Teaching Processes 1 - 4 Competency LevelLevel 1Level 2Level 3Level 4Level 5Not YetEmergingSatisfactoryProficientExcellentUnable to apply most of the relevant competencies of the processApplies some of the relevant competencies of the processApplies most of the relevant competencies of the process quite effectivelyApplies most of the relevant competencies of the process effectivelyApplies all the relevant competencies of the process confidently and skilfully
28 APT Form Part B: Professional Attributes & Attitudes PART B: PROFESSIONAL ATTRIBUTES AND ATTITUDESLEARNER-CENTRED VALUESShows care and concern for pupilsEncourages pupils’ interest in the subjectHas high expectations of pupilsRespects diversity of pupils’ backgroundsPlease note that feedback for Part B need not be based on lesson observations. Evidence can be obtained from the student teacher’s reflections, feedback conferences and observations of his/her interactions with pupils and colleagues.
29 APT Form Part B: Professional Attributes & Attitudes PART B: PROFESSIONAL ATTRIBUTES AND ATTITUDESTEACHER IDENTITYHas professional integrityAble to adapt to different situations when necessaryShows perseveranceIs receptive to feedbackIs reflectiveReports punctually for lessons and school eventsCompletes and submits assigned tasks on timeMarks pupils’ work promptly and accuratelyIs sensitive to socio-cultural diversityProjects a professional imagePlease note that feedback for Part B need not be based on lesson observations. Evidence can be obtained from the student teacher’s reflections, feedback conferences and observations of his/her interactions with pupils and colleagues.
30 APT Form Part B: Professional Attributes & Attitudes PART B: PROFESSIONAL ATTRIBUTES AND ATTITUDESSERVICE to SCHOOLShows initiativeWorks well with peers and colleaguesSupports school’s events and programmesPlease note that feedback for Part B need not be based on lesson observations. Evidence can be obtained from the student teacher’s reflections, feedback conferences and observations of his/her interactions with pupils and colleagues.
31 APT Form Part B: Grading for Professional Attributes & Attitudes UnacceptableFails to behave in a professional manner despite remindersAcceptableExhibits professional qualities in some relevant situationsGoodExhibits professional qualities in most relevant situationsExcellentExhibits professional qualities in an exemplary and consistent mannerPlease note that feedback for Part B need not be based on lesson observations. Evidence can be obtained from the student teacher’s reflections, feedback conferences and observations of his/her interactions with pupils and colleagues.
32 TEACHING PRACTICE GRADING: GUIDELINES FOR ASSESSORS Grade descriptor in final Teaching Practice Summative Report (Part I)Suggested overall grade (Distinction, Credit, Pass, Fail)Rated mostly “Excellent” and some “Proficient” for the processes in Part A, and no lower than “Good” for the attributes/attitudes in Part B.DISTINCTIONWill have to be moderated.Rated mostly “Proficient” and a mix of “Excellent” and/or “Satisfactory” for the processes in Part A and no lower than “Good” for the attributes/attitudes in Part B.CREDITRated minimally “Satisfactory” for all the processes in Part A, and no lower than “Acceptable” for attributes/attitudes in Part B.PASSRated a “Not yet/Emerging” competence for any of the processes in Part A, or “Unacceptable” for the attributes/attitudes in Part B.FAILPlease note that feedback for Part B need not be based on lesson observations. Evidence can be obtained from the student teacher’s reflections, feedback conferences and observations of his/her interactions with pupils and colleagues.
33 Grading for Teaching Processes 1 - 4 2.2 Grading Guidelines for AssessorsGrading for Teaching Processes 1 - 4Please note that feedback for Part B need not be based on lesson observations. Evidence can be obtained from the student teacher’s reflections, feedback conferences and observations of his/her interactions with pupils and colleagues.DistinctionCreditPass
34 (a) Final Practicums (mainly Terms 1 & 2) 3. Supervisions(a) Final Practicums (mainly Terms 1 & 2)BA/BSc (Ed) Programmes – TP2Diploma Programmes – TP2PGDE (Sec and JC) (Jul intake) – TPPGDE (PE) – TP2PGDE (Pri and Sec) (Jan intake) – TP (Term 3)
35 CT Lesson Observations (a) Final PracticumsProgrammeTypeGradingNo. of hours per week(≈ No. of periods)CT Lesson ObservationsBA/BSc(Ed) Year 4TP2Distinction* / Credit / Pass /Fail*Pri: hrs (≈20-24) Sec/IP: hrs (≈16-20)8Dip Art/Music Ed (1-Yr)TPDip Ed (CL) (1-Yr)Dip HE Ed (1-Yr)Dip Ed Year 2PGDE PE (Sec) Year 2PGDE(JC)TP / TP26-7.5 hours (≈8-10)4#PGDE(S)9-10 hours (≈14-16)6#PGDE(P)9-10 hours (≈18-20)PGDE PE (Pri) Year 2PGDE(P) 1-CS Art/Musichours (≈15-17)1The 2 “school visits” refer to the courtesy call and the end-of-practicum visit (not necessarily an assessment meeting).Note:NIES – 2 school visits and 2 lesson observations for all TP/TP2* Must be moderated# Student teachers will go through Focused Conversations
36 (a) Final Practicums MODE OF ASSESSMENT Cooperating Teachers : Formative assessments via lesson observations and reported on APT forms (refer to guidelines for details)Summative APT report by Main CTEnsure formative and summative grades alignSchool Coordinating Mentor and Principal :Summative assessment, highlighting professional attitude and conduct, in consultation with CTsNIE Supervisor :2 Formative assessments via lesson observations and reported on APT formsSummative assessment based on APT reports and input from school personnel (CTs, P/VP, SCM)
37 DISTINCTION / CREDIT / PASS / FAIL (a) Final PracticumsMODE OF ASSESSMENTOverall grade for final practicums :DISTINCTION / CREDIT / PASS / FAILBoth school and NIES must come to a consensus during the final assessment meeting chaired by the PrincipalModeration is compulsory for DISTINCTION and FAIL cases: Decided collaboratively by school and NIES by deadline set by Practicum Office, NIE – check exact date from TP schedule.Moderation deadline MUST be adhered to.ALL FAIL cases must repeat practicum before they are allowed to graduate.
38 (a) Final Practicums THE SUMMATIVE REPORT Part I (peach) : Main CT’s summative APT reportPart II (peach) : SCM’s and Principal’s commentsPart III (lilac): NIES’ summative report (includes endorsement of final grade agreedupon with Principal and SCM)Note:Final grade entered in Parts II & III must be the same.
39 (a) Final Practicums THE SUMMATIVE REPORT (PART I) Main CT’s summative APT report:Review all the information collected over the 10 weeksDiscuss the student teacher’s progress with the SCM (and NIES if necessary)Discuss with the student teacher before writing the reportConsider the student teacher’s general progress from the initial stages to this final stage and make notes on developmentsLook ahead and consider the student teacher’s potential for future developmentEnsure formative and summative grades align
40 (a) Final PracticumsDo NOT submit the APT forms used for individual lesson observations.Submit the Summative Report (peach colour) after CTs, SCM and Principal have discussed and completed it in consultation with the NIES, to the NIES at the Final Assessment Meeting, or to Practicum Office (Fax No ) by the DEADLINE
42 Observe CTs & Other Teachers CT Lesson Observations (b) Non-Final PracticumsSchool Experience and Teaching AssistantshipProgrammeType/DurationGradingNo. of hours per week(≈ No. of periods)Observe CTs & Other TeachersAssisted TeachingCT Lesson ObservationsNIESBA/BSc(Ed) Year 1SE2 weeksSatisfactory / UnsatisfactoryPri: hrs (≈20-24) Sec/IP: hrs (≈16-20)(1 week Pri,1 week Sec)NILBA/BSc(Ed) Year 2TA5 weeksPass / Fail2 weeks & throughout + Weekly Reflections#3 weeks2 school visits* Must be moderated# Assisted Teaching: Degree Year 2 student teachers doing TA have to do assisted teaching (1 class for CS1) during Weeks 3-5. They are not meant to be assessed. They are ONLY assisting their CTs.
43 (b) Non-Final Practicums ASSESSMENT FOR BA/BSc SESE Summative ReportASSESSMENT FOR BA/BSc TAReflection Journal (5 weekly reflections)NIES and CT will receive journals at the end of each week and provide feedbackChecklistCT to use the checklist to check off what student teacher has reflected weekly but NO need to mark themTA Summative ReportSatisfactory/Unsatisfactory
44 Observe CTs & Other Teachers CT Lesson Observations (b) Non-Final PracticumsTeaching Practice 1 (5 weeks)ProgrammeGradingNo. of hours per week(≈ No. of periods)Observe CTs & Other TeachersGuided TeachingCT Lesson ObservationsNIESBA/BSc(Ed) Year 3Pass / Fail*Pri: hrs (≈20-24) Sec/IP: hrs (≈16-20)1 week & throughout + Week 1 Reflection4 weeks42 school visits +1 observationDip Ed Year 1Dip PE Year 1Pass / Fail2 weeks & throughout + Week1 & 2 Reflections3 weeks2PGDE(PE) Year 1(only PE)(Only PE)* Must be moderatedGuided teaching can take form of a progression of practice – from teaching of lesson segments, to co- or paired-teaching with the CT, and finally to monitored independent teaching of complete lessons. The progression of guided teaching can vary among student teachers depending on the individual’s level of progress.
45 (b) Non-Final Practicums ASSESSMENT FOR TP1Reflection Journal (Week 1 for BA/BSc, Week 1 & 2 for Dip & PGDE PE)NIES and CT will receive journals at the end of each week and provide feedbackChecklist (Week 1 for BA/BSc, Week 1 & 2 for Dip & PGDE PE)CT to use the checklist to check off what student teacher has completed weekly but NO need to mark themAPT form – formativeTP Summative ReportsPass / Fail (* moderation for BA/BSc)Gather and review all information over the 5 weeksMake a final decision
46 4. Submission of ReportsDo NOT submit the APT forms used for individual lesson observations (EXCEPT in DISCREPANCY CASES).Submit the NEW Summative Report (peach and lilac, NOT yellow and green) after CTs, SCM and Principal have discussed and completed it in consultation with the NIES, to the NIES at the Final Assessment Meeting, or to Practicum Office (Fax No ) by the DEADLINE.
47 5. Documents for CTs from Student Teachers Letter to Cooperating Teacher statingNIE’s THANKSdates of practicum period and no. of weeksno. of formal classroom observationsNIE Supervisor’s name and contact info.attached with the following documents ...Suggested guidelines for schools (a copy also sent to P) statingTime-table arrangementsNo. of teaching periods per week
48 5. Documents for CTs from Student Teachers 2. Suggested guidelines for schools statingTime-table arrangementsTeaching subjectsPri: GEN subjects; Sec: subjects; JC: 1 subjectstudent teachers must teach all subjects trained in - refer to computer printout and suggested guidelines(note: PE student teachers)Class levels/types/streamsA mix of upper and lower levelsNo more than 2 levels per CSPri: preferably NOT P1 and the very weak classesSec: preferably Sec 1-3, and NOT the most difficult classes in the streamsSchool session (school to decide)
49 5. Documents for CTs from Student Teachers 2. Suggested guidelines for schools statingArrangements for opportunities to observe CT(s) and other experienced teachers during Week 1 and at other times during practicumStudent teachers may be asked to help relieve classes NOT more than 2 periods per day, when staff is on medical leave.CCA responsibilities – ONLY observing
50 5. Documents for CTs from Student Teachers Roles and Responsibilities of theCooperating Teacher (CT)School Coordinating Mentor (SCM)Student TeacherNIE Supervisor (NIES)Where applicable:Checklist of Teaching CompetenciesAssessment of Performance in Teaching (APT) formCV and Subject List for School Principal
51 6. Practicum Briefing for Student Teachers Professional conductbe a member of staff of the schoolwrite lesson plans for ALL lessons taughtwork closely with CTsextend copies of lesson plans to CTs in advanceAbsenteeismoriginal MCs for NIE, photocopy for school. Personal letters are not acceptedAWOL cases: SCM to fax notification form to NIE asap for warning letter to be sent outDress code guideSubmit CV and Subject List to Principal(e.g., hair length & colour, blouse length for ladies)
52 7. PGDE Practicums Use of APT form and Summative report Reduce number of teaching periodsReduce number of formative assessments by CTIntroduce Focused Conversations (FORMATIVE)formalise sharing sessions conducted by SCMsfacilitated by SCM or other senior teacherssharing of portfolio during FC1 and FC3 (15 mins per student teacher)use of Reflective Practice for FC2 (about h)Formalise pre- and post-practicum conferences with supervisors (half an hour per student for each conference)Student teachers to keep an e-portfolio
53 7.1 PGDE JC ONLYDetailsa total of hours (≈8-10 periods, based on 45 minutes per period) per weeka maximum of 2 lecture periods (Each lecture period is equivalent to 2 tutorial periods)observation of 1 Project Work (PW) lesson per week lesson observation (week 1)independent teaching (with reflection)(week 2 – 10)opportunities to teach only non-graduating classes opportunities to participate in collaborative, multi-disciplinary work (example: GP, KI, or other enrichment activities)
54 7.1 PGDE JC ONLYDetailsa maximum of 2 CTs, of which one is the main CT4 formative assessments by CT(s)If a student teacher is allocated lecture periods, 1 of the 4 formative assessments can be allocated to lecture but the other 3 should be for tutorials.The APT form will be used for both lectures and tutorials. Depending on the nature of the lesson, section(s) of the APT form can be left blank if the process(es) cannot be assessed during the lesson.2 formative assessments by NIES3 Focused Conversations
55 a total of 9-10 hours (≈14-16 periods) per week 7.2 PGDE Sec + PE(Sec) ONLYDetailsa total of 9-10 hours (≈14-16 periods) per weeklesson observation (week 1)independent teaching (with reflection)(week 2 – 10)6 formative assessments by CT(s)2 formative assessments by NIES3 Focused Conversations
56 PGDE Pri + PE(Pri): 9-10 hours (≈18-20 periods) per week 7.3 PGDE Pri + PE(Pri) ONLYDetailsteaching periodsPGDE Pri + PE(Pri): 9-10 hours (≈18-20 periods) per weekPGDE Pri – 1 CS Art/Music: hours (≈15-17 periods) per weeklesson observation (week 1)independent teaching (with reflection)(week 2 – 10)6 formative assessments by CT(s)2 formative assessments by NIES3 Focused Conversations
57 7.4 Focused Conversations Presentations for FC1 + FC3 must be supported by artifacts extracted from e-Portfolio.Record of FC (with comments from SCM) must be filed in student teacher’s practicum file.
58 7.4.1 Focused Conversations (e-Portfolio) NIE e-portfolio is referred to as the Learning and Teaching Portfolio.Both “Learning” and “Teaching” to highlight the continuum in its purpose to chart the development of a student teacher at NIE, his/her induction as a beginning teacher and his/her eventual professional development as a skillful teacher.The e-portfolio encourages student teacher to integrate and aggregate their learning.Learning portfolioPre-service trainingShowcase portfolioPracticumInduction of BTTeaching portfolioBeginning TeacherTrained teacher
59 http://www.nie.edu.sg/practicum 8. Practicum Website Content: PPT slides for induction of CTsPracticum Handbooks (hard copy will be disseminated at the SCM Briefing)Other practicum-related documents for schools, NIE Supervisors (NIES) and student teachers
60 9. Practicum Office Location : NIE2-03-03 Fax Number : 6896 9110 Telephone Number :A/P Liu Woon Chia Associate Dean, Practicum & School PartnershipsA/P Ivy Tan Sub-Dean, PracticumMs Therese Joo Manager, PracticumMs Afida Jappar Executive Officer, PracticumMs Janice Yeo Executive Officer, PracticumDr Jessie Png Sub-Dean, School PartnershipsMr Sunny Sitoe Manager, School PartnershipsDr Chua Bee Leng Sub-Dean, e-PortfolioMr Chris Chua Manager, e-PortfolioMs Berlinda Khu Asst Educational Technologist