Presentation on theme: "HEALTH PROMOTION Banyard: Psychology in Practice: Health Chapter 6."— Presentation transcript:
1HEALTH PROMOTIONBanyard: Psychology in Practice: HealthChapter 6
2In this module we will be looking at Methods of promoting health HEALTH PROMOTIONIn this module we will be looking atMethods of promoting healthHealth promotion in schools, worksites and communitiesKey issues in Health PromotionWe will also discuss WHY we need health promotion and what makes a promotion successful!
3HEALTH PROMOTION can be defined as 1. “ the process of enabling people to increase control over, and to improve, their health”Health promotion is“Not just the responsibility of the health sector but goes beyond healthy life styles to well being”Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion, W.H.O 19862. “an activity aimed at informing people about the prevention of disease and ill health and motivating them to change their behaviour”Naidoo and Wells, 2000
4HEALTH PROMOTION ACTIVITIES. Three overlapping activitiesHEALTHEDUCATIONPROTECTIONPREVENTIONThe aim of health promotion is EMPOWERMENT, i.e. enabling the individual to act in a healthy way.Tannahill, A. 1985
5PREVENTION PRIMARY PREVENTION means attempts to combat risk factors before illness occurs
6PREVENTION SECONDARY PREVENTION means identifying and treating an illness early on with the intention of curing it
7PREVENTION TERTIARY PREVENTION Focuses on slowing down the damage of serious disease and trying to rehabilitate the patient.Which category does health promotion come into? What are the benefits of this?
8Health promotion is termed as PRIMARY PREVENTION –getting people to change their lifestyles before they become ill.This type of promotion has been underused until recently for three main reasons. Can you think what they might be?
9HEALTH PROMOTIONMethods of Health Promotion:A fear appeal is......a persuasive message which emphasises the harmful physical/social consequences of failing to comply with the recommendations of the message
10The HEALTH BELIEF MODEL and the THEORY OF PLANNED BEHAVIOUR both suggest that perceived threat is necessary for a person to change their behaviour.The most obvious way to introduce this threat is through FEAR APPEALS. Think about recent anti-smoking campaigns, healthy eating, and drink driving…. The list is endless! What we need to ask ourselves is how EFFECTIVE these appeals are.CEOPS here
11What do you think of the following?.............. Consider whether each one is a mild, moderate or strong fear appeal. Why?Would it alter your behaviour? Why or why not?What emotions does it arouse for you?
188 7 Seat belt campaign Kill your speed campaign OR HOW ABOUT THESE VIDEOSSeat belt campaignKill your speed campaign78
19HEALTH PROMOTIONA classic study into the use of fear in health promotion was carried out by Janis and Feshbach in 1953 who devised a study looking at promoting oral hygiene.
20AIM:To study the motivational effects of fear arousal in health promotionPARTICIPANTSThe entire freshman year of a large Connecticut high school, average age 15 years.METHOD: 4 groups of Ps. 3 were given a 15 min lecture on tooth decay and oral hygiene.
21Strong fear appeal GROUP 1 were given a They received pictures and descriptions of diseased mouths, including explanations about the pain of tooth decay and gum disease and awful consequences like cancer and blindness.
28Highest appraisal BUT “horrible” Janis and FeshbachLECTURE FORMSTRONGMODERATEMINIMALCONTROLINCREASED ANXIETYINFORMATION AQUIREDAPPRAISAL OF COMMUNICATIONCHANGE IN HEALTH CARE42 % increase24 % increase0% increaseNo differenceNo differenceNo differenceNo differenceHighest appraisal BUT “horrible”Lowest appraisal8% increase27 % increase36% increase0 % increase
29HEALTH PROMOTIONCONCLUSIONS; The strong fear appeal created the most worry in the students and was rated as more interesting.BUTThe overall effectiveness of a health promotion campaign is likely to be REDUCED by the use of strong fear appeal. It produced the least change in behaviour.
33YALE MODEL OF COMMUNICATION. HEALTH PROMOTIONYale Model of Communication:A good health promotion must have clear and effective communication for it to reach a wide audience.Hovland, 1953, working with other researchers investigated the features of good communication that make it persuasive and effective. The general findings were summarised by Zimbardo in 1977 but the model is named after the university, hence theYALE MODEL OF COMMUNICATION.
34List some things you think are important when trying to put across a persuasive message Think about adverts. What elements make a difference to their effectiveness?
35Yale Model of Communication SITUATIONTARGETMESSAGEMEDIUSOURCECredible One / two Personal Audience School/ workExpert sided General knowledge communityTrustworthy Clear, direct, Print, t.v sympathy In home,vivid radio public.
36Now its YOUR turn! I would like you to evaluate TWO examples of Health promotions. For EACH promotion you will need to decide if ita) Follows the Yale model;b) Uses fear arousal;c) Increases perceived susceptibility;d) Increases self efficacy;e) Highlights the BENEFITS of a particular behaviour.Give a mark out of 10 for how well the health promotion uses each of these concepts.Which health promotion is the most effective?
37FOOD AND HEALTH PARTNERSHIP , UK Produced and evaluated a “Healthy Eating” programme for pre-school children.PROGRAMMESeries of three minute videos, shown at snack time in nurseries.Children given the foodstuff featured in the video as a snack. Those that ate the food given a wall-chart as a reward.Child receives a prize when wall chart complete.(Operant conditioning)
38HEALTH PROMOTION in SCHOOLS, WORKPLACE and COMMUNITY Food and health partnership evaluated the effectiveness of the programme on two classes in a multicultural school within an area of high poverty.EXPERIMENTAL GROUP: Received above programmeCONTROL GROUP: No intervention.DATA COLLECTION: interviews and questionnaires with nursery workers and anecdotal evidence from parents.Children’s eating habits before, during and after intervention were studied.Teachers reported day to day improvements in eating in the exp group but not the control group. Parents reported children in exp group more adventurous in their eating habits at home.
39HEALTH PROMOTION in SCHOOLS, WORKPLACE and COMMUNITY Johnson and Johnson “LIVE for LIFE”, 1978Evaluation of Johnson and Johnson “LIVE FOR LIFE” campaign.(Stanford University HEALTH PROJECT, 1983)J&J employees from various sites, divided into three groups.Group 1: Employees from sites with LFL programme running for 30+ months in by DecGroup 2: Employees from sites with LFL programme starting between 1 Jan 1979 to 30 March 1981.Group 3: Employees from sites with no LFL programme running.OUTCOME MEASURES:Mean inpatient costs, Hospital Admissions / 1000 employees,Hospital days / 1000 employees, Outpatient costs.RESULTS:92% higher average inpatient hospital costs for group 3.Average 20.4 more hospital days / year / 1000 employees for group 1 and 2 compared to 35.4 more hospital days / year.Aim:Programme to improve employees health knowledge, stress management, encourage health behaviours.Sample:31,000 employeesProgramme:Health screen for EACH employee, lifestyle seminar, action group, follow up contacts.J&J also provided a gym, no smoking areas and healthy eating options.
40Stanford three-city project ‘What three cities?’ I hear you cry
44HEALTH PROMOTION in SCHOOLS, WORKPLACE and COMMUNITY STANFORD THREE CITY PROJECTAIM:To promote health behaviours to reduce heart disease.SAMPLE:Residents from three cities in the USAPROGRAMME:CITY 1: Promotion of behaviours to reduce heart disease including a mass media campaign, school based health education and screening programmes in the work place to provide early warningCITY 2: All of the above + one to one counselling for individuals identified as being at riskCITY 3: No intervention (control)EVALUATION (Farquhar et al, 1985)Residents interviewed before, during and after two year project.Researchers assessed health knowledge and risk of heart disease.Initial evaluation showed factors linked with heart disease INCREASED in control city and DECREASED in other two.Further evaluation showed residents in City 1 showed increases in health knowledge BUT little change.Residents in City 2 showed dramatic increase in actual health behaviour.Researchers found intervention particularly helpful in minority groups.
45KEY CONCEPTS: HEALTH PROMOTION YALE MODEL OF COMMUNICATION Useful when designing a health promotionKEY CONCEPTS:CONDITIONINGDo any of the promotions involve reward? i.e. use POSITIVE REINFORCEMENTSELF EFFICACYALL effective health promotions aim to INCREASE self efficacyHEALTH BELIEF MODELHow does the promotion fit in with HBM?Does changing our perceptions actually change our behaviour?
46ISSUES USEFULNESS ETHICS SCREENING Problems and issues? How useful / effective was each promotion?ETHICSDo we have the right to impose health behaviours on individuals?SCREENINGProblems and issues?INTERNETMass access to medical infoDATA COLLECTIONWhich studies use self reports/ were any other methods used?