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2 Presented By : Olufemi BOLARIN Department of Agricultural Extension and Rural Development Faculty of Agriculture University of Ilorin Nigeria Presented By Olufemi Bolarin2

3 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY Access to information is one of the most critical resources in Agricultural production. Presented By Olufemi Bolarin3

4 Access to agricultural information by farmers and increase in agricultural production, as well as economic development, are inextricably interrelated with the information from researchers serving as impetus for increased agricultural productivity. Presented By Olufemi Bolarin4

5 Food and Agricultural Organization has proposed a concerted action to raise agricultural productivity by the use of effective dissemination of agricultural information using the press or else food insecurity problem will go on unabated. Presented By Olufemi Bolarin5

6 The Nigerian press has the social responsibility of passing information to the entire populace, on agricultural innovation and agricultural information generally. This social responsibility becomes imperative especially with its claim as the vanguard of the people for sustainable development. Presented By Olufemi Bolarin6

7 News papers, in addition to their roles of informing, educating and entertaining the society, also serve as purveyors of change, watchdogs and custodians of the peoples interest. Presented By Olufemi Bolarin7

8 The effort of the press in carrying agricultural news to the entire populace becomes important because of the role food plays in the national polity and survival. Implementation of major agricultural reforms also can only reach the teeming masses through the press. Presented By Olufemi Bolarin8

9 Williams (1978) and Aubrac (1977) argued that ineffective use of mass media by the extension delivery system has been responsible for the paucity of information on agricultural practices. Presented By Olufemi Bolarin9

10 Newspaper a product of the press as: – Collective Propagandist – Collective Agitator – Collective Organizer Presented By Olufemi Bolarin10

11 Newspaper has been referred to as – A gate keeper of information – An advocate – Purveyors of information – Vehicle for change Presented By Olufemi Bolarin11

12 Since extension agent are change agents and Newspaper are vehicle of change thus Newspapers become vital in the social change process most especially among the farmers. Newspaper are meant to be extension counterpart. Presented By Olufemi Bolarin12

13 Potentials of Newspaper Create awareness. Present Pros and Cons of issue. Serve as resource material. Prepare reader for social change by publishing articles that serve the needs of the society. Presented By Olufemi Bolarin13

14 – Preservation potential where content erosion is minimal. – Presentation of Agricultural variables and attribute. – Agricultural issues, reported in newspapers have the potential of reaching at least 10 million people per day in Nigeria. Presented By Olufemi Bolarin14

15 Peculiar Qualities of Newspaper – Can be stored and repeatedly referred to when necessary. – Can be used for announcing different events and meetings that are important to the farmers. – Can be used to raise level of awareness of farmers and their interest. – Can serve as resources material to extension personnel and farmers. Presented By Olufemi Bolarin15

16 – Excellent expository resource material from where farmer can gain insight into agricultural research findings. – Can present timely information on crop and livestock operations. – Featuring success stories. – Surveying the effect of new improved farm practices. Presented By Olufemi Bolarin16

17 THE PROBLEM STATEMENT The simmering crisis in Nigeria Agriculture involves dissemination of timely and relevant farm information to the farmers. Also inadequate transmission of research findings to farmers has been laid at the feet of extensions. Presented By Olufemi Bolarin17

18 Therefore extensionist needs to look forwards the technological media in solving this problem of information dissemination by the use of newspapers. Presented By Olufemi Bolarin18

19 Thus the study is set to ascertain the extent of focus or perceived attention paid to agriculture by Nigerian newspapers. Presented By Olufemi Bolarin19

20 RESEARCH QUESTIONS What are the content-pattern of Agricultural Information published in selected Nigerian newspapers? Presented By Olufemi Bolarin20

21 MAIN OBJECTIVE The main objective of the study is to content analyze selected newspapers publication on agricultural issues between 1996 and 2005. Presented By Olufemi Bolarin21

22 SPECIFIC OBJECTIVE To examine the content –pattern of agricultural information published by the selected Nigerian newspapers. Presented By Olufemi Bolarin22

23 Research Hypotheses Ho:There is no significant difference in the extent of coverage of different areas of agriculture by the selected Nigerian newspapers Presented By Olufemi Bolarin23

24 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY Effective agricultural information will assist in boosting farmer capacity to increase their agricultural productivity. In addition, the Watchdog function of the press could be brought to bear on the coverage of agricultural issues to make government accord the desired priority to agriculture. Presented By Olufemi Bolarin24

25 Thus findings from this study will focus on generating information that will be useful to the newspaper proprietors, The study hopes to sensitize policy makers on the need for partnership between extension and newspapers. It will also trigger off serious attention to the social responsibility of the newspaper. The work hopes to help bring to the forefront of media research concern for agricultural information dissemination as the bane for improvement in agricultural productivity. Presented By Olufemi Bolarin25

26 The study will advance public understanding of agricultural issues by improving the quality, accuracy and visibility of agricultural information reportage in Nigeria. The study in addition will shed light on which area of agriculture is a priority and interest to the newspapers publishers. Finally, the study will contribute to existing empirical data on strategy formulation and design of relevant interventions in agriculture to enhance farmers education in terms of knowledge and skills. Presented By Olufemi Bolarin26

27 Scope of the Study The study is restricted to the selected newspapers, specifically, the nationally circulated newspapers. Two governments owned (The Daily Times and New Nigeria and two privately owned newspapers The Punch and Nigerian Tribune) are utilized. Presented By Olufemi Bolarin27

28 Limitation of the Study Was the dearth of adequately stocked library of past newspapers spanning a decade, without omission. The factor of breaks in the publication of two privately-owned newspapers Nigerian Tribune and The Punch newspaper, which were sealed off by the then Military Government for a period of time. Was poor serials of newspaper acquisition by Nigerian Libraries. Presented By Olufemi Bolarin28

29 CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK Presented By Olufemi Bolarin29 Medial Pluralism Source Channel Receiver New spaper Publish er Radi o Tele vision AGRICULTURAL ISSUE Extension agent Media Large numbers of media Various type Various ownership Traditional Media Drums, dance music Theatre songs, Stories sculpture AFAN member Farmer l Public International organization Government official & others GovernmentPrivate Daily Times New Nigeria (Newspaper) Nigeria Tribune The punch Newspaper Content manifest OFFICIAL NON- OFFICIAL - Official Proceeding - Leaks - Official Conferences - Briefings informal sources - National Council & state - Proceeding from farmer on agriculture briefing association - Central Bank Food - Young farmers group on food Security conferences production - Federal, State & LGA- Interviews with Scientist Department of Agriculture - Expert Opinion Briefings- Previous media report - NGOs report - CBOs report - Members of public (Study Objective) (Research Instrument) Prominenc e Media source Content – pattern Depth Trending Pattern (Content Analysis) Usage Challenges to usage (Cross Sectional Survey) Adapted from Theory of Nigerian Press and D.K Berlo Communication Model

30 METHODOLOGY Study is based on the crucial role of newspaper social responsibility in the social construction of agricultural news. Using the content analysis approach. Study area. Nigeria with a population of about 140million people whereby 60% population are engaged in agriculture with a huge market for agricultural information. Study population All the one hundred and three(133) newspapers published in Nigeria. Presented By Olufemi Bolarin30

31 Sampling Procedure A multi level random sampling process was adopted. First level – Selection of government-owned newspaper and privately- owned newspaper Second level – Selection of two government owned newspaper and two privately owned newspaper with national spread in term of circulation and coverage. Presented By Olufemi Bolarin31

32 Research Techniques Exploratory opinion survey method Categorization of manifest content of newspaper publication on agriculture Presented By Olufemi Bolarin32

33 SAMPLE SIZE Content Analysis Sample Universe Expectedly a total number of (14,622) newspaper editions were available to the researcher. Presented By Olufemi Bolarin33

34 CONTENT ANALYSIS SAMPLE SIZE Three newspaper edition per week for fifty-two (52) week in a year. 3x52edition=156editions For a decade=1,560editions per newspaper For the four(4)newspapers=(156 newspapers x 10years x 4editions)=6,240editions. Due to attrition Inability to documentary Failure of supply channel due to mechanical or human fault. Lack of some publications only four thousand nine hundred and nine(4,409) editions could be examined. Presented By Olufemi Bolarin34

35 NEWSPAPERSSAMPLE SIZEPERCENTAGE % PUNCH1,35987.1 TRIBUNE1,32084.6 DAILY TIMES1,03366.2 NEW NIGERIA1,19776.76 TOTAL4,909100.00 Presented By Olufemi Bolarin35

36 RESEARCH INSTRUMENT Content analysis using the content analysis coding sheet. Definition and categorization of study universe using (Holsti 1969, Berlinger !986, Soetan 1999, Shitton and Shelly 2001 models). Identification of unit of analysis using (Holsti 1969, Berlinger 1986 and Soetan 1999 method of analysis) newspaper publication of Prominence, Source Form and Depth [ProSoForDep model]. Presented By Olufemi Bolarin36

37 Result and Discussions TABLE.1 Newspaper Publications Newspaper EditionsFrequencyPercentage Editions with no Agricultural- Related stories 307662.7 Editions with Agricultural- related stories 183337.3 Total4909100 Presented By Olufemi Bolarin37

38 TABLE.2 Comparative analysis of word usage and report size among the four newspapers based on the ownership structure. Newspaper Mean Number of Words used Mean report size in (Cubic cm) The Nigeria Tribune The Punch The New Nigeria The Daily Time 104.17 7.3747 c 93.90 4.7541 d 192.30 11.6630 a 150.4 10.5112 b 41.1 3.6443 a 7.9 9.904 d 9.5.4630 b 8.6. 8635 c Presented By Olufemi Bolarin38

39 TABLE.3 Distribution of the Newspapers Articles Based on the Area of Focus Area of Agriculture Government owned Privately owned New Nigeria Daily Time TotalRanking Nigerian Tribune The Punch TotalRanking Agricultural Mechanization Agriculture related cartoon Fisheries Crop production Agricultural finance & credit Farm Management Agricultural Development & Policy Livestock Resources Sustainable Ecosystem Training and Visit 64 1 28 79 111 08 241 70 15 26 1 9 68 51 08 133 49 6 90 02 47 147 162 16 374 119 21 5 th 9 th 6 th 3 rd 2 nd 8 th 1 st 4 th 7 th 51 17 06 79 30 09 97 32 09 32 3 28 82 67 07 181 94 03 83 20 34 161 97 16 278 126 12 5 th 7 th 6 th 2 nd 4 th 8 th 1 st 3 rd 9 th Presented By Olufemi Bolarin39

40 TABLE.4 Chi-square Test on Content-pattern of Selected Newspapers Publication on Agriculture Pearson Computed Value D.f Level of Significance 138.07270.05 No. of Valid Case1833 Presented By Olufemi Bolarin40

41 Major Findings and Discussions Comparative analysis of the mean number of words usage and mean report size in cubic cm. using ANOVA and Duncan Multiple range test gives F=26.028 @ 0.000 with the f=93.90 for The Punch, f=104.17 for Nigerian Tribune incidentally both are privately-owned newspapers. The two government-owned newspapers had greater f-value of The Daily Times with f =150.4079 and sthat had f = 192.3054. This is indicative of a strong disparity in the number of words used in reporting agricultural issues and space allotted to the news items. Presented By Olufemi Bolarin41

42 Content Pattern Newspaper report on agricultural issues in the study were found to be skewed towards Agricultural Development and Policy issues which constitute about 35.6 percent of total reportage of the agricultural related information. Test statistics revealed a significant difference in the content pattern of agricultural information published by the selected newspapers, (x 2 = 138.07; p=<0.001). Emphases on food production are more prominent in privately owned newspapers than in the government owned. Presented By Olufemi Bolarin42

43 CONCLUSION This study is based on the fact that responsiveness of newspaper publications to farmers need is very essential. Such as information on critical farm inputs and sources of credit will improve readership structure of newspapers and boost agricultural productivity. Presented By Olufemi Bolarin43

44 The study concluded that newspapers are not playing the expected leading role in agricultural information dissemination as obtained in other countries of the world like the World-top-ten/countries – with – highest newspapers circulation namely: China, Japan, USA, India, Germany, UK, France, Russia, Brazil and Italy. Presented By Olufemi Bolarin44 CONCLUSION

45 RECOMMENDATION As a mater of National policy, the Federal Government should compel all National Newspapers to include a column for Agricultural news in every publication. Presented By Olufemi Bolarin45

46 THANKS FOR GOOD LISTENING. Presented By Olufemi Bolarin46


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