Presentation on theme: "The Mass Media and the Political Agenda"— Presentation transcript:
1The Mass Media and the Political Agenda Chapter 7The Mass Media and the Political AgendaEdwards, Wattenberg, and LineberryGovernment in America: People, Politics, and PolicyFourteenth Edition
2Introduction Mass Media: Television, radio, newspapers, magazines, the Internet and other means of popular communicationHigh-Tech Politics:Politics in which the behavior of citizens and policymakers and the political agenda itself are increasingly shaped by technology
3The Mass Media Today Media Events: Image Making News Management Effective communication through media is key to political success.Media Events:Events purposely staged for the media that nonetheless look spontaneous.Image MakingNews Management
4The Impact of the Internet Wider range of informationMore biased? Less accurate?Potential to inform?Since Americans are generally disinterested in politics, they will not necessarily use the Internet for political information. (2% News)Blogsadditional information / opinion
6Only a small number of TV stations are publicly owned in America. Private Control of the MediaOnly a small number of TV stations are publicly owned in America.Media are totally dependent on advertising revenues.Chains:Account for over four-fifths of the nation’s daily newspaper circulationAlso control broadcast media
8Reporting the News Beats: specific locations from which news frequently emanates.Trial Balloons:an intentional news leak for the purpose of assessing the political reactionReporters and their sources…depend on each other.
9Presenting the News Superficial describes most news coverage today. Sound Bites: short video clips of approximately 10 secondsMajor TV networks devote less time to covering political candidates
10Many people believe the news is biased in favor of one point of view. Bias in the NewsMany people believe the news is biased in favor of one point of view.Generally is not very biased toward a particular ideologyNews reporting is biased towards what will draw the largest audience—good pictures and negative reporting
13The News and Public Opinion Television newsAgenda-setting effectProvides criteriaWhich the public evaluates political leaders.Provides coverageSome stories or events can be made more important or less important.
14The Media’s Agenda-Setting Function Policy AgendaThe issues that attract the serious attention of public officials and other people actively involved in politics at the timePolicy EntrepreneursPeople who get an issue placed high on governmental agendaUse media to raise awareness of issue
15The Media and the Scope of Government Media as watchdog restricts politiciansGovernment met with skepticism which restricts scope of governmentIf media identifies a problem, it forces government to address it, which expands the scope of government
17Individualism and the Media Candidates appeal to people on televisionEasier to focus on one person like the president, than groups, e.g., Congress or the courtsDemocracy and the Media“Information is the fuel of democracy.”But news provides more entertainment than information; superficial.News is a business, giving people what they want.
18SummaryMedia shape public opinion on political issues and influence policy agenda.Broadcast media have replaced print media over time.Narrowcasting and the Internet are further shifting media.Seeking profits, media are biased in favor of stories with high drama.
19Additional Info - THE MASS MEDIA Remy Summary-AAdditional Info - THE MASS MEDIAThe Fourth Branch of Government - “The Mass Media”?Newspapers98 % 1 paper cities - 78 % of circulation by chainsNational weekly magazines (Time,USN, Newsweek)Can set national agendaWire services (AP, UPI) employ reporters worldwideUsed by more newspapers today (cut costs)Electronic Media (Radio, TV, Cable, Internet)The Federal Communications Commission (FCC)Regulates broadcast ownership & contentAlmost all media are privately ownedOwnership has become less diversified
20Information that is “useful” (gov/econ/bus) CH 19- THE MASS MEDIARemy Summary-BWhat makes “news” ?Information that is “useful” (gov/econ/bus)Information that is “popular” (entertainment)The President -80 % of nat. gov. media coverageTV has great impact presidential campaignsFocus on key leaders in CongressThe First Amendment (Freedom of the Press)No prior restraintNational security exceptionsNational security v citizen’s right to knowPentagon Papers (1971)No laws against criticizing government officialsShield laws in some states (36 states, Ohio = Yes)
22ERAS OF THE AMERICAN PRESS PARTY PRESS NON-Edwardian InfoERAS OF THE AMERICAN PRESSPARTY PRESSPARTIES STARTED & SUPPORTED NEWSPAPERSPOPULAR PRESSMASS CIRCULATION“YELLOW JOURNALISM”, “MUCKRAKERS”MAGAZINES OF OPINIONMIDDLE CLASS PROGRESSIVE MOVEMENTELECTRONIC JOURNALISMRAPID NEWS REPORTINGCHANGED THE WAY WE VIEWED POLITICIANS
37OF THE AMERICAN NEWS MEDIA THE MEDIAHISTORY & STRUCTUREOF THE AMERICAN NEWS MEDIAGOV’T CONTROL OVER RADIO AND TV BY THE F.C.C.LICENSINGDECENCY STANDARDSGOV’T INFLUENCE ON THE NEWSLEAKS(TRIAL BALLOONS, PERSONAL ATTACKS)BACKGROUND STORIES(INSIDER INFORMATION)PUNITIVE MEASURES
38SELECTION OF NEWS (BIAS) (AND MORE KNOWLEDGEABLE) THE MEDIASELECTION OF NEWS (BIAS)THE NATIONAL PRESS IS STAFF BY PEOPLE WHO ARE MORE LIBERAL THAN THE PUBLIC IN GENERAL.(AND MORE KNOWLEDGEABLE)
40MASS MEDIA MAY NOT REFLECT REALITY OPPORTUNITIES FOR SLANTING THE NEWS1-SELECTION OF NEWS TO COVER70% IS PREPLANNED (THOM. DYE)2-WRITING AND EDITING PROCESS3-INTERPRETATION OF THE NEWS4-EMPHASIS OF THE NEWS
41Media Bias Questions about effects of media bias. Media bias unavoidable--journalists are human.Media generally thought to be liberal.Recent growth of conservative news sources.Looking at good stories over issues.Can be charmed by interesting personalities.
42Confidence in the Media General confidence is on a downturn.Republicans are more critical than Democrats.Democrats and Republicans use different sources.Ideological fragmentation may be cause for concern.People tend to choose news that supports their opinion.
43THE INFLUENCE OF THE MEDIA IS QUESTIONABLESHALLOW INFORMATION“SOUND BITES”SELECTIVE VIEWINGWATCH WHAT WE AGREE WITH
60THE MEDIA IMPORTANT TERMS ASSOCIATED PRESSATTACK JOURNALISMCANNED NEWSCOMMUNITY NEEDSEQUAL-TIME RULEFAIRNESS DOCTRINEFEATURE STORIESFEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (FCC)INSIDER STORIESLOADED LANGUAGEMARKET (TELEVISION)MUCKRAKER
61THE MEDIA IMPORTANT TERMS LOADED LANGUAGEMARKET (TELEVISION)MUCKRAKEROFF THE RECORDON BACKGROUNDRECKLESS DISREGARDRIGHT-OF-REPLY RULESELECTIVE ATTENTIONSOUND BITETRAIL BALLOON“YELLOW JOURNALISM”
62THE MEDIA QUESTIONS1-DOES THE DESIRE OF AMERICAN NEWSPAPERS TO BE “OBJECTIVE” MAKE AMERICANS LESS INFORMED? SHOULD THE UNITED STATES HAVE THE PARTY PRESS LIKE MANY EUROPEAN NATIONS?2-DOES A POPULAR PRESS PANDER TO THE LOWEST COMMON DENOMINATOR OF INTEREST AND TASTE?3-EXPLAIN HOW LOCALISM & DECENTRALIZED QUALITIES OF THE AMERICAN NEWS MEDIA CONTRIBUTE TO THE PROMOTION OF DEMOCRACY?4-IF MOST REPORTERS HOLD LIBERAL VIEWS WHY HASN’T AMERICAN SOCIETY BECOME MORE LIBERAL OVER THE YEARS?
63AP - THE MEDIA QUESTIONS 5-DEFINE THE WATCHDOG ROLE OF THE PRESS. IS IT GOOD OR BAD FOR DEMOCRACY?6-WHAT SORT OF ISSUES WOULD YOU EXPECT THE MEDIA TO HAVE THE MOST IMPACT?7- WHAT LIMITS SHOULD THERE BE ON FREEDOM OF THE PRESS?