Presentation on theme: "Man and the Environment: Biomedical Development Arielle Koh, Tan Xiao Wei, Lu Shao Qin and Ian Tung (4, 9, 14, 20)"— Presentation transcript:
Man and the Environment: Biomedical Development Arielle Koh, Tan Xiao Wei, Lu Shao Qin and Ian Tung (4, 9, 14, 20)
Introduction Biomedical Science is the application of the principles of the natural sciences to medicine. A part of it is biomedical engineering. Biomedical engineering is the application of engineering principles and design concepts to create medicine and improve healthcare treatment. It is the building of useful replacements for various parts of the human body.
HAMLET Scientists from NTU and Lund University in Sweden have bioengineered a molecule which has been proven to kill tumour cells without doing much harm to healthy cells. It is called HAMLET, which is an acronym for Human Alpha- lactalbumin Made Lethal to Tumour cells. The molecule is based on a natural protein found in human breast milk.
Stem cells Stem cells are biological cells found in all multicellular organisms, that can divide and differentiate into diverse specialised cell types in the organism and can produce more stem cells.biological cellsorganismsdividedifferentiate
Development of Stem cells In mammals, there are two types of stem cells: embryonic stem cells, which are isolated from the inner cell mass of blastocysts, and adult stem cells, which are found in various tissues, like bone marrow.mammalsinner cell massblastocysts adult stem cells
The difference between these two is that embryonic stem cells are pluripotent and they can become any kind of cell in the body. Adult stem cells can only become a few types of cells like bone marrow. Scientists use these stem cells to develop more of a type of cell. For instance, they can be used to treat leukaemia to develop into bone marrow to produce blood cells. Stem cells
Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) scans have been invented and used to view internal parts of the body. This has been useful to detect internal diseases of the body. It is more accurate and less harmful than X-ray scans. Computed Axial Tomography is another type of scanner which has a similar function to fMRI. FMRI and CAT Scans
Concerned with the study of the human body, the best contribution that bionics has made is in biomedical engineering. Artificial body part replacement has helped millions to live longer. Biomedical engineers work with doctors to build these artificial body parts. Modern hospitals now have available spare parts to replace a part of the body that is badly damaged by injury or disease. Bionics
Xenotransplantation involves the transfer of cells from one species to another. Scientists are exploring the possibility of transplanting pigs' organs into humans as they are easily available and of similar size to human organs. Xenotransplantation
How has biomedical engineering helped us? Biomedical engineering has improved lives by increasing life spans. Disabled people find it more convenient to carry out everyday activities. We have made many scientific advancements with biomedical engineering.
Downsides of biomedical development Some people think that extracting the stem cells from unborn babies is an act of murder. However, these embryonic stem cells tend to be from aborted zygotes and about to die anyway. Due to this controversy against embryonic stem cell research, in Singapore, stem cells can be extracted from embryos as long as they are 14 days old or less.
Bacteria can also mutate and develop immunity to current medicine. That is why scientists must always keep medicine one step ahead of the mutation of viruses. The mutations are sometimes caused by viruses which are left uncured in the body.This is why we have to finish our course of antibiotics to remove all traces of viruses in our body so it will not mutate. Downsides of biomedical development
A graphic representation of how the Influenza A virus mutates
Effects on the environment 1. If we fail to carefully monitor and dispose of our research in this field, there could be devastating consequences. If we do not dispose of a deadly or contagious virus we are studying properly, it could lead to a global epidemic outbreak, which could affect animals and thus the ecosystem as well if it could be passed to animals.
2. Because human life can be sustained longer and mortality rate is decreased, there will most likely be an increase in the population number. This might cause limited resources to deplete at a faster rate. Effects on the environment
3. On the other hand, we can better treat animals of their injuries and diseases. We can better treat endangered species affected by disease or injured by activities such as poaching.This might help maintain or increase the number of a certain animal. Effects on the environment
4. We might also be able to to release a certain kind of virus to target a certain type of animal to prevent an outbreak of that animal which can affect biodiversity. (Similar to using Cabomba-eating animals to control the population of the Cabomba plant.) Effects on the environment