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Section 1: Mission Overview Mission Statement Mission Requirements Mission Overview Concept of Operations Expected Results 2.

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Presentation on theme: "Section 1: Mission Overview Mission Statement Mission Requirements Mission Overview Concept of Operations Expected Results 2."— Presentation transcript:


2 Section 1: Mission Overview Mission Statement Mission Requirements Mission Overview Concept of Operations Expected Results 2

3 Section 2: Design Description Off-ramps Physical Model Mechanical Design Electrical and Software Design Section 3: Prototyping and Analysis Mechanical Subsystems Electrical Subsystems Mass Budget Power Budget 3

4 Section 4: Manufacturing Plan Mechanical Elements Electrical and Software Elements Section 5: Testing Plan PEA Subsystem EPS Subsystem VVS Subsystem Total System Testing 4

5 Section 6: Prototype Risk Assessment PDR Risk Walk-down Top CDR Risks Section 7: Users Guide Compliance Section 8: Project Management Organizational Chart Schedule Budget Sharing Logistics 5


7 Develop and test a system that will use piezoelectric materials to convert mechanical vibrational energy into electrical energy to trickle charge on-board power systems. 7

8 NumberRequirement MIS-REQ- 1000 Must be able to convert vibrational energy to electrical energy MIS-REQ- 2000 Must be able to withstand launch environments MIS-REQ- 3000 Final design must meet RockSAT specifications MIS-REQ- 4000 Must be functional during flight MIS-REQ- 5000 Must not interfere with canister partners design 8

9 Demonstrate feasibility of power generation via piezoelectric effect under Terrier-Orion flight conditions Determine optimal piezoelectric material for energy conversion in this application Classify relationships between orientation of piezoelectric actuators and output voltage Data will benefit future RockSAT and CubeSAT missions as a potential source of power Data will be used for feasibility study 9

10 G-switch will trip upon launch, activating all onboard power systems Batteries power Arduino microprocessor and data storage unit Data collection begins Vibration and g-loads on piezo arrays create electric potential registered on voltmeter Current conditioned to DC through full-bridge rectifier and run to voltmeter Voltmeter output recorded to internal memory Data gathered throughout duration of flight 10

11 Data acquisition and storage will enable researchers to monitor input from multiple sources XY-plane vibrational energy Z-axis vibrational energy Researchers will determine if amount of power generated is sufficient for the power demands of other satellites Include visual verification of functionality Use energy from piezo arrays to power small LED Onboard digital camera will verify LED illumination 11

12 Piezoelectric beam array will harness enough vibrational energy to generate and store voltage sufficient to power satellite systems Anticipate output of 130 mV per piezo strip, based on preliminary testing. Success dependent on following factors: Permittivity of piezoelectric material Mechanical stress, which is related to the amplitude of vibrations Frequency of vibrations 12


14 14 EPS – Electrical Power Subsystem Includes Arduino microprocessor, g-switch, accelerometers, voltmeter, battery power supply, and all related wiring STR – Structural Subsystem Includes Rocksat-C decks and support columns PEA – Piezoelectric Array Subsystem Includes piezoelectric bimorph actuators, cantilever strips, mounting system, rectifier, and related wiring VVS – Visual Verification Subsystem Includes digital camera, LED, and all related wiring

15 15 Main concern: Camera activation Relaying the camera to the g-switch for activation after launch will likely prove difficult. If this cannot be achieved on time, the VVS will be removed from the payload. This will drop the mass of the payload significantly, and will require additional ballast in its place.

16 16 Microcontroller Power Supply Accelerometer Array Piezo Arrays Camera Verification LED Bridge Rectifiers Flight Decks Standoff Supports G-Switch

17 17 4.313 10.0 Canister Partners Space Allowance

18 18 Aluminum Standoffs Stainless Fasteners Clear Acrylic Flight Decks ¼ thick 9.29 dia. QTY = 2 5/16 hex x 2 ¼ long QTY = 5 8-32 thread x 3/8 long QTY = 10 Fifth standoff column included to provide support for EPS electronics mounted to top deck.

19 19 Aluminum Cantilever Fasteners Piezoelectric Strip Support Block Different orientations account for vibrations in multiple planes. PZT Ceramic 40 mm x 10 mm 5 mm thick 2 ¼ x ½ 0.040 thick

20 20 Mounted to Lower DeckUse 4-40 x 3/8 Screws

21 21 Piezoelectric Power Output LED Arduino Microcontroller Camera Power Supply Rectifier Piezoelectric Power Output LED Rectifier High-G Accelerometer Low-G Accelerometer G-Switch

22 22 Piezoelectric Wire Output LED EPS Power Supply Camera

23 23 Powered by 4 AA batteries Connects directly to microcontroller Modified to incorporate G-switch To Bridge Rectifier LED Piezo Arrays (Battery) G-Switch Battery Pack Microcontroller PEA-VVS Circuit DiagramG-switch interface with EPS

24 24 Low-G Accelerometer High-G Accelerometer

25 25 Bridge Rectifier #1 Bridge Rectifier #2 Piezo Array 1 Piezo Array 2

26 Breadboard used for SD card and Arduino microcontroller integration 26 http://www.electronics-

27 27 Two breadboards LED circuit SD card integration Allowance of 15-20 iterations to debug electronics Limited previous exposure to programming microcontrollers and EE in general All electrical elements have been procured Four dual-axis accelerometers have been replaced with two three-axis accelerometers

28 28

29 29 InputOutputPurpose G-Switch T/FTrue/FalseWrite to SD when T Accelerometer 1 X Voltage Outputs All data output to SD card via write to file command Data Collection Accelerometer 1 YData Collection Accelerometer 1 ZData Collection Accelerometer 2 XData Collection Accelerometer 2 YData Collection Accelerometer 2 ZData Collection Bridge Rectifier 1Data Collection Bridge Rectifier 2Data Collection Time (>1000s?)True/FalseEnd write command when T

30 30 */ // these constants describe the pins. They won't change: const int groundpin = 18; // analog input pin 4 -- ground const int powerpin = 19; // analog input pin 5 -- voltage const int xpin = A3; // x-axis of the accelerometer const int ypin = A2; // y-axis const int zpin = A1; // z-axis (only on 3- axis models) void setup() { // initialize the serial communications: Serial.begin(9600); // Provide ground and power by using the analog inputs as normal // digital pins. This makes it possible to directly connect the // breakout board to the Arduino. If you use the normal 5V and // GND pins on the Arduino, you can remove these lines. pinMode(groundpin, OUTPUT); pinMode(powerpin, OUTPUT); digitalWrite(groundpin, LOW); digitalWrite(powerpin, HIGH); } void loop() { // print the sensor values: Serial.print(analogRead(xpin)); // print a tab between values: Serial.print("\t"); Serial.print(analogRead(ypin)); // print a tab between values: Serial.print("\t"); Serial.print(analogRead(zpin)); Serial.println(); // delay before next reading: delay(100);

31 31 #include int print_disk_info(); int sample(); int readDisk(); byte incomingByte; void printWelcome(); long int address; byte tempBytes[2]; void setup() { Serial.begin(9600); delay(1000); printWelcome(); if(!sd_raw_init()) { Serial.println("MMC/SD initialization failed"); } print_disk_info(); }void loop() { int i; if(Serial.available()>0) {; switch(incomingByte) { case 114: readDisk(); break; case 115: sample(); break; default: break;}} int sample() { int i,j; int temp; byte low; byte high; byte inByte; Serial.println(); Serial.println("Sampling.."); for(i=0;i<500;i=i+2) { if(Serial.available()>0) {; if(inByte==113) return 0;} temp=analogRead(0); Serial.print(temp,DEC); Serial.print(" "); //Convert int to 2 bytes low=temp&0xFF; high=temp>>8; // Serial.print(temp,DEC); //Serial.print(low,DEC); //Serial.print(high,DEC); tempBytes[0]=low; tempBytes[1]=high; if(!sd_raw_write(i,tempBytes,2)) { Serial.print("Write error"); } //sd_raw_sync(); delay(5000); Serial.println(); } return 1;} int readDisk() { byte low; byte high; byte info[2]; int i; int result; Serial.println(); for(i=0;i<50;i=i+2) {sd_raw_read(i,info,2); //Serial.print(info[0],DEC); //Serial.print(" "); //Serial.print(info[1],DEC); low=info[0]; high=info[1]; result=high<<8; //result<<8; Serial.print(" "); Serial.print(result+low,DEC); Serial.print(" ");}} void printWelcome() int print_disk_info() { Serial.println("------------------------"); Serial.println("Data sampling system"); Serial.println("send r to read disk"); Serial.println("send s to start sampling"); Serial.println("send q to stop sampling"); Serial.println("Ready....."); Serial.println("-------------------------");} { struct sd_raw_info disk_info; if(!sd_raw_get_info(&disk_info)) { return 0; } Serial.println(); Serial.print("rev: "); Serial.print(disk_info.revision,HEX); Serial.println(); Serial.print("serial: 0x"); Serial.print(disk_info.serial,HEX); Serial.println(); Serial.print("date: "); Serial.print(disk_info.manufacturing_month,DEC); Serial.println(); Serial.print(disk_info.manufacturing_year,DEC); Serial.println(); Serial.print("size: "); Serial.print(disk_info.capacity,DEC); {Serial.println(); Serial.print("copy: "); Serial.print(disk_info.flag_copy,DEC); Serial.println(); Serial.print(" "); Serial.print(disk_info.flag_write_protect_temp,DEC); Serial.print('/'); Serial.print(disk_info.flag_write_protect,DEC); Serial.println(); Serial.print("format: "); Serial.print(disk_info.format,DEC); Serial.println(); Serial.print("free: "); return 1;}


33 33 PEA Preliminary test setup measured voltage levels from a single strip actuator under deformation using a digital voltmeter. Results suggest adequate voltage potential for entire system, with an average of approximately 132 mVAC generated by a single actuator. Preliminary finite element analysis results in ABAQUS suggest aluminum is adequate for resistance to cyclic loading in this application. Mechanical analysis, in conjunction with destructive testing of piezo actuators, will optimize dimensions of support cantilever dimensions.

34 34 STR Preliminary FEA results suggest a fifth aluminum standoff is desirable for added support of electronic components on upper deck. Currently finalizing design and interactions with PEA mounting methods. EPS SD card adapter to be integrated Accelerometers integrated into microcontroller and tested for data output VVS Tested LED circuit for functional interaction with PEA

35 35 Preliminary piezo strip actuator voltage testing for PEA design Preliminary piezo strip actuator LED testing for PEA-VVS interaction

36 36 Point LoadDistributed Load Maximum deformation at end of beam, where x = L Combined loading during flight due to G-loading and mass at end of beam

37 37 PEA Stress Analysis Point load to simulate mass at end Uniform load to simulate G-loading Maximum stress does not exceed 2000 psi

38 38 PEA Deformation Analysis Point load to simulate mass at end Uniform load to simulate G-loading Maximum deformation: 0.3 inches

39 39 STR Stress Analysis Point load at electronic elements Uniform load to simulate G-loading Maximum stress does not exceed 649.6 psi

40 40 STR Deformation Analysis Point load at electronic elements Uniform load to simulate G-loading Maximum deformation: 0.92 inches

41 41 PartMass (lbf)QtySubtotal (lbf)Comment STR Flight Deck0.8421.68 Aluminum Standoff0.0250.1 PEA Piezoelectric Arrays0.0140.04 Includes actuator, cantilever, mounting block, fastener, and deflection limiter EPS G-Swtich0.0141 Microprocessor0.0891 Bridge Rectifier0.01220.024 Accelerometers0.00220.004 AA Battery0.01784.0712Includes battery holder VVS LEDN/A10Negligible weight Camera0.0691 1 Based on micro-camera, may change manufacturer TOTAL 2.091

42 42 PartVoltage (V)Current (A)QtyTime On (min)Amp-hoursComment STR Structure000100 PEA PiezoElectric Actuators0.13 V-4100power generation part of project scope EPS G-Swtich250VAC5.00E+0010.021.39E-03 Microprocessor5V4.00E-0254103.60E-01 Bridge Rectifier201.00E+002103.33E-01 Accelerometers2.2-16 V5.00E-042101.67E-04 VVS LED0.055 V5.00E-052101.67E-05 Camera 10 Self-Contained TOTAL0.69


44 44 STR Acrylic plate laser-cut to size/shape of flight decks Flight decks among first components manufactured to ensure proper interaction with other subsystems PEA Cantilevers cut to size from sheet aluminum upon determining optimum Piezo actuators to be bonded to cantilevers Mounting blocks and deflection limiters must be custom-milled from aluminum stock

45 45 EPS Electronic interfaces will be table-tested with breadboard and reconfigurable components Testing will help to determine system capabilities VVS Testing will help to determine system capabilities and effects on other subsystems

46 46 Code to be finalized Accelerometers Voltage output from bridge rectifiers SD card data recording Code to be developed Power loop for camera G-switch Code block dependencies SD card code integrates all subroutines All code dependent on true output from G-switch Software Elements


48 48 Non-destructive Testing Non-destructive testing will determine voltage output from piezo actuators. Test Plan Connect actuators to voltmeter, LEDs; flex actuators to generate current Destructive Testing Will determine bending deformation limits of piezo actuators. Test Plan Use spindle micrometer to bend piezos until fracture. Piezo Actuator Tests

49 49 Unrestricted Cantilever Unrestricted cantilever testing will determine max deformation limits of cantilevers and whether or not a block is needed to restrict deformation. Cantilevers will be designed so that they bend freely with only slight vibration. Test Plan Set up cantilever assembly on vibe table Measure deflection using high speed camera Cantilever Tests

50 50 Restricted Cantilever Restricted cantilever testing will ensure that designed block will restrict deformation as needed such that PEA wont deform past piezo deformation limits. Block will be designed to restrict deformation in the + and – axis. Test Plan Same as unrestricted tests except for use of block. Cantilever Tests continued

51 51 Thermal and Adhesive Tests Thermal tests will be used to determine thermal expansion of the piezos once adhered to the cantilever. This will ensure that the piezos dont crack once adhered. Results will determine adhesive to be used. Test Plan Adhere piezo actuator to cantilever material Subject assembly to cyclic thermal environment Bake in oven, then put in freezer

52 52 Arduino Sampling Rates Tests will ensure Arduino board records at highest sampling rate possible. Test will be completed after all subsequent electronics are tested. Test Plan Connect all systems to Arduino board, click system on with G-switch Set resolution Iteratively check data collection while increasing sampling rates

53 53 Arduino Data Collection Tests will ensure Arduino board records data as required. Test will be completed after all subsequent electronics are tested. Test Plan Connect all systems to Arduino board, click system on with g-switch. Check for data collection and storage. Modify software as needed.

54 54 G-switch Program Test Tests will ensure that G-switch activates system with one click and does not deactivate the system on subsequent clicks. Test Plan Program G-switch, connect to any system Will test with dummy system and with full EPS system once other tests are complete Click system on, ensure function; click again, check that system did not shut off

55 55 Camera Activation Tests will ensure camera relays function properly. Power down requirement includes camera. Camera will be relayed to g-switch to be activated upon launch. Test Plan Connect camera to G-switch, click system on and check that camera turns on and records. Check that video saves at the end.

56 56 Vibration Testing Tests will ensure system is structurally sound during vibration. Test Plan Construct and connect full system Use vibe table to simulate Terrier-Orion flight vibration conditions Monitor system connections and structural integrity throughout test Check for data collection on Arduino board and camera at end of tests

57 57 Spin Testing Tests will ensure system is structurally sound during spin. Test Plan Construct and connect full system Use spin table to simulate spin of Terrier-Orion rocket Monitor system connections and structural integrity throughout test Check for data collection on Arduino board and camera at end of tests


59 EPS Functionality of microcontroller must be verified by CDR Prototype controller on bread board to verify function PEA Bond between PE actuators and aluminum must not fail Test various bonding materials and application methods STR Concerns exist about clearance and component mounting Prototype all interfaces with STR to ensure integrity Risk/ConcernActionSubsystem 59 VVS LED must light, camera must not fail to record actions of LED Test LED with PEA to verify power draw; test camera to ensure functionality

60 60 Consequence EPS.RSK.2EPS.RSK.1PEA.RSK.2 STR.RSK.1 PEA.RSK.1 VVS.RSK.1VVS.RSK.2 Possibility STR.RSK.1 – Clearance and component mounting PEA.RSK.1 – Bonds between PE actuators and cantilevers must not fail PEA.RSK.2 – PEA actuators cannot fracture EPS.RSK.1 – Functionality of Microcontroller EPS.RSK.2 – G-switch must not shut off system VVS. RSK.1 – LEDs must light VVS.RSK.2 – Camera must record LED light and cantilever deflection Risk Matrix at PDR

61 61 Consequence EPS.RSK.2EPS.RSK.1PEA.RSK.2 Possibility Top 3 Risks PEA.RSK.2 PEA fracture EPS.RSK.2 G-switch EPS.RSK.1 Microcontroller Will be walked down with testing Top 3 Risks Remaining


63 Magnitude of Mass Approximately 2.091 lbf (without ballast) CG Lies within 1 in. 3 volume at center Power Requirements Low voltage electrical components used Batteries 4 x 1.5-V AA = 6 V 63


65 65

66 66 Testing 12/1 Prelim. cantilever FEM 12/12-22 G-Switch programming Arduino software programming Destructive piezo testing Cantilever tests 1/9-24 Thermal / Adhesive Tests Software Iterations VVS Camera Tests Preliminary EPS Integration Redesigns, if necessary Deliverables 12/8 CDR Due 12/13 CDR Teleconference Temple CDR Teleconference 1/9 Flights Awarded 1/30 Online Progress Report due

67 67 TestingDeliverables February 2/6 Midterm Draft Report Due 2/1 3 Subsystem Test Reports Due 2/2 7 Progress Presentation to Faculty Advisor March 3/1 2 Online Progress Report due 3/1 9 Project Progress Report due February VVS Testing Re-test of any redesigns Full system hook-up tests

68 68 TestingDeliverables 5/7 Weekly Teleconference 5/14 Weekly Teleconference Senior Design Project Report Due 5/21 Weekly Teleconference 5/21- 5/22 Final Senior Design Presentations 5/28 LRR Presentation Due 5/29 LRR Teleconference 5/30 CoE Project Competition Subsystem and system testing, troubleshooting, and modifications as needed

69 69 Spending to date: $238.48 Estimated final total: $503.23 Budget: $1,000 Lookin Good! Major Cost Contributors Digital Camera: $140 Piezoelectric Components: $100 Major Time Contributors Piezoelectric Components: 7-10 Days Accelerometers: 7-10 Days RECEIVED!

70 70 ItemSubsystemSupplierCost/Set or UnitSetsSubtotal Bridge RectifierEPSDigiKey$0.622$1.24 Piezo ActuatorPEASTEMInc.$19.981 Piezo ActuatorPEASTEMInc.$19.982$39.96 Piezo ActuatorPEASTEMInc.$19.982$39.96 12 x 12 Acrylic Sheet STRMcMaster$7.232$14.46 3-Axis Accelerometers EPSPololu$14.952$29.90 G-SwitchEPSDigiKey$4.392$8.78 Arduino MEGA Microprocessor EPSSparkFun$58.951 Aluminum Standoffs STRMcMaster$1.055$5.25 Miscellaneous Fasteners STRMcMaster$20.00 allowanceN/A$20.00

71 71 Camera ($140) Circuitry Components ($100) Parts for testing and installation We have some spare parts, so orders will be made on an as-needed basis Structural Materials ($50) We have some spare materials, so orders will be made on an as-needed basis

72 Temple University Plan for Collaboration Email, phone, campus visits Full model designed in SolidWorks for fit check DropBox/Google Docs for file sharing Structural interface Consider clearance Joining method 72


74 3 days worth of sleep for each member of the team Prototype assembly Testing testing testing! 74


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