3 Trainer’s Guide Module: Equipment Problem Scenario #1You’re in the middle of performing ELISAs and the reader fails. You don’t have a documented procedure for troubleshooting, the maintenance log has not been updated for 2 years, and the manufacturer’s instructions are missing.What should you do? Why?
4 Functioning Equipment is Vital for: Trainer’s GuideModule: EquipmentFunctioning Equipment is Vital for:Producing reliable test resultsMinimizing instrument breakdownLowering repair costsPreventing delays in reporting test resultsMaintaining productivityMinimizing instrument breakdown that slows down the work, and reduce the number of costly services for instrument repair, through appropriate planning for maintenance and repair(Creates basis for improving selection and purchase policy)Reliable results aids clinical diagnosis. Unreliable results may result in incorrect diagnosis and treatment of the patient.If equipment is properly maintained, it is less likely to breakdown before its next service and is less likely to perform inadequately as a result of lack of maintenance.
5 A Good Equipment Program Achieves Trainer’s GuideModule: EquipmentA Good Equipment Program AchievesMaintaining a high level of performanceLengthening instrument lifeReducing interruption of services due to breakdowns and failuresImproving customer satisfactionImproving the technologist’s confidence and knowledgeA good equipment program plays an important role in the quality assurance of a laboratory to be able to produce reliable results.
6 Basic Laboratory Equipment Trainer’s GuideModule: EquipmentBasic Laboratory EquipmentMicroscopeBalance/scaleCentrifugeMicropipetteSpectrophotometerRefrigeratorFreezerAutoclaveHot air ovenIncubatorpH MeterWater bathWasherShaker / rotatorVortexHighly sophisticated laboratories such as central or reference may also have automated analysers e.g. for EIA, CD4, PCR.
7 Trainer’s Guide Module: Equipment Equipment ManagementSelectionAcquisitionInstallationCalibration / ValidationMaintenanceTroubleshootingService and repairRetiring equipment / dispositionIt is increasingly recognized that equipment management goes far beyond that of a person simply being able to operate the equipment. See list above.Equipment management also requires a specific person designated to deal with all aspects of equipment management.A Selection Criteria Check List will assist in purchasing the most appropriate piece of equipment to meet the laboratories needs, e.g.Cost, Manufacturer and Support, Availability, Model,
8 Equipment Management Oversight Trainer’s GuideModule: EquipmentEquipment Management OversightAssign responsibilities for all activitiesTrain all personnel on equipment management requirements and responsibilitiesMonitor equipment management activities by:Routinely reviewing all recordsEnsuring all procedures are followedUpdating procedures, if necessaryTraining of laboratorians and monitoring of equipment are also important roles of the equipment manager.
10 Trainer’s Guide Module: Equipment Selection CriteriaUseMatching equipment with service providedPerformance characteristicsFacility requirementsCostSupply of reagentsEase of operationWarrantyAvailability of manufacturer technical supportService ContractsPerformance characteristicsaccuracyprecisionsensitivityspecificityPhysical requirementselectrical, re-wiring, drains, plumbingSupply of reagentsAccess to reagentsAlternative sourcesFull support from manufacturers in terms of training, installation, service and repair are key points when checking the selection criteria.
11 Trainer’s Guide Module: Equipment Selection CriteriaLocation in the laboratoryavailable space, accessibilitySafetyIs there a good laboratory infrastructure in place to accommodate the new piece of equipment.
13 Trainer’s Guide Module: Equipment Acquiring EquipmentPurchase, Lease, or RentCentral acquisitionBulk procurementDonor providedConditions of contractPros and Cons of Purchase or RentPro Purchase VS Against PurchaseOwnership Total Responsibility
14 Trainer’s Guide Module: Equipment Acquiring EquipmentContract considerations:Parts ManualInstallationOperators’ ManualTrial periodContents of service contracts
16 Installation Checklist Trainer’s GuideModule: EquipmentInstallation ChecklistPrior to installation:verify physical requirements have been metSafety checks, electrical, space, ventilation, water supply, ambient temperature, etc.confirm responsibility for installation
17 Trainer’s Guide Module: Equipment InstallationUpon receipt:verify package contentsdo not attempt to use prior to proper installationIf required, ensure the equipment is installed by the manufacturer
18 Installation After installation Establish inventory record Define conditionsDevelop and implement protocols for calibration, performance verification, and operating proceduresEstablish maintenance programProvide training for all operators
20 Equipment Calibration Trainer’s GuideModule: EquipmentEquipment CalibrationPerform initial calibrationCalibrators or standardsFollow manufacturer’s instructionsDetermine frequency of routine calibrations
21 Performance Validation Trainer’s GuideModule: EquipmentPerformance ValidationValidate the performance of new equipment prior to useTest known samples, analyze dataEstablish stability/uniformity temperature controlled equipmentCheck accuracy/precision for pipettorsCheck centrifuge rpms
23 Trainer’s Guide Module: Equipment Maintenance ProgramSystematic and routine cleaning, adjustment, or replacement of instrument and equipment partsPerformed periodically, daily, weekly, monthlyExample:Cleaning optical lensesThermostat adjustmentsChanging motor brushes
24 Trainer’s Guide Module: Equipment Function ChecksMonitoring of instrument parameters to verify that that your equipment is working according to the manufacturer’s specificationPerformed periodically- daily, weekly, monthlyPerformed after major instrument repairExample:Daily monitoring of temperaturesChecking wavelength calibrationChecking autoclave indicator paper
25 Implementing a Maintenance Program Trainer’s GuideModule: EquipmentImplementing a Maintenance ProgramAssign responsibilityOversight of all laboratory equipmentIndividual responsibilitiesDevelop written policies and proceduresTrain staffKeep records
26 Implementing a Maintenance Program Trainer’s GuideModule: EquipmentImplementing a Maintenance ProgramCreate a record for equipment inventoryName, Model #, Serial #Location in labDate purchasedManufacturer and vendor contact informationWarranty, expiration dateSpare parts
27 Implementing a Maintenance Program Trainer’s GuideModule: EquipmentImplementing a Maintenance ProgramFor each piece of equipment:Establish routine maintenance planEstablish required function checksDevelop a list of spare partsEach piece of equipment should have a label indicating the date in which the next service is dueFrequency of routine maintenance procedures and functions checks is an important part of the plan, and must be included in the documented procedure (daily, monthly, yearly)
28 Implementing a Maintenance Program: Spare Parts Trainer’s GuideModule: EquipmentImplementing a Maintenance Program: Spare PartsEstablish and maintain an inventory of most frequently used spare parts. Include in record of inventory:Spare parts per equipmentPart numberAverage useMinimal # of items to be storedCost and date of orderingDates of entry and issuance of part from inventory stockBalance of items remaining in inventory
29 Implementing a Maintenance Program: Documents Trainer’s GuideModule: EquipmentImplementing a Maintenance Program: DocumentsDevelop written procedures for all equipmentConcise step-by-step instructions for performing maintenance and function checksInclude guide for troubleshootingEstablish maintenance records to track:function checks and routine maintenancecalibrationmanufacturer’s service
33 Trainer’s Guide Module: Equipment TroubleshootingCheck manufacturer’s instructionsDetermine source of problemSample problemReagent problemEquipment problemCheck electrical supplyCheck water supplyMake one change at a time
34 When In-house efforts fail: Trainer’s GuideModule: EquipmentWhen In-house efforts fail:Do NOT use equipment that does not function properlyOptions for testing:Refer to nearby laboratoryObtain backup instrument from central storesStore samples appropriatelySeek help from manufacturer or other technical expertPlace a malfunction notice on equipment
36 Trainer’s Guide Module: Equipment Service and RepairSchedule service that must be periodically performed by the manufacturerOptionsCentrally service small equipment, e.g., microscopes, washers, pipettesTeam of biomedical service techniciansSchedule service that must be periodically performed by the manufacturer - This service should have been part of the negotiated contract agreementTeam of biomedical service technicians – This trained team would service the entire country
37 Equipment Documentation Trainer’s GuideModule: EquipmentEquipment DocumentationDevelop a problem log record for each piece of equipmentDate problem occurred, removed from serviceReason for breakdown or failureCorrective action takenDate returned to useChange in maintenance or function checks
40 Retiring Equipment / Disposition Trainer’s GuideModule: EquipmentRetiring Equipment / DispositionWhen?When experts indicate not repairableOutmoded, will replace with new equipmentWhy?Prevent inaccurate test resultsFree up valuable spaceHazardousHow?Salvage any useable partsConsider biohazard, follow safety disposal procedures
41 Benefits of a Maintenance Program Trainer’s GuideModule: EquipmentBenefits of a Maintenance ProgramSafetyFewer interruptions of workLower repair costsElimination of premature replacementLess standby equipmentIdentification of high maintenance costReduction of variation in test resultsGreater confidence in the reliability of results
42 Function Checks Verify that Equipment is Working Properly 2005Function Checks Verify that Equipment is Working ProperlyPerformed routinelyDaily, weekly, monthlyAfter adjustment or repairExample:Monitoring refrigerator temperaturesVerifying pipette accuracyChecking centrifuge speedModule 11: Use and Care of Equipment
43 Refrigerator and Freezer: Use and Care 2005Refrigerator and Freezer: Use and CareKeep organizedPeriodically clean inside and outsideEnsure door is completed sealed when closingCAUTION! – DO NOT store food items or beverages in laboratory refrigerator or freezerModule 11: Use and Care of Equipment
44 Refrigerator & Freezer: Temperature Checks 2005Refrigerator & Freezer: Temperature ChecksMonitor dailyRefrigerator: 2oC to 8oCFreezer: -20oC, -40oC, or -80oCModule 11: Use and Care of Equipment
45 Refrigerator & Freezer: Temperature Log 2005Refrigerator & Freezer: Temperature LogThis form is an example of what should be used to record and monitor refrigerator/freezer temps.A copy is included in the participant manual.Module 11: Use and Care of Equipment
46 2005Types of PipettesPrecision pipettes (Not disposable)Precise and accurate volumes (e.g., 50 µl for Determine)Use disposable, single-use, pipette tipsGraduated plastic bulb pipettes (Disposable)Dispenses approximate volumeEasy to useModule 11: Use and Care of Equipment
47 2005Pipette: Use and CareSelect the appropriate pipette for the volume requiredEnsure that the pipettor, tips, and specimen are at the same temperatureFirmly attach tipModule 11: Use and Care of Equipment
48 Pipette: Use and Care (Cont’d) 2005Pipette: Use and Care (Cont’d)Hold the pipette vertically when aspiratingPlace tip just below the sampleAvoid air bubblesDiscard contaminated tips in appropriate container after completion of taskDO NOT RE-USE- Pipette tips- Graduated plastic bulb pipettesModule 11: Use and Care of Equipment
49 Precision Pipettes Require Performance Checks 2005Precision Pipettes Require Performance ChecksPerformed periodicallyRequired supplies:PipettePipette tipsAnalytical balanceWeigh boatsDistilled or deionzed waterModule 11: Use and Care of Equipment
50 Pipette: Steps for Checking Reproducibility 2005Pipette: Steps for Checking ReproducibilityPipette a series of 10 samples into a weigh boat on an analytical scaleRecord weight of each sample to calculate calibration resultsVerify calculated results are within limitsRange Max/Min Accuracy10 µl µl 10%100 µl µ l 10%200 µl µ l 10 %If the results are not within limits, remove from service until appropriate adjustment can be madeDecontaminate pipette and scale after useModule 11: Use and Care of Equipment
51 Pipette: Troubleshooting 2005Pipette: TroubleshootingProblemPotential CauseActionLeakageTip(s) incorrectly attachedAttach firmlyForeign articles between the tip and coneO-ring damagedClean tip conesChange the O-ringIncorrect operationTip incorrectly attachedFollow manufacturer’s instructions carefullyFirmly attach tipInaccurate dispensingThe slide is self explanatory.Module 11: Use and Care of Equipment
52 Centrifuge: Use and Care 2005Centrifuge: Use and CareAlways operate with the lid closedBalance contents before turning onCheck for vibrationDo not open the lid until the rotor has come to a complete stopKeep lids on tubes when spinningModule 11: Use and Care of Equipment
53 Centrifuges: Function Checks 2005Centrifuges: Function ChecksProper balanceLubricationRotor functionModule 11: Use and Care of Equipment
54 Centrifuge: Routine Maintenance 2005Centrifuge: Routine MaintenanceClean interior, condenser coils, fan, and screensInvestigate unusual noises or vibrationsInspect for evidence of wear, cracks in fitting, corrosion, uneven wear, or signs of fatigue:Head, shaft head and couplingRotorBrushes and bearingsPower supplyMotor and lubricantGaskets, seals, mounts and lubricantsCalibrate speedModule 11: Use and Care of Equipment
55 2005Centrifuge SafetyIncrease the speed slowly until optimal speed is reachedDisconnect the centrifuge from the electrical source before preventive maintenance, cleaning or inspectionTake caution when removing spills and broken specimen tubes after a runIf tubes are broken, keep the door closed and allow to sit undisturbed for 30 minutes before attempting to cleanUse tweezers to remove broken glassModule 11: Use and Care of Equipment
56 Keep a Log for All Maintenance Activities 2005Keep a Log for All Maintenance ActivitiesModule 11: Use and Care of Equipment