15Adaptations to the Arctic Small ears which help conserve body heat.12’’ paws – act like snowshoesNon-retractable claw (to grip ice)Thick furFur is oily and water repellentSkin is black which enables the bear to absorb sunlight energy to warm its body.Have 4 inches of blubber
16Need 4.4 lbs of fat a day to survive. Polar bears can smell a seal more than 20 miles away.Feed mainly seals, but will scavenge other mammals
17No natural predators as adults Threatened species protected under MMPA (Marine Mammal Protection Act)No hunting in U.S., but are hunted in Canada.
21BaleenUsed for filter feedingGrow down from upper jaw.
22Rorqual Many throat grooves Shorter baleen plates Expand capacity of mouth
23Diving AdaptationsHave 2x the RBC’s, and 9x the myoglobin (than humans)Countercurrent heat exchange systemVeins surround arteries; heat from blood in arteries is transferred to venous blood.Mammalian diving reflex- blood is shunted away from extremities to vital organs.
24Gray WhaleUndertakes the longest migration (11,000 miles)
25Order OdontocetiExamples: Sperm, Orca, Dolphins, Porpoises, Narwhal & BelugaFound in fresh and salt waterMany toothed whales are countershaded or have disruptive coloration (killer whale)
26Sperm Whales have teeth in the lower jaw only! One BlowholeNo sense of smell in toothed whales
27Largest member of Dolphin family is Orca Largest toothed whale is the Sperm WhaleFastest is Dall’s Porpoise: 34 m.p.h.OrcaSperm WhaleDall’s Porpoise
28Cooperative Hunting Orcas, false killer whales, pilot whales, & bottlenose dolphinsHunt in packs like wolvesHumpbacks use bubble netting to surround their prey
29EcholocationEnables toothed whales to locate and discriminate objects by listening for echoesUses organ called a melon which contains fatsActs as an acoustical lens to focus sound waves out to H2OSound travels 4x faster in H2O than in air.Lower jaw bones = sound reception