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ORDER VS. EQUALITY VS FREEDOM WHICH ONE IS MORE IMPORTANT TO YOU, AND WHY? WHY SHOULD THIS QUESTION EVEN MATTER TO ME?

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Presentation on theme: "ORDER VS. EQUALITY VS FREEDOM WHICH ONE IS MORE IMPORTANT TO YOU, AND WHY? WHY SHOULD THIS QUESTION EVEN MATTER TO ME?"— Presentation transcript:

1 ORDER VS. EQUALITY VS FREEDOM WHICH ONE IS MORE IMPORTANT TO YOU, AND WHY? WHY SHOULD THIS QUESTION EVEN MATTER TO ME?

2 MILLENNIAL GENERATION What do the Millennials supposedly support? What do the Millennials supposedly support?Millennials Do you agree? Do you agree? Do you agree? Do you agree? American youth are less likely to be informed about government and politics and participate less in politics American youth are less likely to be informed about government and politics and participate less in politics

3 The Political Disengagement of College Students Today SINCE 9/11, COLLEGE STUDENTS HAVE BECOME A BIT MORE INTERESTED IN POLITICS

4 THERE IS A GENERATIONAL POLITICAL KNOWLEDGE

5 Presidential Election Turnout Rates by Age

6 WHY SHOULD PEOPLE VOTE Those who participate in the political process are more likely to benefit from govt programs and policies Those who participate in the political process are more likely to benefit from govt programs and policies It is true that the elderly have more political clout than young people It is true that the elderly have more political clout than young people Old people vote Old people vote Voter turnout for people under the age of 25 has dropped from 50% in 1972 to 33% in 2000 Voter turnout for people under the age of 25 has dropped from 50% in 1972 to 33% in 2000 There has not been an event that youth have wanted to pay attention to until 9/11 There has not been an event that youth have wanted to pay attention to until 9/11

7 AN UNCOMFORTABLE TRUTH 2/3 rds of a national sample reported that they do not understand government 2/3 rds of a national sample reported that they do not understand government Sample of U.S. Immigration and Naturalization test Sample of U.S. Immigration and Naturalization test Sample of U.S. Immigration and Naturalization test Sample of U.S. Immigration and Naturalization test Legitimacy: the degree to which a political system is accepted Legitimacy: the degree to which a political system is accepted Problem: how can the U.S. political system be legitimate, if 66.7% of the population doesnt understand their own govt? Problem: how can the U.S. political system be legitimate, if 66.7% of the population doesnt understand their own govt?

8 GAY MARRIAGE AMENDMENT YOU AND YOUR GOVT DETERMINE WHETHER THIS WILL BE ACCEPTED!

9 A SIMPLE FACT: Fact: the govt uses force to rule society Fact: the govt uses force to rule society Problem: most people dont like being controlled Problem: most people dont like being controlled Americans cherish their FREEDOM Americans cherish their FREEDOM Problem: if the govt exists to control its constituents, how can it maintain its legitimacy? Problem: if the govt exists to control its constituents, how can it maintain its legitimacy? Answer: people surrender some of their FREEDOMS in order to obtain the benefits offered by the govt Answer: people surrender some of their FREEDOMS in order to obtain the benefits offered by the govt

10 Government Definition: Definition: The institutions and processes through which public policies are made for society The institutions and processes through which public policies are made for society Legislative-makes the laws Legislative-makes the laws Executive-enforces the laws Executive-enforces the laws Judicial-interprets the laws Judicial-interprets the laws This definition leads to two basic questions: This definition leads to two basic questions: How should we govern? How should we govern? Ideal vs. Real Democracy Ideal vs. Real Democracy What should government do? What should government do? Does govt do what we want it to do? Does govt do what we want it to do?

11 Politics Definition: Definition: The process by which we select our governmental leaders and what policies these leaders produce The process by which we select our governmental leaders and what policies these leaders produce Politics produces authoritative decisions about public issues Politics produces authoritative decisions about public issues Also consider Harold D. Lasswells definition: Also consider Harold D. Lasswells definition: Who gets what, when, and how Who gets what, when, and how Who-voters, politicians, interest groups Who-voters, politicians, interest groups Income, safety, and deference drives politics Income, safety, and deference drives politics Only a minority of people get what they want. Only a minority of people get what they want. What-substance of politics and govt (issues) What-substance of politics and govt (issues) How-voting, compromising, and lobbying How-voting, compromising, and lobbying Political participation and single-issue groups (NRA) Political participation and single-issue groups (NRA)

12 WHAT IS THE PURPOSE(S) OF GOVT? The govt is held responsible for the following: The govt is held responsible for the following: Maintaining ORDER Maintaining ORDER Promoting EQUALITY Promoting EQUALITY Provide PUBLIC GOODS Provide PUBLIC GOODS Protecting Americans FREEDOM Protecting Americans FREEDOM

13 DILEMMA THE GOVT FACES All govt policies reinforce certain norms at the expense of others All govt policies reinforce certain norms at the expense of others FREEDOM-nation defense, collect taxes FREEDOM-nation defense, collect taxes ORDER-national defense ($400 billion a year), collect taxes ORDER-national defense ($400 billion a year), collect taxes EQUALITY-national defense, collect taxes EQUALITY-national defense, collect taxes Which one do you feel the govt needs to focus on promoting, if you had to pick one? Which one do you feel the govt needs to focus on promoting, if you had to pick one? Explain which one is the most important to you in a one page written explanation Explain which one is the most important to you in a one page written explanation

14 ORDER ORDER: establishing the rule of law to preserve life and to protect property ORDER: establishing the rule of law to preserve life and to protect property This is the oldest objective of govt This is the oldest objective of govt Thomas Hobbes (1651) believes life without govt would create a society existing in a State of Nature. Thomas Hobbes (1651) believes life without govt would create a society existing in a State of Nature.State of NatureState of Nature Social Contract: people give up some rights to a govt in order to receive social order Social Contract: people give up some rights to a govt in order to receive social order The contract was irrevocable and humans are selfish The contract was irrevocable and humans are selfish Hobbes believed there is a war of all against all. Hobbes believed there is a war of all against all. John Locke (1690) believes unlimited govt leads to abuses, and the govt should be from the people John Locke (1690) believes unlimited govt leads to abuses, and the govt should be from the people Govt needs to protect peoples natural rights of life, liberty, and prosperity Govt needs to protect peoples natural rights of life, liberty, and prosperity These ideas are found in the Declaration of Independence These ideas are found in the Declaration of Independence If the state turned itself into a tyranny, Locke argued in favor of a right of rebellion If the state turned itself into a tyranny, Locke argued in favor of a right of rebellion Locke believed human nature is characterized by reason and tolerance Locke believed human nature is characterized by reason and tolerance He also believed the contract could be broken He also believed the contract could be broken Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Jefferson, and James Madison regarded Lockes ideas as political truths Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Jefferson, and James Madison regarded Lockes ideas as political truths

15 EQUALITY EQUALITY: govt should provide everyone with equal opportunities EQUALITY: govt should provide everyone with equal opportunities This is the newest objective of govt and is extremely controversial This is the newest objective of govt and is extremely controversial Promoting EQUALITY became an objective of govt during the Great Depression (started in 1929 when the stock market crashed) Promoting EQUALITY became an objective of govt during the Great Depression (started in 1929 when the stock market crashed) Social Security, Medicaid (poor), Medicare (elderly) Social Security, Medicaid (poor), Medicare (elderly) How does the govt accomplish this task? How does the govt accomplish this task? Answer: take from the rich and give to the poor Answer: take from the rich and give to the poor

16 PROVIDING PUBLIC GOODS PROVIDING PUBLIC GOODS: benefits and services that are available to everyone PROVIDING PUBLIC GOODS: benefits and services that are available to everyone Example: roads, schools, and someday it might include healthcare for all Example: roads, schools, and someday it might include healthcare for all Basically, its an extension of promoting EQUALITY Basically, its an extension of promoting EQUALITY

17 FREEDOM FREEDOM: a measure of the number of things a person can do without interference FREEDOM: a measure of the number of things a person can do without interference There are two types of FREEDOMS that exist: There are two types of FREEDOMS that exist: FREEDOM TO: is the absence of constraints on behavior FREEDOM TO: is the absence of constraints on behavior Example: FREEDOM of Speech Example: FREEDOM of Speech FREEDOM FROM: often symbolizes the fight against exploitation and oppression FREEDOM FROM: often symbolizes the fight against exploitation and oppression Example: FREEDOM from Religion Example: FREEDOM from Religion Could to much FREEDOM be harmful? Could to much FREEDOM be harmful?

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20 WHAT DO AMERICANS VALUE? 59% of Americans say they are happy with the U.S. govt although 2/3 rds of Americans really dont understand govt

21 DILEMMAS THE GOVT FACES FREEDOM vs. ORDER FREEDOM vs. ORDER Should the military be forced to allow homosexuals in the military? Should the military be forced to allow homosexuals in the military? Should the govt (state or federal) be forced to allow homosexuals to get married or disallow gay marriage? Should the govt (state or federal) be forced to allow homosexuals to get married or disallow gay marriage? Korematsu vs. U.S. Korematsu vs. U.S. Korematsu vs. U.S. Korematsu vs. U.S. The Patriot Act The Patriot Act The Patriot Act The Patriot Act Fahrenheit 9/11 Fahrenheit 9/11 Fahrenheit 9/11 Fahrenheit 9/11

22 DILEMMAS THE GOVT FACES FREEDOM vs. EQUALITY FREEDOM vs. EQUALITY Should the govt be able to force businesses and colleges to take special steps to ensure that minorities are hired and/or accepted into college? Should the govt be able to force businesses and colleges to take special steps to ensure that minorities are hired and/or accepted into college? Should the govt be able to tax your earnings and use that money to help a person that is on welfare Should the govt be able to tax your earnings and use that money to help a person that is on welfare What if that welfare recipient continues to have children while on welfare? What if that welfare recipient continues to have children while on welfare? Regents of the University of California vs. Bakke Regents of the University of California vs. Bakke Regents of the University of California vs. Bakke Regents of the University of California vs. Bakke

23 DILEMMAS THE GOVT FACES ORDER vs. EQUALITY ORDER vs. EQUALITY Should the KKK be able to have a parade Should the KKK be able to have a parade Should homosexuals be able to have a gay parade Should homosexuals be able to have a gay parade Hurley vs. Irish American GLIB Association Hurley vs. Irish American GLIB Association Hurley vs. Irish American GLIB Association Hurley vs. Irish American GLIB Association Gay-Straight Alliance meeting at school Gay-Straight Alliance meeting at school Buck vs. Bell Buck vs. Bell Buck vs. Bell Buck vs. Bell

24 WHAT DO DEMOCRATS VALUE Conduct research on FDR, JFK and/or Bill Clinton, and Democrats in general EQUALITY FREEDOM ORDER

25 WHAT DO REPUBLICANS VALUE Conduct research on Warren Harding, Richard Nixon and/or George W. Bush, and the Republicans in general ORDER FREEDOM EQUALITY

26 DILEMMAS THE GOVT FACES Write down two of your own example of dilemmas the govt faces for each of the following: Write down two of your own example of dilemmas the govt faces for each of the following: FREEDOM vs. ORDER FREEDOM vs. ORDER FREEDOM vs. EQUALITY FREEDOM vs. EQUALITY ORDER vs. EQUALITY ORDER vs. EQUALITY We will discuss each one in class We will discuss each one in class

27 ORDER, EQUALITY, FREEDOM; WHICH ONE MATTERS TO YOU? Pick the one you feel is the most important and explain why in a 2 page hand-written explanation Pick the one you feel is the most important and explain why in a 2 page hand-written explanation Work with like minded individuals and do your best to convince your fellow classmates Work with like minded individuals and do your best to convince your fellow classmates You will read this in front of the class, and the group with the most convincing argument, in support of their topic, will receive 10 bonus pts You will read this in front of the class, and the group with the most convincing argument, in support of their topic, will receive 10 bonus pts The assignment, itself, is worth 50 pts The assignment, itself, is worth 50 pts

28 The Policymaking System The process by which policy comes into being and evolves over time

29 People All Americans have the following: All Americans have the following: Interests Interests Problems Problems Concerns Concerns How citizens project these concerns into the political realm becomes the true art How citizens project these concerns into the political realm becomes the true art Martin Luther King, Jr. I have a dream speech! Martin Luther King, Jr. I have a dream speech!

30 Linkage Institutions Definition: transmitting the preferences of Americans to the policymakers in govt Definition: transmitting the preferences of Americans to the policymakers in govt Political Parties Political Parties Elections Elections News & Entertainment Media News & Entertainment Media Interest Groups Interest Groups Interest Groups Interest Groups Pick a topic/issue you want the govt to support and find two interest group that would support your topic/issue Pick a topic/issue you want the govt to support and find two interest group that would support your topic/issue

31 Policy Agenda Definition: consists of the issues that attract the serious attention of public officials and other people actively involved in politics at any given time Definition: consists of the issues that attract the serious attention of public officials and other people actively involved in politics at any given time Political Issues Political Issues These arise when people disagree about a problem and how to fix it. These arise when people disagree about a problem and how to fix it. Some issues will be considered, and others will not. Some issues will be considered, and others will not. If a politician wants to get elected again, he/she needs to pay attention to their constituents If a politician wants to get elected again, he/she needs to pay attention to their constituents Dorgan, Pomeroy, Conrad, and a farm bill Dorgan, Pomeroy, Conrad, and a farm bill A governments policy agenda changes regularly A governments policy agenda changes regularly Bailout for many American businesses! Bailout for many American businesses!

32 Policymaking Institutions These institutions have been created by the U.S. Constitution These institutions have been created by the U.S. Constitution Legislature (Congress) Legislature (Congress) Executive (President) Executive (President) Courts (Federal and State) Courts (Federal and State) Bureaucracies (Federal and State) Bureaucracies (Federal and State) Bureaucracies The fourth policy making institution The fourth policy making institution

33 Policy Impacts People Public policy: every law passed, budget established, and ruling handed down

34 Policy Impacts People Impacts of Policies: Impacts of Policies: Does it solve the problem? Does it solve the problem? Does it create more problems? Does it create more problems? Policies can be established through inaction Policies can be established through inaction Doing nothing or nothing different can prove to be a very consequential decision Doing nothing or nothing different can prove to be a very consequential decision Example: AIDS was considered a gay persons disease Example: AIDS was considered a gay persons disease

35 Democracy Definition: Definition: A system of selecting policymakers and organizing government so that policy represents and responds to the publics preferences A system of selecting policymakers and organizing government so that policy represents and responds to the publics preferences The founding fathers were not fond of democracy, b/c many of them doubted the ability of ordinary Americans to make informed judgments about what govt should do The founding fathers were not fond of democracy, b/c many of them doubted the ability of ordinary Americans to make informed judgments about what govt should do Roger Sherman, a delegate to the Constitutional Convention, said the people should have as little to do as may be with the govt. Roger Sherman, a delegate to the Constitutional Convention, said the people should have as little to do as may be with the govt. Read Federalist #10 Read Federalist #10Federalist #10Federalist #10 Article I Section 3-Senators chosen by the state legislatures Article I Section 3-Senators chosen by the state legislatures Elected by the people b/c of the 17 th Amendment (1913) Elected by the people b/c of the 17 th Amendment (1913) Article II Section I-electoral system established Article II Section I-electoral system established An Ideal democratic process should satisfy the following five criteria: An Ideal democratic process should satisfy the following five criteria: Equality in voting-the principle of one person, one vote (Wesberry v. Sanders-1964 ) Equality in voting-the principle of one person, one vote (Wesberry v. Sanders-1964 ) Effective participation-citizens must have the chance to express their preferences equally Effective participation-citizens must have the chance to express their preferences equally Enlightened understanding-open creation and discussion of ideas by all Enlightened understanding-open creation and discussion of ideas by all Citizen control of the agenda-citizens should collectively control govt policies Citizen control of the agenda-citizens should collectively control govt policies Inclusion-govt must include, and extend rights to, all those subject to its laws Inclusion-govt must include, and extend rights to, all those subject to its laws Majority rules while protecting minority rights

36 Republic/Representative Govt not a so-called Democracy Republic Republic Definition: a form of govt in which sovereignty/power rests with the people, who elect agents to represent/govern them in lawmaking and other decisions Definition: a form of govt in which sovereignty/power rests with the people, who elect agents to represent/govern them in lawmaking and other decisions Read Federalist #10 Read Federalist #10Federalist #10Federalist #10 Representative Democracy Representative Democracy Definition: a form of govt in which representatives elected by the people make and enforce laws and policies Definition: a form of govt in which representatives elected by the people make and enforce laws and policies The people hold the ultimate power b/c the people get to elect/re-elect the reps The people hold the ultimate power b/c the people get to elect/re-elect the reps

37 Challenges to Democracy Increased Technical Expertise Increased Technical Expertise Limited Participation in Government Limited Participation in Government Escalating Campaign Costs Escalating Campaign Costs Diverse Political Interests (policy gridlock) Diverse Political Interests (policy gridlock)

38 Questions About Democracy Are the people knowledgeable- and do they apply what they know? Are the people knowledgeable- and do they apply what they know? Do interest groups help the process, or do they get in the way? Do interest groups help the process, or do they get in the way? Do political parties offer clear consistent choices for voters? Do political parties offer clear consistent choices for voters? Does the President & Congress work in the best interests of ALL the people? Does the President & Congress work in the best interests of ALL the people?

39 American Individualism Individualism is the belief that individuals should be left on their own by the government. Individualism is the belief that individuals should be left on their own by the government. Individualism is highly valued in the United States with a strong preference for free markets and limited government. Individualism is highly valued in the United States with a strong preference for free markets and limited government.

40 Questions about the Scope of Government How big a role does the Constitution say should be played by the federal government? How big a role does the Constitution say should be played by the federal government? Does a bigger, more involved (active) government limit the peoples freedoms? Does a bigger, more involved (active) government limit the peoples freedoms? Do we need a bigger, more involved government to protect our freedoms? Do we need a bigger, more involved government to protect our freedoms?

41 Questions about the Scope of Government, continued Do competing political parties make for better policies? Do competing political parties make for better policies? Do more interest groups create a bigger government? Do more interest groups create a bigger government? Does the media help control the size and policies government? Does the media help control the size and policies government?

42 Questions about the Scope of Government, continued Can the president control the government, or has it gotten too big? Can the president control the government, or has it gotten too big? Can Congress respond to the needs of the people, or just to the interest groups? Can Congress respond to the needs of the people, or just to the interest groups? Do members of Congress expand government by seeking to be re-elected? Do members of Congress expand government by seeking to be re-elected?

43 Questions about the Scope of Government, continued Do the federal courts overstep their bounds and intrude on the powers of other branches of government? Do the federal courts overstep their bounds and intrude on the powers of other branches of government? Are the federal agencies too large and unresponsive to the public they are supposed to serve? Are the federal agencies too large and unresponsive to the public they are supposed to serve?

44 WHY STUDY GOVT? If you dont understand govt, you cant take a legitimate part in govt If you dont understand govt, you cant take a legitimate part in govt Last but not least, why would you choose not to have say in your future and the future of the U.S. Last but not least, why would you choose not to have say in your future and the future of the U.S. Who gets elected often determines whether ORDER, FREEDOM, and/or EQUALITY will be the United States focus for the next four years Who gets elected often determines whether ORDER, FREEDOM, and/or EQUALITY will be the United States focus for the next four years

45 PICK A PARTY OR TWO Find out which party you like and research a few other unique/odd parties Find out which party you like and research a few other unique/odd parties Vote Smart Vote Smart Vote Smart Vote Smart Research and pick the top two parties you would be inclined to support and then pick a third odd/unique party of interest. Research and pick the top two parties you would be inclined to support and then pick a third odd/unique party of interest. Explain each of the three partys beliefs, what they support/oppose, and why you think each party is important in the American political realm Explain each of the three partys beliefs, what they support/oppose, and why you think each party is important in the American political realm


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