2What is a Government? Definition: The institutions and processes through which public policies are made for society.This definition leads to two basic questions:How should we govern?What should government do?
3What are Politics? Definition: Also consider Lasswell’s definition: The process by which we select our governmental leaders and what policies these leaders produce. Politics produces authoritative decisions about public issues.Also consider Lasswell’s definition:Who gets what, when and how.
4The Policymaking System The process by which policy comes into being and evolves over time.The six items are hyperlinked to their own slide. A return button is also on the slide.Figure 1.3
6Linkage Institutions Political Parties Elections News & Entertainment MediaInterest Groups
7Policy Agenda Political Issues These are the “whats” that the various people want taken care of.Items at the top of the policy agenda are taken care of first.It may take years to get an item on the policy agenda, and then several more years to get it acted on.
8Policymaking Institutions Legislature (Congress)Executive (President)Courts (Federal and State)Bureaucracies (Federal and State)
9Policy Expenditures of money Raising or lowering taxes New laws or regulationsNon-decisions (gridlock)
10People Impacts of policies: Does it solve the problem? Does it create more problems?
11Democracy(Republic) Definition: Equality in voting A system of selecting policymakers and of organizing government so that policy represents and responds to the public’s preferences.Equality in votingEffective participationEnlightened understandingCitizen control of the agendaInclusion
12Theories of U.S. Democracy… Pluralist TheoryA theory of government and policies emphasizing that politics is mainly a competition among groups, each one pressing for its own preferred policies.Groups will work togetherPublic interest will prevail
13Theories of U.S. Democracy… Elite and Class TheoryA theory of government and politics contending that societies are divided along class lines and that an upper-class elite will rule, regardless of the formal niceties of governmental organization.Not all groups are equalPolicies benefit those with money / power
14Theories of U.S. Democracy… HyperpluralismA theory of government and politics contending that groups are so strong that government is weakened.Exaggerated / perverted form of pluralismConfusing / contradictory policiesGridlock- inability to act at all
15Challenges to Democracy Increased Technical ExpertiseLimited Participation in GovernmentEscalating Campaign CostsDiverse Political Interests
16Questions About Democracy Are the people knowledgeable- and do they apply what they know?Do interest groups help the process, or do they get in the way?Do political parties offer clear consistent choices for voters?Does the President & Congress work in the best interests of ALL the people?
17Questions about the Scope of Government How big a role does the Constitution say should be played by the federal government?Does a bigger, more involved (active) government limit the people’s freedoms?Do we need a bigger, more involved government to protect our freedoms?
18Questions about the Scope of Government, continued… Do competing political parties make for better policies?Do more interest groups create a bigger government?Does the media help control the size and policies government?
19Questions about the Scope of Government, continued… Can the president control the government, or has it gotten too big?Can Congress respond to the needs of the people, or just to the interest groups?Do members of Congress expand government by seeking to be re-elected?
20Questions about the Scope of Government, continued… Do the federal courts overstep their bounds and intrude on the powers of other branches of government?Are the federal agencies too large and unresponsive to the public they are supposed to serve?