2Charlottetown Conference Strangers in Charlottetown56:03 – 1:02:03Canadian government delegation to Charlottetown, Maritime Union or Confederation
3The Charlottetown Conference Sept. 1st, Charlottetown, PEIThe Maritime provinces were talking about a Maritime union.The Canadians had asked to attend as they wanted to put forth their plan of all British North American provinces to unite – for ConfederationPEI was considered the cradle of Confederation.
4The Charlottetown Conference The Canadians were asked to speak first, which included: George Cartier, John A. MacDonald, George Brown, Alexander Galt and D’Arcy McGee was also present.They spoke of the advantages of uniting:Free trade between the colonies = Businesses would grow and jobs would be plentiful;An intercolonial railway could be built to connect all provinces;A central government would be set up for matters affecting all provinces – but each province would still have its own government to look after its own affairs.
5The Charlottetown Conference By Wednesday September 7, 1864, the delegates from Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and Prince Edward Island gave a positive answer to the Canadian delegationExpressed the view that the federation of all of the provinces was considered desirable if the terms of union could be made satisfactory and the question of Maritime Union was waivedThey agreed to meet and discuss the idea of Confederation at the Quebec Conference.
7The Quebec Conference Three Weeks in Québec 1:02:03-1:19:16Québec Conference 1864, Grand Ball, St Albans raid
8The Quebec Conference Oct. 28th, 1964. Quebec City, Quebec. 7 delegates from NB7 delegates from PEI5 delegates from NS2 delegates from NFLD (they were not at the Charlottetown conference)12 delegates from Canada East and Canada West.These people are considered the Fathers of Confederation.They work out a plan known as the Seventy-Two Resolutions which would form the basis of a scheduled future conference. The Conference adjourned on October 26
9The Quebec ConferenceFor the Reformers of Canada West, led by George Brown, the end of what they perceived as French-Canadian interference in local affairs was in sight. For Maritimers such as Tupper of Nova Scotia or Tilley of New Brunswick, horizons were suddenly broadened to take in much larger possibilities for trade and growth
10Highlights of the Seventy-Two Resolutions There would be a strong central (federal) government to look after affairs affecting the whole country such as defence, trade, and foreign affairs.Each province would have its own government to look after local matters.The system of government would follow the British Constitution and the head of the government would be the king or queen of England.The federal government would be made up of an elected House of Commons and an appointed Legislative Council (Senate).Members of the House of Commons would be elected according to the principle of representation by population.Members of the Legislative Council would be appointed and each region would have 24 members. (Canada West, Canada East and Atlantic Canada)NFLD and NWT and BC would be allowed into the union as terms could be worked out.
12The Outcomes Let Their Memory be Dark 1:19:16-1:25:40 Institut Canadien, Rouges and the Catholic Church, Confederation debated in the Canadas
13Province of Canada Who Why For Confederation The Great Coalition: MacDonald, Brown, Cartier , Galt & McGeeMost members of Canada West (English speaking)Conservatives (Bleus) led by Cartier (mainly French -speakingEnd political deadlock, strengthen defence, improve trade, build trans-continential railwayChance to expand to the West, union with other English-speaking coloniesSeparate Provincial government for Quebec would be a way of protecting French-Canadian way of life.
14Canada West They would become a powerful nation It would provide a barrier-free marketCanada would become the third largest seagoing nation in the world after Britain the USAIt would encourage people to immigrate to CanadaIn case of war, they would stand together
15Province of Canada Who Why Against Confederation English-speaking minorities in Canada EastFrench-speaking Liberals (Rouges) in Canada East – led by DorionFear of being at a disadvantage in a province with a French-Canadian majorityFear that a central government dominated by English Canadians would threaten French Canadian way of life
16Canada EastCartier explained that French and English would be equal partners. He promised that they would not lose their way of life. He said that if they did not join that they could be swallowed by the USA.Dorian wanted a referendum, which means that all the people of Canada East would be given a chance to vote on the question and not just members of the Assembly. His request was refused.The vote went in favour of Confederation.
17New BrunswickPremier Tilly was in favour of Confederation and decided to have an election on the question.The anti-confederates believed that NB would lose too much control over their own affairs.At the Quebec Conference, it had been decided that each province would receive a sum of money (subsidy) each year from the central government. The amount was based on the population of the colony. In NB, this amounted to .80 cents per person.Opponents complained that Tilly was selling New Brunswickers out for .80 cents eachTilly and his party was defeated
18Nova ScotiaLeading anti-confederate was Joseph Howe. He was the best known politician in Atlantic Canada.He was also a popular newspaper editor.He influenced many people with his “Botheration Letters.”Comparing Confederation to a piece of cloth, it is weak and poorly planned piece of material. Is it a good idea to put new wine (NS) in an old bottle (Province of Canada) or to attach new cloth to an old item of clothing? Is union strong when a wise man, doing a steady business, is tricked into joining a gambler? Was Samson stronger when combined with Delilah, who tied him with ropes and cut off his hair?The premier of NS was Charles Tupper, who decided to wait as he did not want the same result as NB.
19PEI Advantages were unclear. PEI was a small colony and would only have a small amount of representatives in a Canadian government.There was widespread opposition and the topic was droppedPEI joined in 1873.
20NFLD and LabradorThey felt few ties with Canada and Confederation had little appeal.They had longstanding bonds with Britain.CF Bennett, a wealthy merchant, spoke out against Confederation. He warned that the government would tax their boats, fish etc. and that goods in Canada would be so cheap that NFLD products would not sell.On the night Confederation was defeated in NFLD, there was a parade in St. John’s. Anti-confederationists pushed a large coffin labeled Confederation.The coffin was buried during a fake funeral.NFLD did not join confederation until 1949.
21The Maritimes Good Management and Means 1:25:40-1:34:53 The Maritime colonies, Fenian brotherhood raids
22Outcome of Atlantic Colonies PEI and NFLD were not ready in 1867Britain supported the idea as it would mean only one colonial government to deal with. They would also not have to send soldiers and expanding west would create more business opportunities.Britain instructed the lieutenant-governor to arrange for a pro-confederation decision Former Premier Tilly took up the cause again – he received money from railway promoters, shipping and timber interests and the Canadian government. US also ended free trade. They played up the Fenian raids and Tilly won.In NS, a new, pro-Confederation, lieutenant-governor was appointed. Sir Fenwick Williams was a hero in the British navy and he backed up Tupper.Tupper and Tilly pushed for union.
24The British North America Act Dec. 1866, London ConferenceCanada East and West, NB and NSRevised the 72 Resolutions so they would be passed as an act and made law in British Parliament.The British North America Act went into effect on July 1st, 1867.It created “One Dominion under the Name of Canada.”Dominion is a term form a verse in the Bible that described a land that reached from sea to sea. The Dominion of Canada became the official name of our country.
25Definitions and Historical Significance TermDefinitionHistorical SignificanceCharlottetown ConferenceA meeting organized by the Maritime colonies to discuss a union among them. Politicians from other colonies came to the conference to discuss their plans for a wider unionThe Maritime delegates were impressed by the advantages cited by the delegates from Canada East & West and agreed to meet at the Quebec Conference to discuss unionSeventy-Two ResolutionsA plan worked at the Quebec Conference to ensure that there would be a string union with a powerful central governmentThese resolutions are the foundation of the BNA Act of 1867, which created the Dominion of Canada.Quebec ConferenceA meeting of delegates from all the colonies who gathered to sit down and work out the details of a plan for a unionThis conference initiated formal plans for constructing a system of government that was unique to Canada
26TermDefintionHistorical SignificanceAnti-ConfederationistsThose opposed to Confederation. They were numerous and powerful in NB, PEI and NFLDThe Fathers of Confederation worked hard in all their regions to have the 72 resolutions pass in their Assemblies. PEI and NFLD rejected Confederation in 1867.SubsidyA sum of money that each colony would receive from the central government each year, based upon the population of the colony.Opponents of Confederation in NB used the subsidy to attack the plan and accused the delegates of selling New Brunswickers to the Canadians for 80 cents each.ReferendumA vote of all citizens on a questionAlthough Cartier refused Dorion’s request for a referendum, there have been referendums in Quebec in 1980 and 1995
27The London Conference A Great Revolution 1:34:53-1:40:29
28London ConferenceFollowing the Quebec Conference, the Province of Canada's legislature passed a bill approving the unionThe union proved more controversial in the Maritime provinces, however, and it was not until 1866 that New Brunswick and Nova Scotia passed union resolutionsPrince Edward Island and Newfoundland continued to opt against joining.
29London ConferenceIn December 1866, sixteen delegates from the Province of Canada, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia traveled to LondonQueen Victoria received each in private audienceAt meetings held at the Westminster Palace Hotel, the delegates reviewed and approved the 72 resolutionsIn January 1867 the delegates began drafting theBritish North America Act.Agreed that the new country should be called CanadaCanada East should be renamed QuebecCanada West should be renamed Ontario
30London ConferenceThere was, however, heated debate about how the new country should be designated. Ultimately, the delegates elected to call the new country the Dominion of CanadaDraft of the British North America Act by February 1867.The Act was presented to Queen Victoria on February 11, 1867The Act received royal assent on March 29, 1867, and set July 1, 1867, as the date for union
31We Are Canadian July 1, 1867 1:40:29-1:46:16 John A. Macdonald as Prime Minister, Brown’s ode, celebrations