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THE WHITE HOUSE OFFICE (WHO), THE EXECUTIVE OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENCY (EOP), and the EXECUTIVE BRANCH.

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Presentation on theme: "THE WHITE HOUSE OFFICE (WHO), THE EXECUTIVE OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENCY (EOP), and the EXECUTIVE BRANCH."— Presentation transcript:

1 THE WHITE HOUSE OFFICE (WHO), THE EXECUTIVE OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENCY (EOP), and the EXECUTIVE BRANCH

2 WHO – Chief of Staff I. CHIEF OF STAFF: Managerial, Advisory, and Surrogate/Alter Ego RolesI. CHIEF OF STAFF: Managerial, Advisory, and Surrogate/Alter Ego Roles A.) Manageria1 RoleA.) Manageria1 Role 1.) Selecting personnel (but not always for latecomers)1.) Selecting personnel (but not always for latecomers) 2.) Deciding on Structure of WHO (tight or loose)2.) Deciding on Structure of WHO (tight or loose) 3.) Supervising Flow of Paper/People/Options/Decisions in and out of the WH3.) Supervising Flow of Paper/People/Options/Decisions in and out of the WH --must engage in dual adaptation--must engage in dual adaptation --be sensitive to presidential preferences on information acquisition--be sensitive to presidential preferences on information acquisition --compensate for weaknesses, guard against excessive tendencies--compensate for weaknesses, guard against excessive tendencies TWO DANGERS OF INFORMATION NOT GETTING TO THE PRESIDENTTWO DANGERS OF INFORMATION NOT GETTING TO THE PRESIDENT

3 WHO Chief of Staff B.) Advisory RoleB.) Advisory Role 1.) CoS is one of the few advisors who must integrate policy and political consequences1.) CoS is one of the few advisors who must integrate policy and political consequences 2.) Protect president from mistakes and rushed decisions (Haldeman – Nixon)2.) Protect president from mistakes and rushed decisions (Haldeman – Nixon) 3.) Prevent president from making inflexible commitments---provide opportunities to back out (Panetta – Clinton)3.) Prevent president from making inflexible commitments---provide opportunities to back out (Panetta – Clinton)

4 C.) Alter Ego/Surrogate RoleC.) Alter Ego/Surrogate Role 1.) Presidents SOB or bad cop 2.) Useful surrogate in behind-the-scenes negotiations 3.) How much of a public figure in his/her own right? Sununu WHO Chief of Staff

5 WHO – Office of Communications Emerged after, and in response to needs unaddressed by, White House Press OfficeEmerged after, and in response to needs unaddressed by, White House Press Office 1.) More strategic and proactive than WHPO1.) More strategic and proactive than WHPO 2.) Outreach to local and specialized press instead of Washington press corps2.) Outreach to local and specialized press instead of Washington press corps 3.) Coordinate with other executive branch agencies to emphasize theme of the day ---Starting with Deaver, an emphasis on VISUALS

6 WHO -- White House Office of Communications The Presidential Communications YearThe Presidential Communications Year January: budget and State of the Union speechJanuary: budget and State of the Union speech Spring: promoting budget and legislationSpring: promoting budget and legislation May-June: commencement addressesMay-June: commencement addresses Summer: G-8 SummitSummer: G-8 Summit September: Opening of UN SessionSeptember: Opening of UN Session October: Fiscal year deadlinesOctober: Fiscal year deadlines

7 WHO-Office of Communications SpeechwritingSpeechwriting Judson WelliverJudson Welliver FDR thru JFK: high-level policy advisers with high/early presidential involvementFDR thru JFK: high-level policy advisers with high/early presidential involvement LBJ: developed two-tier hierarchy of speeches and writersLBJ: developed two-tier hierarchy of speeches and writers Nixon: first to establish special speechwriting office; PR rather than policy emphasisNixon: first to establish special speechwriting office; PR rather than policy emphasis Ford, Carter, Reagan, Bush 41: conflict between policy and SW staff, little access to president, late presidential involvementFord, Carter, Reagan, Bush 41: conflict between policy and SW staff, little access to president, late presidential involvement Clinton and Bush 43: the return of high presidential involvement and access and high (policy) statusClinton and Bush 43: the return of high presidential involvement and access and high (policy) status

8 WHO – White House Counsel Not the presidents personal lawyer, nor the nations lawyer, but the Presidencys lawyerNot the presidents personal lawyer, nor the nations lawyer, but the Presidencys lawyer FUNCTIONSFUNCTIONS 1.) Provide legal advice before the fact, and legal defense after the fact:1.) Provide legal advice before the fact, and legal defense after the fact: ---executive privilege claims---executive privilege claims ---war powers---war powers ---presidential disability and succession ---executive orders---presidential disability and succession ---executive orders 2.) Assisting appoint of Federal Judges2.) Assisting appoint of Federal Judges 3.) Ethics training for WH employees3.) Ethics training for WH employees 4.) Legislative matters --- signing statements4.) Legislative matters --- signing statements 5.) Acting as intermediary between White House and DoJ5.) Acting as intermediary between White House and DoJ

9 WHO – Office of Legislative Affairs (sometimes known as Office of Congressional Relations or Office of Legislative Liaison) HistoryHistory Functions 1.) Direct lobbying and intelligence gathering 2.) Assuring WH speaks w/single voice 3.) Participating in formulation of legislation 4.) Patronage requests (e.g. senatorial courtesy) 5.) Orchestrating indirect lobbying/grassroots efforts 6.) Doling out presidential goodies 7.) ScorekeepingFunctions 1.) Direct lobbying and intelligence gathering 2.) Assuring WH speaks w/single voice 3.) Participating in formulation of legislation 4.) Patronage requests (e.g. senatorial courtesy) 5.) Orchestrating indirect lobbying/grassroots efforts 6.) Doling out presidential goodies 7.) Scorekeeping

10 WHO – White House Press Office (Office of the Press Secretary) Main clientele: full-time White House CorrespondentsMain clientele: full-time White House Correspondents Change in function of press over timeChange in function of press over time ---less intermediary function---less intermediary function ---change to 24-hr. news cycle---change to 24-hr. news cycle FUNCTIONSFUNCTIONS --daily press briefings and gaggles --press releases and background info --prepare Pres for press conferences--daily press briefings and gaggles --press releases and background info --prepare Pres for press conferences --crisis management--crisis management --handle logistics for White House Correspondents--handle logistics for White House Correspondents

11 WHO – White House Press Office HOW in-the-loop should Press Secretary be?HOW in-the-loop should Press Secretary be? How much role in the policymaking process should he or she play?How much role in the policymaking process should he or she play? QUESTION: Is it better for the Press Secretary to be well-informed, and occasionally have to lie, or to be less well-informed and honest? Examples: Mike McCurry, Larry Speakes

12 WHO – Other Offices WHITE HOUSE STAFF SECRETARYWHITE HOUSE STAFF SECRETARY Manager of the presidents in-box and out-box (works with Chief of Staff)Manager of the presidents in-box and out-box (works with Chief of Staff) Supervisor of the vetting process: idea killerSupervisor of the vetting process: idea killer Manager of the mailManager of the mail OFFICE OF INTERGOVERNMENTAL AFFAIRSOFFICE OF INTERGOVERNMENTAL AFFAIRS --Why created: Executive Order Why created: Executive Order Nature of issues dealt with---Nature of issues dealt with ---Work with IGOs---Work with IGOs

13 WHO – Other Offices OFFICE OF POLITICAL AFFAIRSOFFICE OF POLITICAL AFFAIRS Under Karl Rove, replaced by Office of Strategic InitiativesUnder Karl Rove, replaced by Office of Strategic Initiatives OFFICE OF PUBLIC LIAISONOFFICE OF PUBLIC LIAISON --Created by Ford administration--Created by Ford administration --Outreach to new and hostile groups, care and feeding of supportive groups--Outreach to new and hostile groups, care and feeding of supportive groups --Orchestrate lobbying efforts on behalf of prez--Orchestrate lobbying efforts on behalf of prez --Stepping stone to bigger and better things--Stepping stone to bigger and better things

14 WHO – Other Offices Office of Presidential Personnel (will discuss later)Office of Presidential Personnel (will discuss later) First Ladys OfficeFirst Ladys Office Vice-Presidents OfficeVice-Presidents Office Advance and SchedulingAdvance and Scheduling Coming up next: THE EXECUTIVE OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT!Coming up next: THE EXECUTIVE OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT!

15 Exec. Office of the President (EOP): Office of Management & Budget (OMB) 1.) Original function: (1921) Budgetary clearance 2.) Additional function (1930s): Legislative clearance1.) Original function: (1921) Budgetary clearance 2.) Additional function (1930s): Legislative clearance --executive branch proposals: in accord, no objection, not in accord --pending legislation in Congress: SAPs--executive branch proposals: in accord, no objection, not in accord --pending legislation in Congress: SAPs 3.) Additional function (1930s): Enrolled Bill Procedure3.) Additional function (1930s): Enrolled Bill Procedure 3.) Additional function (1980s): Regulatory clearance3.) Additional function (1980s): Regulatory clearance Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs (OIRA)Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs (OIRA) Executive Order 12291: mandated CBAExecutive Order 12291: mandated CBA Executive Order 12498: mandated annual regulatory programsExecutive Order 12498: mandated annual regulatory programs Apex of influence: David Stockman , Richard Darman Apex of influence: David Stockman , Richard Darman

16 Exec. Office of President (EOP) National Security Council (NSC) Three different possible roles of National Security Adviser/National Security CouncilThree different possible roles of National Security Adviser/National Security Council 1.) integrator/coordinator/honest broker1.) integrator/coordinator/honest broker 2.) one among equals: multiple advocacy2.) one among equals: multiple advocacy 3.) foreign/defense policy chief (Kissinger)3.) foreign/defense policy chief (Kissinger) Which role did Dr. Rice play? What about Hadley?Which role did Dr. Rice play? What about Hadley?

17 Exec. Office of the President (EOP) Domestic Council (a.k.a. OPD) What preceded it: Cabinets, kitchen cabinets, brain trusts, task forces/commissionsWhat preceded it: Cabinets, kitchen cabinets, brain trusts, task forces/commissions Why Nixon created itWhy Nixon created it Ford, Carter (apex of influence)Ford, Carter (apex of influence) Reagan: Cabinet CouncilsReagan: Cabinet Councils Bush 41, ClintonBush 41, Clinton

18 EOP contd: Council of Economic Advisers (CEA) Symbolized arrival of Keynesian Economics and economics as a scienceSymbolized arrival of Keynesian Economics and economics as a science Objective analysis or advocacy?Objective analysis or advocacy? JFK: Walter Heller (apex of influence), tax cutJFK: Walter Heller (apex of influence), tax cut The Troika and the QuadriadThe Troika and the Quadriad Stagflation, decline of the Keynesians, and the rise of the supply siders (the Laffer curve) and monetaristsStagflation, decline of the Keynesians, and the rise of the supply siders (the Laffer curve) and monetarists

19 EOP Contd: Office of the Special Trade Representative (STR) Why formed: Kennedy round of GATT, formation of Common Market (later EU), BoP problemWhy formed: Kennedy round of GATT, formation of Common Market (later EU), BoP problem JFK got Cabinet-level status and staff and broad negotiating authorityJFK got Cabinet-level status and staff and broad negotiating authority Bush 41 and FAST TRACK: enabled NAFTA, Uruguay Round of GATTBush 41 and FAST TRACK: enabled NAFTA, Uruguay Round of GATT Fast track is back! CAFTAFast track is back! CAFTA

20 EOP Contd: Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) Why created: Sputnik and Ike, atomic powerWhy created: Sputnik and Ike, atomic power Similar dilemma to CEA: academic or political?Similar dilemma to CEA: academic or political? Expanding jurisdiction: from nukes and space to environment, health care, cloning and stem cellsExpanding jurisdiction: from nukes and space to environment, health care, cloning and stem cells Nixon abolished, Ford brought backNixon abolished, Ford brought back Often eclipsed by higher status science-oriented advisers (Sununu, Gore)Often eclipsed by higher status science-oriented advisers (Sununu, Gore)

21 EOP Contd: National Economic and Homeland Security Councils NEC created by Clinton, kept by BushNEC created by Clinton, kept by Bush Dont have anything else to say: go to White House website for info!Dont have anything else to say: go to White House website for info! Hierarchy of WHO/EOP TITLESHierarchy of WHO/EOP TITLES --Assistant to the President (highest)--Assistant to the President (highest) --Deputy Assistant to the President --Special Assistant to the President--Deputy Assistant to the President --Special Assistant to the President

22 THE FEDERAL BUREAUCRACY – whats in it 1.) Cabinet agencies:1.) Cabinet agencies: ex. Depts of Transportation, Labor, Justice, State, etc.ex. Depts of Transportation, Labor, Justice, State, etc. ---older, more prestigious---older, more prestigious ---single-headed (Secretary)---single-headed (Secretary) ---implementation-oriented, some regulatory authority---implementation-oriented, some regulatory authority ---president has full removal power---president has full removal power 2.) Independent (non-Cabinet) agencies)2.) Independent (non-Cabinet) agencies) ex. NASA, EPA, CIA, SBA, Peace Corpsex. NASA, EPA, CIA, SBA, Peace Corps ---newer, more specialized---newer, more specialized ---single-headed (Director) ---implementation-oriented, more regulatory authority---single-headed (Director) ---implementation-oriented, more regulatory authority ---president has full removal power---president has full removal power

23 THE FEDERAL BUREAUCRACY- ---whats in it 3.) Independent regulatory commissions (IRCs)3.) Independent regulatory commissions (IRCs) Ex. FCC, FEC, FTC, NRC, SEC, Federal ReserveEx. FCC, FEC, FTC, NRC, SEC, Federal Reserve ---multiple-headed (board or commission) ---broad regulatory (policy-making) and adjudication authority as well as executive authority---mini-govts.---multiple-headed (board or commission) ---broad regulatory (policy-making) and adjudication authority as well as executive authority---mini-govts. ---commission/board members have long, staggered terms and cant be removed by president for political reasons---commission/board members have long, staggered terms and cant be removed by president for political reasons 4.) Government corporations4.) Government corporations Ex. Amtrak, US Postal Service, TVA, FDICEx. Amtrak, US Postal Service, TVA, FDIC ----Self-financed, with govt. subsidy----Self-financed, with govt. subsidy ----Even more politically independent than IRCs----Even more politically independent than IRCs ----Offer goods and services similar to, even in competition with, private corporations----Offer goods and services similar to, even in competition with, private corporations

24 THE PRESIDENT AND THE FEDERAL BUREAUCRACY REASONS WHY PRESIDENTIAL CONTROL OF THE EXEC BRANCH IS NOT ASSUREDREASONS WHY PRESIDENTIAL CONTROL OF THE EXEC BRANCH IS NOT ASSURED 1.) Merit (civil service) system of hiring 2.) Agencies advantage in technical expertise1.) Merit (civil service) system of hiring 2.) Agencies advantage in technical expertise ---example of principal-agent problem 3.) Bureaucracy was created incrementally, with no rational plan in mind---plenty of anomalies---example of principal-agent problem 3.) Bureaucracy was created incrementally, with no rational plan in mind---plenty of anomalies 4.) Agencies SOPs make change and adjustment difficult 5.) Bureaucrats develop strong sense of agency mission and agency culture4.) Agencies SOPs make change and adjustment difficult 5.) Bureaucrats develop strong sense of agency mission and agency culture

25 PRES. & BUREAUCRACY 6.) Constitutional ambiguity about whether President or Congress is the real master of bureaucracy 7.) Strong interest group influence on agencies6.) Constitutional ambiguity about whether President or Congress is the real master of bureaucracy 7.) Strong interest group influence on agencies (Capture Theory and the revolving door)(Capture Theory and the revolving door) The regulated becomes the regulator! (ex. CAB)The regulated becomes the regulator! (ex. CAB) Iron trianglesIron triangles

26 Presidential Influence on the Bureaucracy TECHNIQUES FOR INFLUENCING BUREAUCRACYTECHNIQUES FOR INFLUENCING BUREAUCRACY 1.) Making maximum use of limited appointment power----pros and cons of strict ideological screening1.) Making maximum use of limited appointment power----pros and cons of strict ideological screening ---Civil Service Act of 1978: abolished bipartisan CSC, set up OPM and MSPB, created SES---Civil Service Act of 1978: abolished bipartisan CSC, set up OPM and MSPB, created SES 2.) Properly socializing and training appointees2.) Properly socializing and training appointees 3.) Removal power3.) Removal power ---Legal issues Myers vs. US (1926), Humphreys Executor vs. US (1935)---Legal issues Myers vs. US (1926), Humphreys Executor vs. US (1935) ---Political difficulty of firing cabinet members---Political difficulty of firing cabinet members

27 Presidential Influence on the Bureaucracy 3.) Removal Power Continued: How to get rid of uncooperative career civil servants? The Malek Manual3.) Removal Power Continued: How to get rid of uncooperative career civil servants? The Malek Manual 4.) Budgeting power4.) Budgeting power ---how OMB review process works---how OMB review process works ---current services budget---current services budget ---budgeting techniques: incrementalism, PPBS, ZBB---budgeting techniques: incrementalism, PPBS, ZBB ---effects of, and responses to, budget cuts: EPA, the Bureaucracy Strikes Back---effects of, and responses to, budget cuts: EPA, the Bureaucracy Strikes Back

28 Presidential Influence on the Bureaucracy 5.) Reorganization Authority5.) Reorganization Authority 6.) Executive Orders6.) Executive Orders ---examples of famous ones---examples of famous ones ---legal justifications (Youngstown Sheet and Tube v. Sawyer)---legal justifications (Youngstown Sheet and Tube v. Sawyer) ---types of EOs---types of EOs a.) temporary measures until legislature actsa.) temporary measures until legislature acts b.) alternatives to failed legislationb.) alternatives to failed legislation c.) attempts to pre-empt/forestall legislationc.) attempts to pre-empt/forestall legislation d.) Federal govt. as role model e.) changing the regulatory process, in hopes of changing regulatory outcomesd.) Federal govt. as role model e.) changing the regulatory process, in hopes of changing regulatory outcomes

29 Presidential Influence on the Bureaucracy 7.) Privatization/Contracting Out7.) Privatization/Contracting Out


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